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F.R.S., F.S.A., F.C.P.S., F.C.P., 



CAMBRIDGE, B.A., 1837- 


[pp. l*-88*, 1433-2267.] 


With two Maps of the Dialect Districts, 















p. 20, 1. 20, read or t\ 
p. 32, 1. 5, read La, (u ). 

,, dt. par. 1, read eba'ut dat. 

p. 37, 1. 19 from bottom, under Do., for *Blandford read *Cranborne. 
p. 45, par. 6, last word, read aeks)BR. 
p. 47, note 6, first line, read the (d). 
p. 57, line 3 from bottom, No. 904, read va'yLar. 
p. 58, line 3, read 923*. 
p. 65, par. 0, 1. 8, for Potter read Trotter. 

,, par. 10, 1. 3, readout (wm-ikra). 
p. 66, 1. 1 and 2, for Potter, read Trotter. 
p. 80, East Dorset c\vl., 1. 2, read Cranborne, and 1. 5 dele and. 
p. 85, joke on (atj) last line, read Bd)e)a-d. 
p. 94, 1. 10, read L (mw m). 
p. 109, 1. 6, read Miss M. A. Firth. 

p. 111. Authorities, Np. add fDaventry, fFarthinghoe, fHelmdon, fLong 
Buckley, fSilverstone, Slapton, fSyersham, fTowcester, f Watford, 
fWeedon, fWood Burcote, fWoodford. 
p. 113, paragraph B, line 1, read a nonagenarian widow about 94 ; line M, read 

Malvern Wells. 

p. 114, 1. 30, read CLAVERDON, WA. (5 w. Warwick). 
p. 129, 1. 15 from bottom, read may bave possibly, 
p. 131, 1. 4, read Pasingworth. 

,, 1. 6, read Sbadoxburst. 
p. 133, dt. par. 3, read ^)de noq. 
p. 136, last line but one, read Rev. J. W. Rumny. 
p. 140, No. 422, read 'vomited.' 
p. 157, 1. 9, read Mr. Shelly's 
p. 162, No. 646, read'bm'jL 5 . 
p. 163, 1. 2, read mEE'k)'n. 

p. 175, Area, 1. 2, after Br., add outlying parts of Wo. 
p. 183, 1. 2 from bottom, read dra'wndid. 
p. 186, No. 702, readuih. 

p. 194, line B, read Chackmore, and line T, read Tyrringbam. 
p. 199, line S, read n-by-w. 
p. 201, for 125 om, read 194 om. 
p. 217, 1. 23, read H. F. Tollemache. 
p. 222, 1. 31, read degradation. 
p. 225, 1. 6, read dE"wn. 

p. 235, 1. 3, read Henley -on -Thames in Ox. and 1. 4, read Penn, Bu. (3 e-by-n. 
High Wycombe) . 

E.E. Pron. Part V. b 


p. 248, note, col. 2, lines 1 and 2, read pleis, meed. 

p. 249, 1. 10, read 10 s. 

p 253, note, col. 2, 1. 1, read of which Li. has (,) and M. (w ). 

p'. 255, 1. 4, mtf Pt. ; notes, col. 2, 1. 1, read was also. 

p. 278, 1. 1, razrfs.Nf. 

p 279, 1. 3, read Tuddenham. 

p. 315. Boundaries, 1. 5, twrf Featherbed ; 1. 7, rau* Mam Tor, and 

Authorities, Ch. 1. 2, rf Tintwistle ; La. 1. 2, raw? Eoyton. 
p. 332, under Leyland,for 1887 mw? 1877. 
p. 345, under Charley, read 10 nw.Bolton. 
p. 347, No. 222, add at end, or from old Fr. hure, head of a man or an animal, 

especially a shaggy boar' s head. 

p. 352, 1. 11 from bottom, and Authorities, La. 1. 2, read Goosnargh. 
p. 354, col. 2, 1. 9 from bottom, read diOT)*. 
pp. 360, 361, 362, and 363, read Lezayre. 
p. 362, notes to Lezayre dt., par. 1, read or (oba'at). 
p. 363, 1. 3 from bottom, read P pEriket. 

p. 375, 1. 10 from bottom, 13. vii, read noon, corrected on p. 405, notes, par. 13. 
p. 387, 1. 12, last word, read Bradley. 

p. 409, 1. Authorities, St., 1. 2, after Longport insert tLongton. 
p. 421, West and South Cheshire cwl., 1. 1, dele Churton. 
p. 425, 1. 8 from bottom, read Db. 
p. 435, 1. 4, add under t 1 , and in lines 12 and 13 from bottom, that is, 

Nos. 4 and 5, transpose A and the ,, above it. 
p. 436, par. 15, Nos. 1 and 3, read i'S.'ud, fa'wl. 
p. 442, No. 39, read kja'wm. 
p. 443, par. I-, 1. 1, read B gji. 
p. 445, 1. B, for 3 e. read 6 e. 
p. 447, last line, read Teen. 
p. 449, 1. 2, for 71, read 76. 

p. 472, 1. 8, after CoalbrooMale for St, read Sh. 

p. 524, No. 331, read final (t). 

p. 529, 1. 2, insert J. after Rev. 

p. 567, 1. 4 from bottom, read vare. 

p. 572, 1. 4, ratfitsjsT. 

p. 606, 1. 7 from bottom to No. 49, add . 

p. 607, in par. xl, 1. 7, second No. 0, add 

p. 718, under U: for snEb read sneb. 

p. 738, note 46, last number, read 153. 

p. 747, line 1, read 12 sw. 

p. 748, in title, and 1. 1 of poem, for GREY read GRAY. 

p. 755, 1. 6 from bottom, read Kc. 

p. 824, last line but one of small print, read of I, Y, 

In the CONSONANTAL INDEX there are a few evident displacements, and the 
snowing misprints, read under G- 13 gnagan, under SC- 220 scephire, under 
-T- cetel, under -W 371 strefcw. Omit 90 blawan under -D- 

re possibly many other slight errors which have escaped observation. 

live correctness of a text of such great complexity as the present, 

I am much indebted to the vigilance of the printer's reader, Mr. Wood, 

TaJe" o* Mr T HallaT ^ S ^^ and> in many districts > the scrupulous 

A. J. E. 


ERRATA, v, vi. 
CONTENTS, vii to xvi. 
NOTICE, xvii to xx. 

I. Note on the Relation of this Treatise to preceding Chapters, 2*. 
II. Key to the Maps of the English and Lowland Dialect Districts, and List 
of the Principal Abbreviations used, 3* to 6*. 

Introductory Remarks 3*, Abbreviations of positional words, and 
two-letter abbreviations of the Names of Counties 4*, List of 
Divisions, Districts, and Varieties 4* and 5*. Other abbreviations 
frequent in use 6*. 

III. Comparative Specimen (cs.) in received orthography 7*. 

IV. Dialect Test (dt.) in received orthography 8*, notes on every word 8* 

to 16*. 

V. Classified Word List (cwl.) 16*. I. Wessex and Norse 16* to 22*. II. 
English 22*. III. Romance 23* and 24*. Notes on Constructions 
and Intonation appended to the original word list 25*. Index to the 
English words in the ewl. referring each its number 25* 29*. 
Consonantal Index to the Wessex and Norse Division of the cwl. 
30*, 31*. 

VI. Alphabetical County List 32* to 67*. Introd. 32*. England 32* to 
63*. Isle of Man 63*. Wales 63* to 64*. Scotland 64* to 67*. 
Ireland 67*. 
VII. Alphabetical Informants List, and Index of all the Names mentioned in 

this Treatise 67* to 76*. 
VIII. Table of Dialectal Palaeotype 76* to 88*. 

TEXT, 1-835. 

Problem of this treatise 1. Method of solution 1-4. Chief Helpers, Principal, 
Staff and Students of Whitelands Training College, C. C. Robinson, J. G. 
Goodchild, Thomas Hallam, Prince L.-L. Bonaparte, 4-5. Palaeotype, 5. 
Geographical Districts in place of Dialects, 5-8. Plan of the Work, 8-9. 

The Celtic Border, 9-15. 

Ancient, about A.D. 577, according to J. R. Green, 9. His location of the 
Saxon settlements, 11. After Treaty of Wedmore, A.D. 878, p. 11. 
His location of the Ealdormanries, 12. Modern, at the present day 
through Ireland, England and Wales, and Scotland, 12-15. 

The Ten Transverse Lines, 15-22. 

1. The n. sum, 15. 6. The s. hoose, 19. 

2. The s. soom, 16. 7. The n. tee, 20. 

3. The reverted ur, 17. 8. The s. sum, 21. 

4. The s. teeth, 18. 9. The n. soom, 21. 

5. The n. theeth, 18. 10. The L. line 21. 

The Roman Wall, 22. 



D 1, 2, 3=CS. or Celtic Southern, 24-36. 

D l=w.CS.=west Celtic Southern, 25-31. 

Introd. 25. Vallancey's Tola Zong, 26. Casteale Cudde's Lamentation, 
28-29. Forth and Bargy cwl. 30. 

D 2=m.CS.=mid Celtic Southern, 31-35. 

Introd. 31. Two Interlinear Pm. dt. 32; Swansea Example, 33; Pm. 

cwl. 34. 
D 3=e.CS = eastern Celtic Southern, 35-36. 

Introd. 35. Gowerland cwl. 35. Collins's Gower words, 35-36. 

D 4 and 5=MS.=The Mid Southern, 36-110. 

D 4= w.MS. = western Mid Southern, 37-91. 

Introd 37-38. Table of initial and final / or v, s or z, sh or zh, 38-41. 
The reverted (R) and (T, D, N, L), 41-42. Vowels and grammatical con- 
struction and Varieties, 43. 
Var. i. Middle or Typical Form in Wl. 44-60. 

Phase I. Christian Malford cs. 44. Phrases and sentences, 

48; cwl. 49. 
Phase II Chippenham, Akerman's "The Hornet and the 

Bittle," 51-54, cwl. 54-58. 

Phase III. Tilshead, 58, anecdote and dt. 58, cwl. 59. 
Var. u. Northern or Gl. Form, 60-68. Three Interlinear cs. for Vale 
of Gloucester, Tetbury, and Forest of Dean, 60-65. Forest of 
Dean and Aylburton sentences [for Potter read Trotter~\, 66. 
Gloucester Town pron. 64, note. Gloucester cwl. 66. 
Var. iii. The North Western or e.He. Form, 68-75. lloss, 68. Three 
Interlinear cs. from Ledbury, Much Cowarne, and Eggleton, 
69-73. Miss Piper's Eggleton specimens, 74. 

Var. iv. The South Eastern or Do. Form, 75-84. Hanford dt. 76. 
Two Interlinear cs. from Cranborne and Winterborne Came, 
76-80. East Do. cwl. 80-83. Western Do. cwl. 83. 
Var. v. The Land of Utch (pronoun for /), 84-86. Joke on Utch, 85. 

Montacute dt. 85, cwl. 86. 

Var. vi. The South Western or Sm. Form, 87-91. The Axe-Yarty 
district, 87, and cwl. 88. Wedmore sentences, 89. Woiie 
cwl. 90. 

D 5 =e.MS.= eastern Mid Southern, 91-110. 
Introduction, 91-92. 

Var. i. Ox. Form, 92-94. Witney dt. 92. w.Ox. cwl. from Duck- 
lington, Leafield, Witney, 93. 

Var. ii. The Be. Form, 94-96. Steventon dt. 94. Hampstead Norris, 
part of cs. 95. Wantage cwl. 96. 

Var. iii. Ha. and Wi. Form, 96-108. West Stratton, East Stratton, and 
Bumingham's words, 96. Southampton to Winchester cs., 
97. Andover, 98-107, with two pronunciations of a farmer's 
letter in Punch, 100. Colloquial sentences, 104, and cwl., 
104. Isle of Wight, with cwl., 107. 

Var. iv. Sr. and Ss. Form, 108, with cwl., 109. 


D 6, 7, 8=BS. or border of South as against Midland and East, 110. 

D 6=n.BS.=northern Border Southern, 111-121. 
Introd. 111. 

Var. i. Wo. Form, with "Worcester dt. and Hanbury dt. 112. s.Wo. 

cwl. from Abberley, Bewdley, Bengeworth, Buckland, Droit- 

wich, Eldersfield, Saleway, Worcester, etc. 113. 
Var. ii. s.Wa. Form, Clavefdon dt. 114. s.Wa. cwl. from Butler's 

Marston, Kineton, Pillerton Priors, Stratford-on-Avon, and 

Tysoe, 115. 
Yar. iii. Banbury Form, with cs. 116. Shenington dt. 117. Banbury 

cwl. 118. 
Var. iv. sw.Np. Form from Ashby St. Legers, Badby, Byfield, Towcester, 

Watford cwl. 120. 

D 7=m.BS.=mid Border Southern, 121-128. 

Introd. 121. Handborough a. cs. 123; b. dt. 124; e. Phrases. 125; d. 
cwl., 127. 

D 8 = s.BS. = southern Border Southern, 128-130. 

Introd. 128. Information from Wargrave, Hurley, Hurst, 129, and from 
Chobham, Chertsey, Leatherhead, Croydon, 130. 

D9=ES.=East Southern, 130-145. 
Introd. 130. 

Var. i. East Sussex Form, 132. Two East Sussex Interlinear dt. from 
Markly and Selmeston, 133. East Sussex cwl. from Cuckfield, 
Eastbourne, Leasam, Markly, and Parish's Glossary, 134. 

Var. ii. North Kent Form, 136. Introd. 136. Faversham cs. 137. 
Faversham Phrases, 139. Faversham cwl. 139. 

Var. iii. East Kent Form, Introd. 141. Wingham dt. 142. Folkestone 
Fishermen, Introd. 142, dt. 143. East Kent cwl. from 
Folkestone, Margate, Thanet, Wingham, 144. 

D 10, 11, 12=WS. or West Southern Group, 145. 

D 10=n.WS.=northern West Southern, 145-155. 

Introd. 145-147. West Somerset cs. 148. Examples Lord Popham, 151. 
The Devil and the Coffin, 152. Why a, Washerwoman Married, 153. West 
Somerset cwl. 153-155. Phonetic Version of Kuth, chap. i. 698, No. 5. 

D ll=s.WS. = southern West Southern, 156-170. 
Introd. 156. 

Var. i. North Devon, 157. Iddesleigh cs. and notes, 157-159. North 
Molton dt. and Phrases, 160. North Devon cwl. from 
Iddesleigh and North Molton, 161. 
Var. ii. South Devon, 162. Dartmoor cs. 162. South-West Devon cwl. 

164. Devonport dt. 166. Millbrook, Co. Dialogue, 167. 
Var. iii. Camelford, Co. dt. 168. Cardy'nham, Co. dt. 169. St. Colomb 
Major dt. 169. 

D 12=w.WS.=western West Southern, 171-174. 

Introd. 171. Marazion, JacTcy Tresise, 172. West Cornish cwl. 173. Scilly 
Isles, 174. 



Introd. 175. 

D 13 = SW. = South Western, 175-180. 

Introd. 175. Lower Bache Farm dt. 176. DocMow specimen, 177. Mr. Stead's 
w.He. and e.Br. notes, 178. Ed. 179. Mo. 179. n.He. cwl. from Lower 
Bache Farm, Docklow, Hereford, Leominster, and Ludlow, Sh. 180. 

D 14=NW.=North Western, 181-187. 

Introd. 181. Illustrations, Pulverbach, Miss Jackson's Betty Andrews, 
183-184. Eve's Scork, 184. m.Sh. cwl. rearranged from TH.'s account 
of Sh. pron. in Miss Jackson's "Word Book, 184. 


Introd. 188. 

D 15=WE.=West Eastern, 189-195. 

Introd. 189. Aylesbury Dialogue, 190. Chackmore dt. 191. s.Bu. Aylesbury 
and Wendover cwl. 192. n.Bu. Buckingham, Chackmore [misprinted 
Clackmore], Hanslope, and Tyrringham [misprinted Tyrinham] cwl. 194. 

D 16=ME.=Mid Eastern, 195-225. 
Introd. 195. 

Var. i. Hertfordshire, 197. Ware cs. 197. se.Ht. cwl. from Ware, 

Hertford, and Stapleford, 199. Ardeley or Yardley dt. 200. 

Ardeley Wood End cwl. 201. Welwyn dt. 202. Hitchin dt. 

203. Harpenden cwl. 203. Hatfield cwl. 203. 
Var. ii. Bedfordshire, 204. Introd. 204. Batchelor's Bd. rules and 

sentences, 204-206. Kidgmont dt. 206. Mid Bd. cs. 206. 

Mr. Wyatt's sentences, 208. Bd. cwl. from Batchelor, 

Dunstable, Bidgmont, and Bedford, 209. 
Var. iii. Huntingdonshire) 211. Introd. 211. Gt. Stukeley dt. and cwl. 

211. Sawtry and Holme notes, 212. 
Var. iv. Mid Northamptonshire, 213. Introd. 213. East Haddon cs. 

213, and phrases, 214. East Haddon cwl. 215. Hannington 

dt. 216. Harrington dt. 217, and cwl. 217. Lower Benefield 

dt. 218. Mid Np. ewl. from Islip, Northampton, and 

Yelvertoft neighbourhoods, 219. 
Var. v. Essex, 221. Introd. 221. Gt. Dunmow abridged cs. 222. 

Maldon dt. 223. Essex cwl. from various unnamed places, 224. 

D 17 = SE. = South Eastern, 225-248. 
Introd. 225. 

1. gev A. j. D. D'Orsey on London Town Speech, 226. 

2. AValker (1792-1807) and Smart (1836) on London Speech, 227. 

3. Errors in London Speech in 1817, 227. 

4. Dickens's London Speech, 1837 228 

5. Thackeray's London Footman's Speech, 1845-6, 229. 

6. Tuer's Cockney Almanac, 229. 

7. Baumann's Londonisms, 230. 

8. TH.'s London Observations, 231. 

IA' i GG ;'f East London Pronunciation, 233. 
Rural Speech from Bu. Ht. Mi. 234-236 

X S r OU ^, Ea t ern > 236 - 248 ' Introd - 236. Mr. McBurney's 
the Lyttdton Times, New Zealand, 237. Mr. McBurney's Table 

, e 

Australasian Pronunciation, 239-248. 


D 18=NE.=Nortli Eastern, so-called in opposition to D 17 = SE. 


Introd. 248. 

Var. i. Mid Cb. dt. 249. Sawston, Cb., dt. 250. Wood Ditton, Cb., 

dt. 250. March dt. 251. Wisbech cwl. 252. 
Tar. ii. North-eastern Northamptonshire cwl. from Peterborough, 

Ailesworth, Castor, Eye, Peakirk, Rockingham, Stamford, 

Li. ; Wakerley, Werrington, Wryde, Cb. 254. 
Var. iii. Eutland. Cottesmore dt. 255. Oakham dt. 256. Rutland 

ewl. from Cottesmore, Oakham, and Stretton, 256-259. 

D 19=EE.=East Eastern, 259-289. 
Introd. 259. 

Var. i. nw.Nf. Form, 262-263. nw.Nf. cwl. from King's Lynn, 
Swaffham, and Hunstanton neighbourhoods, 262. Narborough 
dt. 263. 

Var. ii. ne.Nf. Form, 263-272. Stanhoe dt. 264. Stanhoe cwl. 
264-268. Notes from Rev. P. Hoste, with Words and 
Phrases noted, 268-269. Examination of Forby's pron. 269. 
Notes and sentences by TH. 272. North Walsham dt. 272. 

Var. iii. s.Nf. Form, 273-279. Mattishall, Kimberley, and East Dere- 
ham cs. 273-275. Kirkby-Bedon cwl. 275. Examples from 
neighbourhood of Norwich, I. from Dr. Lomb ; II. from 
Mrs. Luscombe ; III. Farmer's Dialogue, from anonymous 
passenger ; IV. from Rev. T. Burningham ; V. from AJE. ; 
VI. from TH., m. and s. Norfolk [misprinted Norwich], 
276-278. Gt. Yarmouth dt. 278. s.Nf. cwl. from Buxton, 
Diss, East Dereham, North Tuddenham, Norwich, Thetford, 
Wymondham, 279. 

Var. iv. e.Sf. Form, 279-287. Framlingham, Woodbridge, and Stow- 
market cs. 279-281. Southwold cwl. and sentences, 281-285. 
Orford dt. 285. e.Sf. cwl. from Moor's Suffolk Words, 286. 

Var. v. w.Sf. Form, 287-289. Pakenham cs. 287. Differences of 
w. and e. Sf. 288. 


Introd. 290-296. Boundaries, 290. Area, 290. Sections, 290. Districts 
and Groups, 290. Character, 290-296. Vowel Forms, 290-293. (u, w lt ), 
290. (OJ'TI), 292. (ii, a'i, a'u), 293. Consonant Forms, 293-295. (f), 293. 
(h), 295. Constructional Forms [the, -en, I am~\, 295-296. Peculiar 
Words \hoo y shoo], 296. Negative Character, 296. 

D 20=BM.=:Border Midland, 296-315. 
Introd., Boundaries, Area, Character, 296-298. 

Var. i. South Li. Form, 298-302. Friskney sentences, 298. Billing- 
borough examples, 299. South Li. cwl. 299-302. 

Var. ii. Mid Li. Form, 302-310. Lord Tennyson's poems, w. examina- 
tion, 302-306. Northern Farmer Old Style, 303. Northern 
Farmer New Style, 304, Halton Holegate dt. 306. Test 
sentences, 307. Fragments of Spilsby Talk, from Mrs. 
Douglas Arden's note book, 308. Mid Li. cwl. 309. 

Var. iii. North Li. Form, 310-315. Introd. 310. Treatment of ou in 
Mr. Peacock's Glossary, first edition, 311. n.Li. dt. 312. 
Winterton cs. 312. n.Li. cwl. 313. 


D 21 =s.NM.= southern North Midland, 315-329. 

Introd 315-317. TH.'s peculiarities of notation, 316. Three Interlinear cs. 
to Stalybridge, Glossop, and Chapel-en-le-Frith 317-321 Chapel- 
en-le-Fnth dt 322. se.La. and nw.Db. cwl. from Rochdale, Oldham 
(a'wlcm) Patricroft, Hope Woodlands, Edale, Peak Forest, and Stalybridge, 
322. Chapel-en-le-Frith cwl. 323-329. Principal Variants for Combs 
Valley, 329. 
D 22=w.NM.=western North Midland, 329-351. 

Introd 329-331. Four Interlinear cs. for Var. i. Skelmersdale ; Var. ii. 
Westhoughton ; Var. iii. Leyland, and Var. v. Burnley, 332-339 ; Var. iv. 
Two Interlinear dt. for Blackburn and Hoddlesden, 339 ; Var. vi. Old Colne 
Valley, recent changes, 340, dt. 341. 
Var. i. Ormskirk and neighbourhood cwl. 342. 
Var. ii. Bolton and Wigan cwl. 343. 
Var. iii. Chorley and Leyland cwl. 345. 
Var. iv. Blackburn cwl. 346-350. 
Var. v. Burnley cwl. 350. 

D 23=n.NM.=:northern North Midland, 351-363. 

Var. i. The Fylde, 352. Introd. 352. Two cs. in parallel columns 

for Poulton and Goosnargh, 354. Poulton Phrases, 357. 

Wyersdale dt. 358. The Fylde cwl. 358-360. 
Var. ii. The Isle of Man, Introd. 360. Three Interlinear dt. for 

Lezayre, Peel, and Rushen, 361. Isle of Man cwl. 363. 

D 24 =e.NM.= eastern North Midland, 364-408. 

Introd. 364-366. Eight Interlinear cs. from Huddersfield (notes 378), Halifax 
(notes 384), Keighley (notes 386), Bradford (notes 390), Leeds (notes 396), 
Dewsbury (notes 404), Ptotherham (notes 404), Sheffield, 367-377. 

Var. i. Huddersfield and neighbourhood, 377-382. Introd. 377. Notes 
to Huddersfield cs. 378. Marsden dt. 379. Upper Cumber- 
worth dt. 380. Huddersfield and neighbourhood cwl. 380. 

Var. ii. Halifax and neighbourhood, 382-384. Introd. 382. Halifax 
cwl. from Crabtree, 383. Elland dt. 384. Notes to Halifax 
cs. 384. 

Var. iii. Keighley, 384-388. Introd. 384. Extracts from cs. by TH. 
and CCR. compared, 385. Notes to cs. 386. Keighley 
cwl. 387. 

Var. iv. Bradford, 388-394. Introd. 388. Windhill dt. 389. Calverley 
dt. 390. Notes to Bradford cs. 390. Bradford and Windhill 
cwl. 391. 

Var. v. Leeds and its neighbourhood, 394-402. Introd. 394. Comparison 
of Bradford and Leeds, 395. Leeds refined form, 396. Notes 
to Leeds cs. 396. Leeds and neighbourhood cwl. 397-400. 
Notes to Leeds cwl. 400. Waketield cwl. 401. Wakefield 
printer's orthography, 403. 

Var. vi. Dewsbury, 402. Barnsley dt. 403. Notes to Dewsbury cs. 404. 

A ar. vii. Rotherham and surrounding villages, 404. Notes to Rotherham 

Var. viii. Sheffield and neighbourhood, 405. 
Var. ix. Doncaster, 405. Doncaster cwl. 406-408. 
D 25 =w.MM.= western Mid Midland, 408-424. 

Introd. 408 Four Interlinear dt. from Bickley, Sandbach, Leek, and Combs, 
Iflftl, f T T d -P 2 ' Four Interl "iear cs. and with variants in 
4 A 490 x f ^7 7^ Middlewich, Shrigley, Goyt (variants), and Burslem, 
i ?? tl T e C8 ' 420 ' West and South Che ^e cwl. 421 

affordshire cwl. 422. South Cheshire or Bickley, cwl. 422-424. 
Phonetic Version of Ruth, chap, i., p. 698, No. 4. 


D 26=e.MM.=eastern Mid Midland, 424-447. 

Introd. 424. Eight Interlinear Derbyshire cs. from 1 Bradwell, 2 Taddington, 
3 Ashford, 4 Winster, 5 and 6 Ashbourne (two), 7 Brampton, 8 Kepton, 
426-438. Seven Interlinear Derbyshire and east Staffordshire dt. from 
1 Eckington, 2 Barlborough, 3 Bolsover, 4 South Wingfield, 5 West 
Hallam, 6 Brailsford, 7 Flash, St., 438-441. Further Examples, all 
observed by TH. from 1. Middleton- by -Wirks worth, 2. Wirksworth, 3. 
Idridgehay, 4. Flash, 5. Alstonefield, 6. Hartington, j. Bolsover, 441-442. 

Var. i. Northern South Peak cwl. 442. 

Var. ii. Western Derbyshire and East Staffordshire cwl. 444. 

Var. iii. Eastern Derbyshire ewl. 445. 

Var. iv. Southern Derbyshire cwl. 446. 

D 27=EM.=East Midland, 447-451. 

Introd. 447. Nottinghamshire dt. 448. Other Examples dictated to TH. at 
Bingham and Mansfield, 449. Fragments of two Bingham cs. 449. Nt. 
cwl. 450. 

D 28 =w.SM.= western South Midland, 451-459. 

Introd. 451. Four Interlinear dt. from 1. Ellesmere, 2. Whixall, 3. Hanmer, 
4. Farndon, 452-454. 
Var. i. North Shropshire cwl. 455. 
Var. ii. Detached Flint cwl. 456. 
Var. iii. South Cheshire cwl. 457. 
Var. iv. Welsh Flint and Denbigh cwl. 458. 

D 29=e.SM.=eastern South Midland, 459-493. 

Introd. 459-463. Forms of negatives, 461. Table of varieties, 462. Five 
Interlinear cs. from 1. Cannock Chase, 2. Dudley, 3. Atherstone, 4. 
Waltham, 5. Enderby variants, 463-471. Eight Interlinear dt. from 
1. Edgmond, Sh., 2. Eccleshall, St., 3. Burton-on-Trent, St., 4. Lichfield, 
St., 5. Wellington, Sh., 6. Coalbrookdale, Sh., 7. Darlaston, St., 8. 
Belgrave, Le., 471-476. Additional Illustrations from Market Drayton, 
Sh., Edgmond, Sh., Eccleshall, St., Haughton, St., Burton-on-Trent, St., 
Barton-under-Needwood, St., Darlaston, St., Walsall, St., 476-478. 

Var. \a. North-east Shropshire and North-west Staffordshire cwl. 478. 
Var. i*. West Mid Shropshire cwl. 480. Var. ic. East Mid 
Staffordshire cwl. 482. 

Var. ii#. Mid East and South East Shropshire cwl. 483. Var. iib. 
South Staffordshire cwl. 484. Var. tic. North Worcestershire 
cwl. 485. 
Var. iiitf. East Warwickshire cwl. 487. Var. iiifi. West Warwickshire 

cwl. 488. 
Var. iv. Leicester cwl. 489-493. 


Introd. 494. 

D 30=EN.=East Northern, 495-537. 

Introd. 495. Variations described, 497. Market Weighton and Marshland 
contrasted, 497. Ten Interlinear cs. from 1. Mid Yo., 2. South Ainsty, 
3. North Mid Yo., 4. New Malton, 5. Lower Nidderdale, 6. Washbuni 
River, 7. South Cleveland, 8. North-East Coast, 9. Market Weighton, 
10. Holderness. Introd. 499-502. Text, 502-513. Notes, 513-519. 
Four Interlinear dt. from 1. Danby, 2. Skelton, 3. Whitby, 4. The Moors, 


with notes, 519-521. Three Interlinear dt. for South-East Yorkshire, viz. 

1 East Holderness, 2 Sutton, 3 Goole, 522. 
Var. i. Mid Yorkshire cwl. 523-526. 

Var. ii. North-East Yorkshire cwl. 527-528. 

Yar. iiia. Market Weighton cwl. 529-532. 

Var. mb. Holderness and Yar. iv. Snaith cwl. 532-537. 

D 31=WN.=West Northern, 537-637. 

Introd. 537. The Edenside Speech -sounds, 539-543. Varieties, 543. 

Yar. i. Craven, etc. 544-549. Introd. 544. Comparison of CCR. 

and JGG.'s versions, 544-547. Chaucer's " Strothir," 547. 

Three Interlinear dt. for 1. Hurst, 2. Giggleswick, and 3. 

Skipton, 548. 
Var. ii. Lonsdale. Introd. to and at before infinitive, 549. Peacock's 

and Stockdale's Song of Solomon, chap. ii. Interlinear, 

550-553. Broughton-in-Furness dt. and Phrases, 553. 

The transition from (w ) to (w), 554. 
Var. iii. "Westmorland s. of the "Watershed, 555. 
Var. iv. Edenside, 555. 
Yar. v. West Cumberland, 556. 
Var. vi. South Durham, 556. 
Twenty-Two Interlinear cs.; from D 30, 1 Mid Yorkshire ; from D 31, Var. i. 

2 Muker, Yo. ; 3 Hawes, Yo. ; from Var. ii. 4 Cartmel, La. ; 5 Coniston, 
La. ; from Var. iii. 6 Casterton, We. ; 7 Dent, Yo. ; 8 Sedberg, Yo. ; 

9 Kendal, We. ; 10 Long Sleddale, We.; 11 Orton, We.; from Var. iv. 
12 Kirkby Stephen, We. ; 13 Crosby Eavensworth, We. ; 14 Temple 
Sowerby, We. ; 15 Milburn, We. ; 16 Langwathby, Cu. ; 17 Ellonby, 
Cu. ; from Var. v. 18 Keswick, Cu. ; 19 Clifton, Cu. ; 20 Abbey Holme, 
Cu. ; from D 32, Var. i. 21 Carlisle, Cu. ; 22 Knaresdale, Nb. Introd. 
557-563. Text, 563-594. Notes, 595-602. Traditional Names of Places 
in Edenside, 602-607. Seward's Dialogue for Burton-in-Lonsdale, Yo., 
Introd. 608. Text, 608-615. Notes, 615. Weardale and Teesdale, namely, 
Stanhope dt. and variants, 617-619. 

Var. i. Form a. North Craven cwl. from Burton-in-Lonsdale, Chapel- 
le-Dale, Horton-in-Upper-Ribblesdale, with Muker for com- 
parison, 619 to 623. Form b. North- West Horn of Yo. 624. 

Var. ii#. North La. cwl. Lonsdale south of the Sands, 626. 

Var. ii. Furness and Cartmel, Lonsdale north of the Sands, 627-629. 

Var. iii. Dent and Howgill cwl. 630-633. 

Var. iv. Edenside cwl. 633. 

Var. v. West Cumberland cwl. 634. 

Var. vi. Weardale and Teesdale cwl. 634-637. 

D 32 =NN.= North Northern, 637-680. 

Introd. 637. Varieties, 640. The Burr, 641 to 644. Three Interlinear cs. 
for 1 South Shields, 2 Newcastle-on-Tyne, and 3 Berwick-upon-Tweed, 
645 to 652. Twenty-Two Interlinear dt. ; for Var. ii. 1 Edmondbyers ; 
2 Lanchester ; 3 Annfield Plain ; 4 Bishop Middleham ; 5 Kelloe ; 6 
Sunderland; for Var. iii. 7 and 8 Hexham (two) ; 9 Haltwhistle; for Var. iv. 

10 Stamfordham; 11 Whalton ; 12 Newcastle; 13 North Shields; for 
Var. v. 14 Rothbury; 15 Snitter ; 16 Harbottle ; 17 Warkworth ; 18 
Alnwick; 19 Whittingham; 20 and 21 Embleton (two); for Var. vi. 22 
Wooler, 653 to 669. The Notes to No. 17, Warkworth, include Ned White, 
a yarn, 666. 

Var. i. Brampton, Cu., cwl. 669-672. 
Var. ii. South Shields, Du., cwl. 672-674. 
Var. iii. and iv. contrasted in s.Nb. cwl. 674-677. 
Var. v. Warkworth Nb. cwl. 678-680. 




Introd. 681-709. Eight Interlinear cs. for 1 Bewcastle, Cu. ; 2 Hawick, Ex. ; 
3 Edinburgh, Ed. ; 4 Stranraer, Wg. ; 5 Arhroath, Fo. ; 6 Keith, Ba. ; 
7 Wick, Cs. ; 8 Dunrossness, Sd., 682-697. Five Interlinear versions of 
Kuth, chap, i., for 1 Teviotdale ; 2 Ayr ; 3 Buchan ; 4 s. Cheshire ; 
5 w.Somerset, 698-709. 

D 33 = SL. = South Lowland = Dr. Murray's Southern Counties, 


Introd. 709. Phonetics, 710-712. Unaccented syllables, 712. Bewcastle 
cs. 682, 684. Hawick cs. 682, 684. Teviotdale Ruth, chap. i. 698. 
Melville Bell's Teviotdale sentences, 714. Dr. Murray's arrangement of 
the Scotch Hundredth Psalm, 715. Hawick cwl. 716-721. Liddesdale 
Head cwl. 721-723. 

D 34 :=e.ML.= eastern Mid Lowland=Dr. Murray's Lothian and 
Fife, 723-728. 

Introd. 723. Melville Bell's Lothian sentences, 724 ; his Fife sentences, 725 ; 
and Lothian and Fife numerals, 726. Chirnside dt. 726. Mid Lothian 
cwl. 726. 

D 35=w.ML.=western Mid Lowland =:Dr. Murray's Clydesdale, 


Introd. 728. Melville Bell's Clydesdale sentences, 730. Kyle, Ay., dt. 731. 
Tarn 0' Shanter, edited from photolithographed facsimile of MS., 

phonetically transcribed and annotated, 731-741. 
Western Mid Lowland cwl. 742-746. Loch'winnoch notes, 747. 

D 36 =s. ML. = southern Mid Lowland=rDr. Murray's Galloway 
and Carrick, 747-751. 

Introd. 747. Phonetic transcription of Burns's Duncan Grey, 748. Southern 
Mid Lowland cwl. 749. 

D 37=n.ML.=northern Mid Lowland=:Dr. Murray's Highland 
Border, 751-755. 

Introd. 751. North-West Fifeshire dt. 752. Neighbourhood of Perth dt. 
753 ; ditto cwl. including words from Enga, 753. 

D 38, 39, 40=NL.=north Lowland=Dr. Murray's North Eastern 

Group, 755. 
D 38 = s.NL. = southern North Lowland = Dr. Murray's Angus, 


Introd. 755. Arbroath cs. 684. Two Interlinear dt. from 1 Dundee, and 
2 Glenfarquhar, 758. Dundee Miscellaneous Notes and Phrases, 759. 
Notes to Glenfarquhar dt. 759 ; ditto to Dundee dt. 760. Glenfarquhar 
cwl. 760-763. 

D 39 = m.NL. = niid North Lowland = Dr. Murray's Moray and 

Aberdeen, 763-785. 
Introd. 763. Peculiar use of (ai, aM, s'i), 766. 

Pronunciation in Cromar, 766-768. On ( u ), 767. Cromar Examples 
by Mr. Innes, 1. The Meeting, 769 ; 2. Yule-tide, 770 ; 3. The 
light, 773. Notes to 2 and 3, 775. 

Melville Bell's sentences, 777. Rev. W. Gregor's Notes and Phrases, 
777. Mid North Lowland cwl. 779-785. 


D 40 =nJSX.= northern North Lowland=Dr. Murray's Caithness, 

Introd. 786. Wick cs. 683, No. 7. Wick cwl. 787. 

D 41 and 42 =IL.= Insular Lowland, 788-790. 
Introd. 788. Eepresentation of (th, dh), 789. 

D 4 l=s.IL.= southern Insular Lowland, 790-814. 

Introd. 790. Mr. Dennison's PAETY TORAL'S TRAVELLYE pal. and trans- 
lated, 791-798; annotated, 798-802. JOHN GILPIN translated into the 
oldest existing form of Orkney by Mr. Dennison, 802-809 ; annotated, 810. 
Orkney cwl. 812-814. 

D 42 =n.IL. = northern Insular Lowland, 814-820. 

Introd. 814. PARABLE OF THE PRODIGAL SON translated by Mr. Laurenson, 
816. PARABLE OF THE SOWER translated by Dr. L. Edmondstone, 817. 
Shetland cwl. 818-820. 

A FEW EESTJLTS, 821-835. 

Local varieties of speech, 821. Dialect as here understood, 822. Probable 
value of West Saxon or Wessex letters, 823. Treatment of short vowels, 
823. Examination of the words tabulated in Part I. 291, with supposed 
long I pron. as (ii), 825. Double treatment of long vowels by shortening 
and fracturing, 826. Ws. diphthongs, 829 ; consonants, 830. The letter 
R, 830. Initial S, F, TH, ON, 832. Dialect groups, 834. Peculiar 
constructions, 834. Peculiar words, 835. 


After fourteen years' delay I am at last able to produce Part V. 
of my Early English Pronunciation, containing the relation of the 
present to the past pronunciation of our language as exhibited 
in " The Existing Phonology of the English Dialects." A glance 
at the Table of Contents, the Alphabetical County List, p. 32*, 
and the Alphabetical List of Informants, p. 67*, will I trust 
sufficiently explain the cause of the delay. The work I found 
myself involved in was far greater than I had contemplated, 
and the difficulty of obtaining intelligible information on which 
reliance could be placed far exceeded my anticipations. The list 
of Informants will shew how large a number of persons came 
forward to help me. It will also shew that I am more especially 
indebted to a very few of these, whom I have mentioned on 
pp. 4 and 5, and far the foremost among them as regards the 
number of places from which information was obtained (over 500), 
accuracy of report in the system of notation here adopted, trust- 
worthiness of detail and length of time during which he worked, 
was Mr. Thomas Hallam, of Manchester. Without his un- 
flagging diligence, and his many excursions to gain phonetic 
knowledge during nearly twenty years, the account I have been 
able to give of the Midland Division and its adjacent regions 
would have been very deficient, instead of presenting remarkable 
fullness of detail. Next in order, and though far inferior in the 
number of places, in no respect inferior in the importance of his 
contributions, and in correctness of detail obtained by extra- 
ordinary diligence, was Mr. J. G. Goodchild, whose work in 
D 31, comprising Cumberland, Westmorland, and North-west of 
Yorkshire, leaves scarcely anything to be desired in minute ac- 
curacy and repeated careful verification. 

I have endeavoured in the lists of 1145 places from which, 
and 811 persons from whom, I obtained information and assist- 
ance, to specify every case, but I cannot hope to have been 
perfectly successful. To every one, however, named and un- 
named, and especially to the natives themselves, from whom the 
information was ultimately obtained, but whose names are only 
occasionally mentioned, I tender my grateful thanks. To them is 


due the value of the present volume as an authentic document, 
for future philologists to consult. 

Finally I have sincerely to thank the three Societies the 
Philological Society, the Early English Text Society, and the 
Chaucer Society and in connection with them Dr. P. J. Furnivall, 
the indefatigable Honorary Secretary of the first and Director 
of the other two, and of other literary societies, who is so well 
known by his labours in TSarly English, for enabling me to print 
and publish these researches. The extent and the consequent 
expense of my work have greatly exceeded my anticipations. I 
have in every instance studied brevity and compression, and I 
believe the results could not have been legibly printed in smaller 
space, while it seemed important in the interests of philology 
generally, and English philology in particular, to secure the in- 
formation obtained, which is becoming rapidly irreplaceable. It 
might perhaps have been possible with a few years more work 
to reduce the bulk of this volume, but considering that I was 
75 on 14 June, 1889, I did not think it safe to delay. If however 
health and strength allow, there will be a brief Part YI. containing 
a summary of the whole work, a consideration of the observations 
of other scholars, and an index of such matters as have not been 
otherwise indexed. 

In conclusion, I add some dates concerning my Early English 
Pronunciation, of which the present investigation forms a part, 
as I wish to preserve them in connection with an undertaking 
that has occupied me for so many years. 

1848, June, first attempt at writing 
dialectal pronunciation from dicta- 
tion, being Duncan Gray, p. 748. 

1859, Feb. 14, on this (Valentine's) 
day I discovered in the British 
Museum Salesbury's "Dictionary 
in Englyfhe and Welfh where - 
vnto is prefixed a little treatyfe 
of the englyfhe pronunciation of 
the letters," 1547, which was the 
origin of my paper in 1867, and 
hence of the whole of my work 
on Early English Pronunciation 
(E. E. P.) and the present inquiry 
into dialectal phonology. See III 

1866, Dec. Paper on " Palaeotype, 
or the representation of Spoken 
Sounds for philological purposes 
by means of the Ancient Types," 
to the Philological Society (Ph. 
S.). This was the alphabet 
which made my E. E. P. and 
investigations of Dialectal Pho- 
nology possible, as no new types 
were required. 

1867, Feb. Paper to Ph. S. on the 

Pronunciation of English in the 
xvi th century, the foundation of 
my E. E. P. Oct. Began the 
MS. of E. E. P. 

1868, Aug. First dialectal information 
for this book written from dictation 
at Norwich, pp. 275-7. 

1869, Feb. Publication of E. E. P., 
Part I. For dialectal collections, 
see I. 277 and 291. Aug. 
Publication of E. E. P., Part II. 

1870, April. Paper on Glossic to the 
Ph. S., printed entirely in Glossic 
in the Transactions, with Key to 
Universal Glossic. This is the 
Alphabet in my English Dialects 
their Sounds and Homes, for 
the English Dialect Society, and 
it has been used in many of that 
S ociety ' s publications . 

1871, Feb. Publication of E. E. P., 
Part III., with a Notice starting 
my systematic enquiry into the 
Pronunciation of English Dia- 
lects, and giving a table of 
"presumed Varieties of English 
pronunciation." In. a reprint of 



this, widely circulated, containing 
a Key to Glossic, and called 
" Varieties of English Pronun- 
ciation," I suggested the forma- 
tion of an English Dialect Society, 
which has subsequently done good 

1872, April and May. Papers on 
Diphthongs to the Ph. S., incor- 
porated in E. E. P., Part IV. 

1873, Feb. Paper on Accent and 
Emphasis to the Ph. S., incor- 
porated in E. E. P., Part IV. 
May, Paper on Final E to the 
Ph. S., to form part of E. E. P., 
Part VI. Sept. First edition 
of the Comparative Specimen (cs.), 
p. 7*, used for collecting informa- 
tion on dialectal pronunciation. 
Of this I have printed below 104 

1874, Jan. Paper on Physical Theory 
of Aspiration to the Ph. S., incor- 
porated in E. E. P., Part IV. 
March. Paper on Vowel Changes 
in English Dialects to the Ph. S. 
Dec. Publication of E. E. P., 
Part IV. 

1875, March. Paper on the classifica- 
tion of the English Dialects to 
the Ph. S. June, second edition 
of cs. 

1876, March. Lecture on Dialects to 
the London Institution, when 
my first large Dialectal Map was 
drawn and shewn, leaving a 
blank from the Wash to Sussex. 
July to Sept. Going over the 
whole of Prince L.-L. Bona- 
parte's Dialect Library, and 
making extracts for this work. 
Dec. The London Institution 
Lecture repeated at Norwood. 
These lectures were most im- 
portant preliminary work for the 

1877, Mar. Paper on Dialectal Phono- 
logy to the Ph. S. Oct. Issue 
of my original Word -Lists (wl.) 
suggested by the last paper. Of 
this I have printed below 112 re- 
arrangements as a cwl. or classified 
word list. Nov. and Dec. Ob- 
taining dialectal information at 
Whitelands Training College. 

1879, Jan. Two lectures on Dialects 
at Newcastle-on-Tyne, with the 
large map reconstituted and gaps 
filled in, whence I got much 
information for N. div. Feb. 
Issue of my Dialect Test. Of 

this I have printed below 116 
translations. April and May. 
Two reports to the Ph. S. on 
the state of my investigations. 
1880, Oct. Lecture on "English Dia- 
lects their Sounds and Homes," 
to Working Men's College. 

1880, Dec. Paper on Dialects of South 
of England to Ph. S. 

1881, June. Obtaining supplementary 
dialectal information from White - 
lands Training College. 

1882, April. Paper on the Dialects of 
Midland and Eastern Counties 
to the Ph. S. May. Paper on 
the " Delimitation of English and 
Welsh " (that is, the present 
Celtic Border, p. 12) to the Cym- 
rodorion Society. 

1883, March. Paper on the Dialects 
of the Northern Counties to the 
Ph. S. May. Repeat Lecture on 
"English Dialects their Sounds 
and Homes," to the College for 
Men and Women. Nov. Paper 
on the Dialects of the Lowlands 
of Scotland (Mainland) to the 
Ph. S. 

1884, April. Paper on the Dialects 
of the Lowlands of Scotland 
(Insular) and of the Isle of Man 
to the Ph. S. 

1885, May. A Report to the Ph. S. 
on the Dialectal Work I had done 
since 19 Nov. 1883. 

1886, May. First (published) Report 
on Dialectal Work to the Ph. S. 

1887, May. Second (published) Report 
on Dialectal Work to the Ph. S. 
Nov. First proofs of this Part 
V. received, the first draft having 
been completed. 

1888, May. Short report to the Ph. 
S. on the state of the work. 

1889, May. Final report to the Ph. 
S. announcing the practical com- 
pletion of Part V. at press. June. 
Last proof of Part V. received. 

To account for some of the delays 
and gaps I may mention that in 1874, 
April, I wrote my treatise on Algebra 
identified with Geometry, and in June, 
my treatise on the Quantitative Pro- 
nunciation of Latin, and that in 1875, 
June, I published the first edition of 
my translation of Helmholtz on the 
Sensations of Tone; in 1876 my tract 
on the English, Dionysian and Hellenic 
Pronunciations of Greek, and in 1881 



two papers on the Computation of 
Logarithms for the Royal Society 
(Proceedings, vol. 31, pp. 381-413) ; 
in 1880, Mar., my laborious History 
of Musical Pitch for the Society of 
Arts; in 1885, April, my account of 
the Musical Scales of Various Nations, 
also for the Society of Arts, and in 
July the second edition of my trans- 
lation of Helmholtz, all works re- 

quiring much preparation and often 
lengthy investigations, and hence 
greatly interfering with other work. 
I had also five Presidential Addresses 
to prepare for the Ph. S. and deliver 
in 1872, 1873, 1874, 1881, and 1882, 
each of them occupying much time, 
and three of them involving consider- 
able correspondence. 


15 June, 1889. 









E.E. Pron. Part V. 



EARLY ENGLISH PRONUNCIATION, Part V, Chapter XI. continued. 3. The 
Existing Phonology of English Dialects. 

The above gives the true relation of the present investigation, forming Part Y. 
of my ' Early English Pronunciation,' to the four preceding parts. 

In 1874, when the portion of Chapter XI. 2, Natural English Pronunciation, 
contained in Part IV. pp. 1243-1432, was printed, it was intended to include in it 
the present 3. But my subsequent labours have resulted in such a development 
of the whole subject that what was originally meant to be merely a brief illus- 
tration, occupying only 30 pages of manuscript in the original draft of my Early 
English Pronunciation, made in 1867, before any part was printed, has become 
a substantive and unexpectedly complete treatise, which must therefore bear a 
separate title. 

This again has conditioned many changes. In Part IV. 2, No. 3, p. 1248, 
I gave a sketch of the proposed arrangement of 2, which in 1874 had already 
much increased in extent and character from the jejune table of contents of 
Chapter XI. prefixed to Part I. This whole arrangement, and hence also the 
allusions to Prince L.-L. Bonaparte's versions of the Song of Solomon, p. 1246 c, 
and p. 1374 a, must be considered as cancelled. The versions of the Song of 
Solomon published by the Prince, and written by the best authorities he could 
procure, were admirable when made, as opening out the whole question of 
English Dialects in a comparative form ; but when I endeavoured to utilise them 
for the present investigation, I found it impossible to determine the pronunciation 
from the orthography with any approach to the necessary accuracy, and hence I 
have been reluctantly compelled to pass them by altogether. 

The Dialectal Alphabet, 2, No. 3, Part IV. pp. 1252-1265, was also 
premature. This section is practically superseded 1) by the new table of 
Dialectal Palaeotype, that is, the modification of palaeotype which the experience 
of dialectal work has shewn to be necessary, with little or no reference to foreign 
languages, which will be given at the end of this preliminary matter, and 2) by 
the table of Approximative Glossic prefixed to my abridgment of this treatise, 
made for the English Dialect Society, and called English Dialects, their Sounds 
and Uomes ; in which Glossic is used as an approximate representation of 
dialectal sounds sufficient for readers, who, not having made a study of phonetics, 
are contented with general conceptions, instead of the scientific accuracy aimed at 
in palaeotype. 

Even the section on Vowel Fractures and Junctures, Part IV., pp. 1307-1317, 
although mostly sound, requires slight modification after my subsequent far wider 
experience, as will appear in detail hereafter. 

Hence I erect Part V. into an independent treatise, under its own separate 



The MAPS themselves are loose, and kept in pockets in the cover, 
for greater ease of reference. 

The BOUNDING LINES OP THE DISTRICTS are drawn in red over 
Philip & Son's convenient little maps, but on account of the 
smallness of the scales (that of England heing about 57 miles to 
the inch, and that of Scotland about 42 miles to the inch), the 
boundaries could be only roughly laid down. They had been, 
however, all previously traced out on maps of 4 miles to the inch, 
and will hereafter be indicated in words as accurately as the infor- 
mation hitherto obtained allows. 

The COUNTRY CONSIDERED lies east and south of the CELTIC 
BORDER marked CB, commencing in Ireland, and passing through 
Wales and Scotland. 

The six principal DIVISIONS, Southern, Western, Eastern, Mid- 
land, Northern and Lowland, are bounded by thick lines, and, 
being sufficiently indicated by these positional names, are, to 
prevent overloading the maps, not further marked. 

The forty-two DISTRICTS, in each of which a sensible similarity 
of pronunciation prevails, are bounded by continuous lines, 
numbered with bold figures, in the order in which they will be 
treated, and are named positionally in the following list. 

VARIETIES, or parts of Districts separately considered, are not 
entered on the map, but are numbered with small Roman 
numerals, named and roughly located on the next two pages. 

The CHARACTERS, principally phonetic, by which Districts and 
Varieties are distinguished, are fully detailed and illustrated in the 
following pages. 

The TEN TRANSVERSE LINES, passing from sea to sea, and limiting 
certain dialectal usages, are represented on the map by broken 
lines, which, when the Transverse Lines coincide during any part 
of their length with the boundaries of Divisions or Districts, 
are expressed by small cross-lines. The Transverse Lines are 
numbered with small figures in (), and when two or more of them 
are partially coincident with one another, all the corresponding 
numbers are annexed as (1. 2), (4. 5), (8. 9. 10). 

The names of these ten lines are as follows : 

(1) the north sum. (6) the south hoose. 

(2) the south sou in. (7) the north tee. 

(3) the reverted ur. (8) the south sum. 

(4) the south teeth. (9) the north suom. 

(5) the north theeth. (10) the south Lowland. 

The meaning of these names is fully explained in a special 
section below. 



B, b. Border. 

E, e. East-ern. 

N, n. North-ern. 

C Celtic. 

I Insular. 

S, s. South-ern. 

D District. 

L Lowland (Scotch). 

V Variety. 

Div. Division. 

M, m. Mid, Midland. 

W, w. West-era. 


Ab. Aberdeenshire. 

Fi. Fife. 

Nt. Nottingham. 

Ar. Argyll. 
Ay. Ayr. 

Fl. Flint. 
Fo. Forfar. 

Or. Orkney Isles. 
Ox. Oxford. 

Ba. Banff. 

Gl. Gloucester. 

Pb. Peebles. 

Bd. Bedford. 
Be. Berks. 

Gm. Glamorgan. 
Ha. Hampshire. 

Pm. Pembroke. 
Pr. Perth. 

Br. Brecknock. 

Hd. Haddingtonshire. 

Rd. Radnor. 

Bt. Bute. 

He. Hereford. 

Rf. Renfrew. 

Bu. Bucks. 

Ht. Hertford. 

Rt. Rutland. 

B\v. Berwickshire. 

Hu. Huntingdon. 

Rx. Roxburghshire. 

Cb. Cambridge. 
Cc. Clackmannan. 

Kb. Kircudbright. 
Kc. Kincardine. 

Sc. Scilly Isles. 
Sd. Shetland Isles, 

Cd. Cardigan. 

Ke. Kent. 

Se. Selkirk. 

Ch. Cheshire. 

Kr. Kinross. 

Sf. Suffolk. 

Co. Cornwall. 

La. Lancashire. 

Sg. Stirling. 

Cr. Cromarty. 

Le. Leicester. 

Sh. Shropshire. 

Cs. Caithness. 

Li. Lincoln. 

Sm. Somerset. 

Cu. Cumberland. 

Lk. Lanark. 

Sr. Surrey. 

Db. Derby. 

LI. Linlithgow. 

Ss. Sussex. 

Df. Dumfries. 

Ma. Isle of Man. 

St. Stafford. 

Dm. Dumbarton. 
Dn. Denbigh. 

Mg. Montgomery. 
Mi. Middlesex. 

Wa. Warwick. 
We. Westmorland. 

Do. Dorset. 
Du. Durham. 

Mo. Monmouth. 
My. Moray. 

Wg. Wigtonshire. 
Wi. Isle of Wight. 

Dv. Devon. 

Na. Nairn. 

Wl. Wiltshire. 

Ed. Edinburghshire. 

Nb. Northumberland. 

Wo. Worcester. 

El. Elgin. 

Nf . Norfolk. 

Wx. Wexford. 

ER. East Riding of Yo. 
Es. Essex. 

Np. Northampton. 
NR. North Riding of Yo. 

WR. West Riding of Yo. 
Yo. Yorkshire. 



I. S. Div. 

v. Utchland. 

D 8. s.BS. 

D 1 to 12. 
D 1. w.CS. 

Merriott, Montacute, and 
about a dozen villages 
between the railways w. 

Containing s. London and 
suburbs in Be. Sr. and 
ne Ke 

That is, S on C ground, 
shewn on the map by the 

of Yeovil Sm., where the 
personal pronoun I is called 

D 9. ' ES. 

CB pointing to 1 in margin, 


V i. e.Ss. 

representing the position 

vi. n. and e. Sm. 

ii. n. Ke. 

of the se. of Wx. in Ire- 

land, opposite Aberystwith 

D 5. e.MS. 

iii. e.Ke. 

Cd. Dialect in existence 

V i. Ox. 

D 10. n.WS. 

a century ago, but now 

ii. Be. 

In w.Sm. and ne.Dv. 

D 2. 'm.CS. 

iii. Ha. and Wi. 

Dll. s.WS. 

In ew. Pm. 

iv. s.Sr. and w.Ss. 

V i. n.Dv. 

D 3. e.CS. 

D 6. n.BS. 

ii. s.Dv. 

In sw. Gm. 

V i. Wo. 

iii. e.Co. 

D 4. w.MS. 

ii. s.Wa. 

D 12. w.WS. 

V i. Wl. 

ii. Gl. 

iii. Banbury. 
iv. sw Np 

In w.Co. and Sc., modern, 
varied, not dialects proper. 

iii. e.He. 

D 7. ra.BS. 

II. W. Div. 

iv. Do % 

In m. and s. Ox. 

D 13 and 14. 



D 13. SW. 

In Mo. He. Rd. ands.Sh. 

D 14. NW. 

vi. Dewsbury. 

vii. Rotherham. 
viii. Sheffield. 

iib. n.Lonsdale. 
iii. s.We 
iv. Edenside. 

In m. and se.Sh. 

ix. Doncaster. 

i.e. basin of River Eden in 

D 25. w.MM. 

Cu. and We. 

III. E. Div. 

V i. e.Ch. 
ii. m.Ch. 

v. w.Cu. 
vi. s.Du. 

D 15 to 19. 

iii. w.Ch. 

D 32. NET. 

D 15. WE. 

iv. n.St. 

V i. n.Cu. 

In m. and n.Bu. 

D 26. e.MM. 

ii. n.Du. 

D 16. ME. 

V i. s.Peak of Db. 

iii. Hexham or sw. 

V i. Ht. 

ii. w.Db. 


ii. Bd. 

iii. e.Db. 

iv. Coalfields or se. 

iii. Hu. 

iv. s.Db. 


iv. m.Np. 

D 27. EM. 

v. m.Nb. 

XT "L 

v. Es. 

The whole co. of Nt. 

vi. n.JNo. 

D 17. SE. 

D9Q m &-\/r 

Containing n. London and 
suburbs in Bu. Mi. and Es. 

D 18. NE. 

4o. W.OlVL. 
V i. nw.Sh. 
ii. detached or Eng- 
lish Fl. 

VI. L. Div. 

Chiefly after Dr. Murray, 
whose names of districts 

V i. Cb. 

iii. w.Ch. 

are given in Italics. 

ii. ne.JNp. 

iv. Dn. and se. of 

D 33 to 42. 

iii. Rt. 

main or Welch Fl. 

D 33. SL. 

D 19. EE. 

D 29. e.SM. 

Southern Counties. 

V i. nw.Nf. 


With a different s. boun- 

ii. ne.Nf. 
iii. s.Nf. 

b. wm.St. 
c. em. St. 

V "i. English. 
In n.Cu. and nw.Nb. 

iv. e.Sf. 

iia. me. and s.Sh. 

ii. Scotch. 

v. w.Sf. 

b. s.St. 

In e.Df., Se. and Rx. 

c. n.Wo. 

D 34. e.ML. 

IV. M. Div. 

iiia. e.Wa. 
b. w.Wa. 

Lothian and Fife. 
InBw. Cc. Ed.Fi.Hd.Kr. 

D 20 to 29. 

iv. Le. 

LI. and Pb. 

D 20. BM. 

The whole co of T i 

D 35. w.ML. 


Vi T i 

InAr. n.Ay. Bt. e. and s. 

1. S.Lil. 

ii. m.Li. 

V. N. Div. 

Dm. Lk. Rf. 

1) 36. s.ML. 

iii. n. Li. 

D 21. 8.NM. 

D 30 to 32. 
D 30. EN. 

Galloway and CarricJc. 
In s.Ay. w.Df. Kb. Wg 

V i. se.La. 

Mostly in NR. and ER. 

D 37. n ML. 

ii. nw. and n. Peak of 

V la. m.Yo. 
b. York Ainsty. 

Highland Border. 
In nw.Fi. w.Fo. w.Sg. 

D 22. w.NM. 

c. Northallerton. 


V i. Ormskirk. 
ii. BoltonandWigan. 
iii. Chorley&Leyland. 
iv. Blackburn. 

d. New Malton. 
e. Pateley Bridge. 
/. Washburn River, 
iia. S.Cleveland. 

D 38. s.NL. 

In e.Fo. and m. and s.Kc. 

D 39. m.NL. 

v. Burnley. 

b. ne. Coast and 

Moray and Aberdeen. 

vi. Old Colne Valley. 
D 23. n.NM. 

iiia. Market Weigh- 

In Ab. Ba. e.Cr. El. n.Kc. 


D 40. n.NL. 

V i.TheFyldeinm.La. 

b. Holderness. 


ii. Ma. 

iv. Goole & Marsh- 

In ne.Cs. 

D 24. e.NM. 



Mostly in WR. 

D 31. WjS". 

The following were not 

V i. Huddersfield. 
ii. Halifax. 

In WR. Cu. and We. 
V i. n. Craven andnw. 

treated by Dr. Murray. 

D41. s.IL. 

iii. Keighley. 
iv. Bradford. 

Mining Dis- 
tricts of To. 

The Orkneys. 
D 42. n.lL. 

v. Leeds. 

iia. s.Lonsdale. 

The Shetlands. 



















def. art. 













imp. t. 




















accented, accusative. 



A. J. Ellis, the author. 


answers to questions. 


border, (preceding a date) born. 

Mr. C. Clough Robinson. 

comparative specimen-s. 


classified word list. 

(preceding a date) died. 



definite article. 


dictate-d, dictation. 

differ -ent-ence. 


dialectal pronunciation. 

dialectal speech, or speaker-s. 

Dr. J. A. H. Murray's Dialects 

of the South of Scotland, 
dialect test-s. 

Early English Pronunciation, 
frequent ly. 
generally, genitive, 
glossic, or written in glossic. 
imperfect tense, 


informant's orthography. 
. Dr. James A. H. Murray. 

Mr. J. G. Goodchild. 

H.I.H. Prince Louis -Lucien 

list of words (as distinguished 
from the wl. and cwl.). 

old Norse. 


numbered word list, that is 
with sounds expressed by the 
numbers sent with the wl. 

observe-d, observation-s. 






post card, with an answer to 

the question it contained, 

pf. t. perfect tense, 
pi. plural. 

pp. past or passive participle, 
pre. preposition, 
pro. pronoun. 

pron. pronounce-d, pronunciation -s. 
prp. present participle, 
prt. present tense. 
pt. past tense. 

pwl. partial wl., one in which less 
than half the words had 
their pron. assigned, 
rec. received, 
ro. received orthography, or that 

commonly used. 

rp . received pronunciation , or that 

of pronouncing dictionaries 
and educated people, 
rs. received speech, with the 

grammar as well as pron. 
that educated people speak, 
sb. substantive, 

sg. singular, 

sim. similarly. 

so. some kind of systematic or- 

sp. speech, 

spec. specimen-s 
TH. Mr. Thomas Hallam. 
unacc. unaccented. 
v. version-s, ortranslation-sof cs. 

or dt. into dialectal speech 
or pron. 

vb. verb-s, verbal, 

vn. verbal noun, 

vv. viva voce. 

wd. word-s. 
wl. word list, as issued in Oct. 


Ws. Wessex, and West Saxon, 
both the country and lan- 
guage, literary Anglo- 
Saxon of the Southern type. 
wn. words noted from speakers, 
chiefly by TH. in his 
travelling note books. 
y. (following a number) years, 

as lOy. = ten years ac- 
quainted with the dialect. 

To shew where places not on the 
Maps of the Dialect District are to be 
found, they are referred to places on 
those maps, thus : 

4 nw. Lancaster = 4 miles measured in 
a northwesterly direction from Lan- 
caster, and so in other cases. 



referred to in the following pages as cs. 

This was constructed in Sep. 1873 by JAHM. and AJE., for the purpose of 
obtaining dia. renderings of familiar words in various connections and some cha- 
racteristic constructions. A second edition was prepared in June 1875. It has 
been broken up into 15 short numbered paragraphs, and a title (0.), for convenience 
of rapid reference. The present copy in ro. will serve as a key to the numerous 
versions and extracts which follow. The paragraphs cited are always numbered 
to correspond with this copy. 


(1.) Well, neighbour, you and he may both laugh at this news 
of mine. Who cares ? That is neither here nor there. 

(2.) Few men die because they are laughed at, we know, don't 
we ? What should make them ? It is not very likely, is it ? 

(3.) Howsoever these are the facts of the case, so just hold your 
noise, friend, and be quiet till I have done. Hearken ! 

(4.) /am certain 1 heard them say some of those folks who 
went through the whole thing from the first themselves, that did 
I, safe enough, 

(5.) that the youngest son himself, a great boy of nine, knew 
his father's voice at once, though it was so queer and squeaking, 
and I would trust him to speak the truth any day, aye, I would. 

(6.) And the old woman herself will tell any of you that laugh 
now, and tell you straight off, too, without much bother, if you 
will only ask her, oh ! won't she ? 

(7.) leastways she told it me when I asked her, two or three 
times over, did she, and she ought not to be wrong on such a point 
as this, what do you think ? 

(8.) Well as I was saying, she would tell you, how, where and 
when she found the drunken beast that she calls her husband. 

(9.) She swore she saw him with her own eyes, lying stretched 
at full length, on the ground, in his good Sunday coat, close by 
the door of the house, down at the corner of yon lane. 

(10.) He was whining away, says she, for all the world like a 
sick child, or a little girl in a fret. 

(11.) And that happened, as she and her daughter-in-law came 
through the back yard from hanging out the wet clothes to dry on 
a washing day, 

(12.) while the kettle was -boiling for tea, one fine bright 
summer afternoon, only a week ago come next Thursday. 

(13.) And, do you know?, I never learned any more than this 
of that business up to to-day, as sure as my name is John Shepherd, 
and I don't want to either, there now ! 

(14.) And so I am going home to sup. Good night, and don't 
be so quick to crow over a body again, when he talks of this that 
or t'other. 

(15.) It is a weak fool that prates without reason. And that is 
my last word. Good b'ye. 




referred to in the following pages as dt. 

This was constructed in Feb. 1879, in order to have a short specimen which 
contained an example of almost all the Ws. categories in the following cwl. 
No V., in which all the words occur separately. Here every word is numbered, 
and to each are added long notes, especially addressed to persons not much 
acquainted with phonetics, shewing the special points to which attention should 
be paid, and how to give the information required. These notes are here 
retained as forming a succinct and unsystematic conspectus of the principal 
varieties of English dialectal pron. In printing the versions, the numbering of 
the words has been abandoned, but the whole has been broken up into 7 short 
paragraphs to facilitate comparison. It is here printed in ro. to serve as an 
interpretation of all the v. that follow. 

(1.) So 1 I 2 say, 3 mates, 4 you 5 see 6 now 7 that 8 I ( 2 ) am 9 right 10 
about 11 that 12 little 13 girl 14 coming 15 from 16 the 17 school 18 yonder. 19 

(2.) She 20 is 21 going 22 down 23 the( 17 ) road 24 there 25 through 26 
the( 17 ) red 27 gate 28 on 29 the( 17 ) left 30 hand 31 side 32 of 33 the( 17 ) 
way. 34 

(3.) Sure 35 enough, 36 the ( 17 ) child 37 has 38 gone 39 straight 40 
up 41 to 42 the( 17 ) door 43 of( 33 ) the (") wrong 44 house, 45 

(4.) where 46 she ( 20 ) will 47 chance 48 to ( 42 ) find 49 
drunken 60 deaf 51 shrivelled 62 fellow 
Thomas. 55 

that ( 12 ) 
of( 33 ) the ( 17 ) name 54 of( 33 ) 

5.) We 56 all 57 know 58 him 59 very 60 well. 61 
'6.) Won't 62 the( 17 ) old 63 chap 64 soon 65 teach 66 her 67 not 68 
to( 42 ) do 69 it 70 again, 71 poor 78 thing! 73 
(7.) Look! 74 Isn't 75 it ( 70 ) true? 76 


** The number of the wd. in the following cwl. is put at the end of each 
note, preceded by . 

1. So. Note whether s or z. Note 
whether o has a vanishing uo after it 
as in London. Mark the various frac- 
ture sounds, frequently used in the 
north, as ee, ay, or 00, followed by a 
in China. 1, 73. 

2. I. Attempt in a note to indicate 
the first element of this diphthong, the 
second is almost always ee. The first 
may be the sound of the italic letters 
in father, pass, pt, pet, nwt, c?/r, pll, 
coll, pop, or some foreign sound. Re- 
ference to any named European lan- 
guage will be intelligible. Or this 
pronoun may not be a diphthong at all, 
but the simple vowel in father, fall, 
folly. These distinctions are all cha- 
racteristic. Also note if ic, itch, itchy, 
utch, utchy, 'ch (as 'ch am, 'ch 'ould, 
'ch 't/7 = 7 ai, I would I will], ise, es, 
us, have ever been heard for /. They 

all occur in older books, but at present 
only utch, utchy, have been recorded at 
Merriott and Montacute, near Crew- 
kerne, S. Somersetshire. 452. 

3. say. Note whether * or z. Ob- 
serve whether do is inserted, as Zo I do 
zay, this is general when s becomes z ; 
and then observe the vowel in do, which 
is generally unemphatic as a in China. 
Note whether ay has or has not a 
vanishing ee after it as in London. 
Note whether it is pronounced with a 
in father, followed by ?e, that is, as the 
English-Greek at, German ai, French 
at, or English aye=yes. Mark if the 
ay be very broad like e in there. Mark 
if say is sounded like see, or almost like 
seer without a trill, or almost like the 
first syllable of Kar-ah also without a 
trill. 261. 

4. mates. Use mates, makes, mar- 




rows, soce, bo's, butties, boys, chums, 
according to the district, but select the 
word most familiarly used in a good 
sense as companion or fellow -worker. 
In mates or makes mark the long , 
which may have all the varieties of ay 
in say, noted in No. 3, which see. Soce 
and bo's offer no difficulty, but in 
butties or chums mark (by an accent, 
as u, to be explained) whether the sound 
is between u in but and u in put, so 
that but nearly rhymes to foot. This 
is the Lancashire u, see No. 15. In 
boys, the diphthong requires attention, 
it may have its usual sound, or rhyme 
to pies (in which case it must be treated 
as / in No. 2), or be made up of oo 
and te. 737. 

5. you. Note whether you, ye, or 
'e is used. If you, whether it rhymes 
to too, foe, or now. You is here plural, 
note whether it is also commonly used 
for the singular, or whether thou is 
commoner (and if so, whether thee is 
used as the nominative), or whether 
thou is used to some classes and you to 
others. Usage differs much. 435. 

6. see. Note whether s or z. Ob- 
serve whether d is inserted, as you do 
zee, which is generally the case when z 
is used ; see No. 3. Note whether ee 
has quite a uniform sound or whether 
it seems to begin with i in sit and then 
to glide up to ee. Note if it is sounded 
like say, with or without a vanishing 
et. The form of eh ! very closely 
united to ?e, is common. Mark whether 
it is followed by u as in seer without a 
trill. 428. 

7. now. A word of very numerous 
forms. The ow maybe a simple vowel, 
as in too, tar, taw, or may even be as 
in near, ne'er, without the trill. It is 
commonly a diphthong in which the 
last sound is ou and the first the vowel 
in father, pass, pt, pet, pate, nut, cur, 
pot, toll, or some foreign sound. The 
second element may also be e^, while 
the first is a in father. The second 
element may even be French u, and 
then the fir^t may be u in c^<r, or broad 
French eu, German o nearly. The ow 
is also very often a triphthong, a short 
sound of i or e <r al being prefixed, as 
mow, neow, naiw. 643. 

8. that. Observe that the word is 
unemphatic and must be pronounced 
accordingly, the emphatic form No. 12 
is reckoned as a different word. The 
unemphatic vowel is generally like a in 
China, or e in pocket, or a in principal, 

ocean, or in t. Note whether the th 
is entirely omitted. Also whether it is 
replaced by a 1 . 177. 

9. am. Use am, is, are, or be, ac- 
cording to the habit of the district, 
always selecting an uneducated person, 
such as an old native man or woman, 
because all young people have been 
taught to use am. If am or is is used, 
it generally reduces to -m, -z, being 
run on in the same word with /, which 
may have all the sounds of No. 2 ; but 
in case -m is used, /is very often pro- 
nounced as a in fall, or o in folly. Note 
particularly the districts where I are 
occurs, and observe where it is used 
emphatically, as "I are to wait," or in 
answers, as " Are you to do it P Yes I 
#><?." Note whether the r is pro- 
nounced, or whether the whole word is 
not like a in fr. When unemphatic, 
as I' re, note whether the whole sound 
does not rhyme to fire without a trill. 
Especially note the use of be, and 
whether he be is also used. Note 
whether the several forms are all oc- 
casionally used in the district, and if so 
which is the most frequent. Note 
whether we am, you am, are ever used, 
as we'm, you 1 , especially when fol- 
lowed by to as "you'm to go home." 
Note the use of the negative forms I 
aint, I baint, beeunt, etc., it baint, it 
aint, 'taint, tent, tyent, chent, etc. Note 
whether we is, you is, they is, are used. 
All these forms are highly character- 
istic. 391. 

10. right. First mark the r, 
whether it is trilled with the tip of the 
tongue as in Scotch or Italian, or 
whether the tip of the tongue is merely 
raised without being trilled as fre- 
quently in London and Spain. Note 
if the effect is produced by a rattle of 
the uvula at the back of the mouth as 
in Paris, or else by the same accompa- 
nied by a considerable closure of the 
lips as in Northumberland. Note also 
if the effect is produced by turning the 
tongue up so as almost to point down 
the throat as in Dorsetshire, or by re- 
tracting the tongue very much as in 
Oxfordshire, both sounds being very 
harsh and but slightly if at all trilled. 
Then as to igh, note whether gh is pro- 
nounced as a guttural, as in Scotch, 
and if so whether the guttural is the 
German ch in ich or that in ach, or the 
last with the lips much closed, and if 
the * is then as in nz'ck or neck. If 
the gh is not pronounced, note if the 



has any one of the sounds of I No. 2, 
or of the vowels in see No. 6, as any 
such sound may occur. 459. 

11. about. Note the a unaccented, 
whether it is like a in China, idea, or 
whether it is distinctly the short of a 
in father, as in Italian. Note that the 
ou may have any of the sounds of ow in 
now .No. 7, and when it sounds like oo, 
note whether the vowel is long or 
short, or of middle length. 650. 

12. that. The word is here em- 
phatic. See No. 8. Note whether 
the a is as in London cat or pass, or 
a in father, or the same short or of 
middle length. Note whether th has 
its usual sound, or is t (often the case 
after the t of about] or d, or is omitted 
altogether. 177. 

13. little. Note whether t or d is 
used, or the tt omitted altogether as 
lile. If tt is omitted, note the sound 
of either as one of the diphthongal 
forms of No. 2, or as a in father. Note, 
when tt is sounded as t or rf, whether i 
is as in skittle, or as ee in needle, or as 
a in father. 682. 

14. girl. The word girl is com- 
mon, but in some districts is replaced 
hy wench, lass, maid, mauther, or is 
not so frequently used as any one of 
these words. Note which word is most 
common and use it, but give also the 
pronunciation of the other words, if 
used. For girl, note whether the r is 
trilled or is pronounced as in one of 
the ways named in right No. 10; if 
not, note whether it rhyme to sal or 
sell, or cwrl, p<arl ; and if the r is the 
Dorsetshire r (see No 10) , note whether 
it rhyme to hurdle, with inserted d. 
For wench note if it rhymes to ditnch, 
yinch, branch (with a in eat). For 
lass note if it rhymes to gas or pass. 
For maid note especially if it has the 
sound of a in father followed by ee, very 
distinctly, or any other sound of ay in 
No. 3. For mouther, note if th is 
sounded as in rather, or omitted alto- 
gether. 758. 

15. coming. For first syllable, 
note if it rhymes to hum, or loom or 
Inutu, or is the short sound of the two 
last, or something between these two 
short sounds, nearly u in pull, but 
thicker (Lancashire u}. For the second 
syllable (and all participles in -itig) 
note whether ny has its received sound 
of tiff, or whether another g seems to be 
added, or whether it sounds as the 
words ink or in ; if it ends in n (as is 

usual) , note whether the i is like i in 
in, e in woollm, o in motion, jggp In 
the phrase "They were dmsing and 
such tensing I never saw," note 
whether the two ings would be pro- 
nounced alike ; they are sometimes 
different, and that is very characteristic. 

16. from. For/ note if it is ever 
or generally v, or th as in throw. If 
th is used, note whether -om rhymes to 
a very broad a sound like French e, 
German a, or almost a in cat. If f 
remains, note whether -rom be not 
pronounced as the last vowel described, 
or whether the word sounds like fy in 
stuffy, or like fee, fay. If /becomes 
v, note if the r does not become the 
Dorset r described in No. 10. If fr, 
vr remain in any form, note whether 
-om (as the word is unemphatic) rhymes 
to the last syllable of bottom. Note 
also its emphatic form, and whether in 
either form m is not often omitted as 
fro 1 . 58. 

17. the. The definite article is 
very characteristic. Note whether th 
remains as usual, or becomes d, or is 
omitted altogether. In each case note 
the sound of e like a in China, or y in 
pithy, or ee in prith^ ; and note 
especially if the latter vowels are used 
when this omitted. Note particularly 
whether the vowel is omitted altogether, 
and then whether th keeps its usual 
sound before a following vowel as in 
th-arm for the arm, or becomes th' in 
th'in (as it is convenient to write the 
acute sound), forming a hiss, before 
consonants, as th'-man, in one word. 
In these latter cases note whether the 
th or th' is not assimilated to d or t 
after a word ending in d or t, causing a 
suspension of the t or d, by the tongue 
remaining a sensible time against the 
palate, which may be conveniently 
written a" or t\ as at f door. Note 
also particularly whether the does not 
always become a suspended f when it 
is possible, as when it follows another 
word, as from-? school, or, when this 
is not possible, whether it becomes just 
perceptible by a dull kind of minute 
thud, due to trying to speak without 
moving the tongue from the palate, as 
? man, f ass (not tass) = the ass. This 
is the regular form in Cumberland, 
Westmorland, Durham and Yorkshire. 
See examples in the Test after from 16, 
dmrn 23, through 26, on 29, of 33, 
before child 2>1, after to 42, before old 




63. The proper marking of the definite 
article is important. 231. 

18. school. Note whether the 
initial letters are always sounded as sk, 
or sometimes as sh. Note whether the 
vowel is as usual do, or hecomes yoo, or 
French u, or ee followed hy a in China, 
or ee or y followed by u in dull, or hy 
French eu. Note whether the usual 

00 is begun with the mouth open, 
giving the effect of a high a in China 
preceding the oo ; this sound may be 
conveniently written 66 as skool. Note 
whether oo does not receive one of the 
sounds of ow in now No. 7, like the 
word scowl. Note also whether the 

001 does not become weel or will, so 
that the word sounds like squeal or 
squill. 560. 

19. yonder. Note if this word is 
ever used as yonder, thonder (with th 
in then], or inder. If not, use out 
there, and treat out as in about No. 11, 
and there as No. 25. Also if the school 
yonder is not used, employ yon school, 
and then notice whether yon is pro- 
nounced with y or th in then, or acute 
th' in th'iu, as th'on (see No. 17). The 
form Inder should be especially noted, 
if ever heard in the district, even oc- 
casionally. 394. 

20. She. The feminine personal 
pronoun is very important. It usually 
has sh preserved, with ee when em- 
phatic, as in sheet (with one of the 
sounds of ee in see No. 6, or ay in say 
No. 3), but when unemphatic becomes 
shy in slushy, or chsia in fuchsia, and 
the vowel is frequently entirely omitted 
in rapid speech, so that only the sh of 
hu*/> / remains. But the forms shoo, 
oo, ow, uh, generally written shoo, hoo, 
hoiv, her, are also used. For shoo note 
whether it ever sounds like shoe, shoh, 
shuh. For hoo note whether h is ever 
heard unless the word is very emphatic, 
and whether the oo is not the 66 ex- 
plained in No. 18. For how or ow 
note which of the sounds of ow in now 
No. 7 is used. For her or better uh 
(the u in cur without any trill of an r 
after it), note whether it is ever pro- 
nounced with an r after it, even before 
a vowel, as uh 1z, not uh rlz, with 
emphatic iz. Note also if him iz or 
mee Iz are ever said. Note also when 
the form she is used, whether sh ever 
changes to zh or * in division (French 
j), when the word is emphatic. 412. 

21. is. First note the use of the 
forms is, be, are, see No. 9. Next see 

whether in unemphatic forms the i or 
a are not omitted, as she's, she' re. 
Give the emphatic forms also. 482. 

22. going. First note whether a- 
is commonly inserted, as she's a-going, 
where this a- is pronounced as in 
a -bout No. 11. Note whether the 
form go or gang or gan is used. For 
go note the o, whether it rhymes to toe 
or too or hay, and for the second 
syllable -ing, not only see No. 15, but 
observe if the two syllables go-ing do 
not coalesce, sounding like g prefixed 
to wine (with any sound in No. 2), or 
wain (with any sound in No. 3), or 
win, very short. 67. 

23. down. This may have any of 
the sounds of ow in now No. 7, or ou 
in about No. 11. It is a very cha- 
racteristic word, especially when ow 
has the sound of a in father or a in cat 
lengthened, followed or not by short ee 
or short oo, or a in China. 658. 

24. road. For the r consult right 
No. 10. The oa may be pronounced 
with a short oo after it, as it is often 
in London, and then the oo may be 
lengthened and the oh shortened till 
the word sounds like roh-ood or nearly 
rowd, and then the ow may receive any 
of the sounds of ow in noiv No. 7. 
These are London forms. It is more 
common to add a short u or a in China 
as roh-ud, and then the oh is sometimes 
broadened to French o in howme or to 
awe in au-ed as raw-ud. But also very 
commonly the oh falls into oo followed 
by this a, as rooud. And the sound is 
still more complicated by inserting a w 
as rwooud. Note what form is used, 
and whether simple rohd raud rahd or 
short rod are employed, and sometimes 
one of the forms of a in mates No. 4. 
The word is very variable and cha- 
racteristic. 104. 

25. there. First for th, note if it 
has its usual sound, or if it falls into d, 
and occasionally into t after a word 
ending in t. Then as to r final, observe 
whether it is trilled strongly as in 
Scotland or weakly as mostly in Eng- 
land. Also whether it is not trilled at 
all, and then whether it is a mere 
vowel as often in London, or a raised 
stiff tongue, or a Dorset or Nor- 
thumberland un trilled r, see No. 10. 
The vowel varies much. It often be- 
comes a very thin ay, almost an ee, 
rhyming nearly to wear or seer. Some- 
times it rhymes to tar. "With the 
Northumberland r it may become o, 




and with the Dorset r it may become 
uh in cur. 2'23. 

26. through. First for thr, note 
whether tr is used with a trilled r, and 
next whether dr is used with a reverted 
or retracted r, as explained in No. 10. 
Also observe if fr is used, generally 
with e in I here. Next note whether 
the gh is a guttural, or is replaced by/. 
Then note the vowel whether simple 
as oo in too, oe in toe or in cut, or 
Lancashire w (No. 15), or diphthongal 
having one of the sounds of ow in 
Ho. 7._634. 

27. red. Note the r as in No. 10. 
Note the vowel, which may be usual, 
or as reed spoken long or short, or rid, 
or like raid or rwrf-oy. Particularly 
note whether the vowel is transposed 
and an aspirate prefixed, like herd with 
the Dorsetshire r, No. 25. Or if the 
aspirate is prefixed to the same r with- 
out transposition as hred. 352. 

28. gate. Note all the changes of 
vowel as in mates No. 4. The word is 
generally very characteristic. It may 
also be yate, yat or yet. 346. 

29. on. This does not vary much, 
but note the vowel when usual or like 
French o in homme, or like the short 
of one in bone, or like nn, with the a of 
father shortened. 543 

30. left. Observe whether t is 
pronounced. Note whether the vowel 
is e in pat, or a in pat, or i in pit. 

31. hand. First note whether the 
aspirate is used, and make a note as to 
the habits of the district in using or 
not using the initial aspirate both at 
right and wrong times. Next note 
tliH d, sometimes t t and often omitted. 
Lastly see if the vowel is u in c//t, a in 
father at full length or shortened, aw 
in awn, or o in on. 43. 

32. Bide. The long may have 
any of the sounds of No. 2. Note 
especially whether it is in father, or 
a diphthong consisting of uh in CUT, 
followed by short *V. 492. 

33. of. Note whether / is pre- 
served ; it is usually v, but is not un- 
frequently entirely omitted, especially 
before the, so that of the becomes u-tha, 
or even simply ulh, or uth' with acute 
th' (No. 17). Often the word is a 
short oh, as oh thu or uh te. 525. 

34 . way. Note whether the w ever 
becomes v. Observe the same possible 
varieties of ay as for say No. 3. The 
sound of ay in say is however often 

different from that of ay in way in the 
same district. 262. 

35. sure. Note whether * remains 
or becomes sh. Note the r as for 
there No. 25. Observe the vowel, 
whether as oo in poor, you in your, ew 
in ewer, French u, or French eu, or 
whether it becomes one of the ow 
diphthongs as in now No. 7. 969. 

36. enough. Note also the form 
enow, and say whether in this district 
enough is used with singular and enow 
with plural nouns, as bread enough, 
apples enow, or whether one form is 
always used, and if so which. For 
enow note the different forms of now 
No. 7, and also the use of enew, or the 
French u or French eu. For enough, 
first note whether the guttural remains 
or is changed into/. If gh is German 
or Scotch c h in loch, observe the vowel, 
whether simple as u in cut, o in cot, or 
the same preceded by y ; or whether 
ew in ewer, or distinct ee followed by 
indistinct o in cot, or the French u or 
eu. For / observe whether the vowel 
is u in snwff, ew in ewer, or French u 
or eu, or ee followed by a in China, or 
y followed by u in dull, or by French eu. 

37. child. Note whether child or 
bairn is ever used when speaking of a 
girl merely. If not, use in the trans- 
lation some of the words in No. 14, 
but if child is used in the district in 
any sense, observe its pronunciation. 
First note the ch, whether as in cheese, 
or c//aise, that is sh, the last is very 
characteristic. Next observe whether 
d is omitted. Then see if the vowel is 
diphthongal, having one of the forms 
of No. 2, or simple, as in chilled, or 
shield. In all cases note the form of 
the plural, childer, childern, chooldern, 
children or chillerii, with the pro- 
nunciation of ch and vowel as before. 
If only bairn is used, note the sound of 
air as in there No. 25. 466. 

38. has. This is in the unemphatic 
form, and hence probably omits ha, 
sounding simply as -z hung on to the 
preceding word. Note however also 
the emphatic form, and whether h is 
pronounced (see hand No. 31), and if 
s is ever * or always z. Then note the 
value of the vowel, as a in mazzard, 
in bwzzard, i in lizard, e in iez. 
Also note particularly whether it is 
customary in the district to say the 
child have, and if so note the h and 
vowel of have especially. Please con- 




jugate as in the district : I have, thou 
hast., he has, we, you, they, have, and 
the same negatively. 159. 

39. gone. Notice especially whether 
a- is inserted, as the child has a-gone, 
as this is very characteristic. If so, 
note whether this a is pronounced as 
a in China. For gone note the vowel 
as o in on, or aw in awn, or as in m, 
pen, been (short), or with y prefixed to 
these vowels, or as very short i in in 
followed by very short a in China. Or 
again with a in father or the same very 
short. Also observe if the habit of the 
district is to use has go-ed, has went, 
has been and gone, or been simply with- 
out either has or gone. 121. 

40. straight First observe whether 
the guttural gh is heard as Scotch or 
German ch in loch. Next as to the 
initial str, observe the r as in right 
No. 11, but especially whether the t is 
pronounced thickly by bringing the tip 
of the tongue quite against the teeth 
as for th, forming the dental t, which 
may be written st'r, a pronunciation 
highly characteristic in words beginning 
with str, or tr, or ending with -ter as 
vr&t'er, bntt'er, and if this is usual in 
the district, it should be noted care- 
fully. Note also whether t' passes 
quite into acute th' No. 17, as 
tth'raight, wath'er, buth'er, or whether 
in the last two words it is not 
altogether omitted as wah-er, bu-er. 
Then for the vowel in straight, note 
the forms of a in mates No. 4, or ay in 
say No. 3, and especially the diphthongal 
form of a in father followed by short ee. 

41. up The vowel may be as 
usual or somewhat thicker, but note 
the Lancashire u (see No. 16), which is 
highly characteristic. Note also French 
eu. CUT It is particularly necessary to 
distinguish u in dull from u in full, or 
from Lancashire u (No. 15). Dialect 
writers, following the usual ortho- 
graphy, use u for all three sounds. 
Great confusion thus arises. It is 
believed that u in dull is never found 
within the district bounded on the 
south by a line from the N. of Shrop- 
shire to the S. of Lincolnshire, and on 
the north by a line from Silloth in 
Cumberland to Hartlepool in Durham, 
but information is much wanted for 
the districts adjacent to these boun- 
daries. The distinction has strong 
dialectal significance. 632. 

42. to. Note if at is ever used for 

to before the infinitive, see No. 67. 
Note the vowel, as oo in too, oe in toe, 
ew in tew, French u or eu, all especially 
when emphatic, or in to and fro, where 
are you going to; and the unemphatic 
form of a in China. Observe also how 
it coalesces with the following the. 

43. door. Note the r as in there 
No. 25. Note the oor as in oar, as in 
drawer, or as in nor, or as mower, poor, 
or the same shortened, or as ewer, or 
as in deer, cur, or French sur or sceur, 
or with the Lancashire 66, No. 18, or 
as ow.~ 606. 

44. wrong. First as to wr-, note 
if the w is omitted (as is generally the 
case) or is pronounced as wu with the 
a in China, or as a v as vrang. Next 
as to rig, note if another g is added on 
to the end as ngg, or whether the word 
ends in nk. The vowel is very cha- 
racteristic, note the usual o in wrong, 
or the short of a in father, or a in cat, 
or u in rwng, or Lancashire short u 
(No. 15). This word with the next is 
sufficient to determine whether the 
district is to the N. or S. of a line 
passing from Cockermouth in Lanca- 
shire to the mouth of the H umber in 
Yorkshire 64. 

45. house. First notice the aspirate, 
whether it is used, No. 31. Particu- 
larly notice the vowel in all the forms 
of on, in about No. 11, and ou> in nmo 
No. 7. This and home are the most 
characteristic words we have How is 
home pronounced ? See sounds of Nos. 
22, 39, 58, 62. 663. 

46. where. Note the tvh especially, 
and say whether the h is ever pro- 
nounced before or after the >, as it is 
very desirable to determine the limits 
of the pronunciation of wh proper. 
Next notice whether when h is not 
pronounced, w ever falls into v, as is 
often asserted to be the case. Lastly 
note where wh becomes f. For the r 
see there No. 25. For the vowel, de- 
termine whether it is in air, ear, far, 
nor, drawer. 224. 

47. will. Being unemphatic this 
will probably be run on to the pre- 
ceding word as simple -/, thus she'll. 
But also note which of the emphatic 
forms as wtl or wul, and perhaps wo I 
or wool, or even ool, is used in the 
district. 469. 

48. chance. Very possibly this 
word may not be used in such a phrase 
in the district. Use the word employed, 



as hap or happen or mebby (may be) for 
chance to. The h and a in the first 
two words treat as in hand No. 31. 
But the word chance is sure to be used 
in some sense, so please to note its 
sound, and especially if ch is as in 
cheese or chaise. The -ance may be 
variously pronounced, as a in father 
long or short, a in pass long or short, 
a in ct long or short, all these six 
sounds being heard from educated 
people. But a may also be as in all, 
or have one of the sounds of long I, 
No. 2. 841. 

49. find. First as to the final d, 
often omitted, see hand^o. 31. Notice 
whether the word is like fined, with 
one of the sounds of long I, No. 2, or 
likejtnned; it may be also like /and 
or fund, fan or fun, with a as in hand 
No. 31, or u as in tip No. 41, or with 
o in fond. 477. 

50. drunken. Notice the form 
drucken, much used in Scotland. Notice 
whether dr- is pronounced with the 
tongue against the teeth as for th, thus 
a'r, see straight No. 40 for a similar 
t'r. Notice also whether this is com- 
mon in the termination -d'er as rid'er 
bladd'er, and whether it passes into th 
as blather in the district. These are 
very characteristic pronunciations. As 
to the vowel, observe whether it is u 
in swnk/or the Lancashire u, Nos. 15 
and 41. In some districts, where every 
one is in the habit of drinking, the 
word drunken is objected to. Then 
use the common word, but as / have 
drunk must be used, also give the 
sound of drunk. 804, 613. 

61. deaf. Note the vowel as usual 
or rhyming to reef, stiff, or fractured 
as ee or ay followed by the a in China. 

52. shrivelled. This may not be 
a common word, and may be unknown 
to the informant in the dialect, although 
it is sure to be known in other connec- 
tions. In this case wizened, weazen, 
withtred, or dried up may be used. 
But if shrivelled cannot be given, take 
any word beginning with shr- as 
shrammed, shred, shrewmouse, shriek, 
shrike, shrill, shrimp, shrink, shroud, 
shrub, shrug, and state whether shr- 
or sr- is used in speech. It is par- 
ticularly desirable to know how far the 
sound of sr- extends. For the r see 
right No. 10. 760 

53. fellow. Note whether / or r. 
For the last syllable note whether the 

word ends in a distinct oh or rhymes to 
seller, with the r merely a vowel, see 
there No. 25, or whether it is like the 
Egyptian fellah. 297. 

54. name. The vowel may have 
any of the forms of a, in mates No. 4, 
or gate No. 28. The word is also often 
like neeum, neeam, nyem, or even nem. 

55. Thomas. Use whatever name 
is commonest in the district. If Thomas 
is kept, note whether th- is ever dif- 
ferent from t. For the first syllable 
note whether the vowel is that in pot, 
hum, or the Lancashire u Nos. 15 and 
41. For the second whether it is 
ever different from us in omnibws. 

56. We. This vowel may have all 
the sounds of ee in see No. 6, and the 
sound like very short London way 
should be especially noted. Note if we 
is ever used for us in the district, as 
after we (John Gilpin), laughed at we, 
give it we. Note also if us is used for 
we, as us saw she, us told he, for we saw 
her, or we told him. 293. 

57. all. Note if the U is omitted. 
Note the vowel as in fall or father, or 
ay followed by a in China, or whether 
the word sounds like yell. 335. 

58. know. As this is plural, we 
being the nominative, note whether it 
has the plural in -en as we known, or 
in -s as we knows, and explain which 
is used in the district, or if we know is 
commonest. Similarly note you and 
they know, knows, or known. We 
known is sometimes used for we h<tve 
known, or we knew. This must not be 
confused with we known, meaning we 
know. But it is best to note whether 
it is used. For the initial kn- note 
whether k is ever sounded as k, or ever 
indicated by using an h or t or d, 
instead of k, or is entirely omitted. 
Then note the vowel, whether as in 
owe, awe, fWther, fate, or o followed by 
short oo, or the awe, ah, ay, followed by 
short a in China. Note whether do is 
inserted between we and knoiv as we do 
know, and if so, how do is pronounced, 
see end of notes on say No. 3, and see 
No. 6. The use of we doh knoiv for 
we don't know, should be noted, but 
not confused with we do know. Note 
also whether the word knoiv is super- 
seded by ken, and the sound of the 
vowel in ken. In this case take some 
other word beginning with kn- as 
knife, knuckle, and ascertain whether 



k is entirely omitted or pronounced, or 
indicated by h or t or a*. 92. 

59. him. Note particularly whether 
the form en or un or simple ' is used, 
as we do know 'n. If him is used, 
note if h is ever heard, 1) when the 
word is unemphatic, 2) when emphatic. 
Note the vowel, whether im, em, um. 
Note if we know Urn, or we knows 'm, 
could mean indifferently we know him, 
and we know them. 470. 

60. very. Note particularly whether 
the v changes into w. If possible, 
ascertain whether it is a perfect w, or 
rather a v spoken without allowing the 
underlip to touch the upper teeth. The 
r between the two vowels also requires 
attention. Note if it is entirely omitted 
as ve-y, va-y, or only represented by 
raising the stiffened point of the tongue 
towards the roof of the mouth without 
touching it, or slightly advancing the 
uvula ; both forms occur, and it is de- 
sirable to know how far they extend. 
If the r is trilled, note which of the 
r's in right No. 10 is used. The first 
vowel may be as in sherry, or Harry, 
or father, and the second may be as in 
sherry or China. 885. 

61. well. Note whether the w 
becomes v. Note the vowel whether 
as in tell, or whtel rather shorter, or 
whether a short a in China or y in 
sherry is inserted after either of these. 
266, not 244. 

62. won't. Note if o is pronounced 
as in don't, hwnt, awe, taint, or o in 
d';n't followed by a in China, or oo 
followed by a in China, or ee so fol- 
lowed. Note also if the forms winna, 
u-innad (before a vowel), wunna, tvonna, 
winnut, are employed. Note if w is 
entirely omitted, thus '011*1 or 'don't. 
Note also the various forms of don't, 
which includes those of on't in won't 
and also divv'nt, etc. 541. 

63. old. Note whether both I and 
d are pronounced or either I or d 
omitted. Vowel as in owed, hole, got, 
awe, father, ee followed by a in China. 
Or whether o has not one of the sounds 
of now No. 7. 326. 

64. chap. This word is pretty sure 
to be used, but, if not, use man. Ob- 
serve whether ch is as in cAeese or 
chaise, and whether the vowel is as in 
cat, in father or the same shortened, or 
in get. 364. 

65. soon. Observe whether * or z, 
or even sA . Observe the vowel especially, 
which may be ee, yoo, French u or eu, 

or ee followed by oo, or by a in China, 
or u in dull or French eu. 564 

66. teach. Observe vowel as in 
rmch, or aitch. If, as is very com- 
monly the case, learn would be used in 
this sense, mark the vowel as in urn or 
darn or ay followed by short o, and 
note the r (No. 26). If teach is not 
used in this sense, teacher will certainly 
be known, and its pronunciation should 
be given. 183. 

67. her. Observe whether h is 
pronounced, and what is the nature of 
the r, see there No. 25. See also the 
her for she No. 20, and note whether 
she is not used in its place as won't he 
teach she. Observe if the usual sound 
of her in teach her or learn her is the 
same as er in teacher or learner, and 
note if it is a in China, or how it 
differs from it. 447. 

68. not. Note vowel as in pot, 
pat, put, or nut, and whether the t is 
sometimes d. 110, ii. 

69. do. Note vowel as in loo, toe, 
new or French u, or ee followed by 
French u. Observe whether div is 
used before it, as div it, or whether do 
and it are not contracted into one word 
as dit or did. Note whether to before 
the infinitive do is sometimes at, pro- 
nounced ut, especially in such phrases 
as I am the man that was able to or at 
do it, something at eat, go at see him, 
and write the pronunciation of these 
phrases. This use of at is highly 
characteristic. 586. 

70. it. Observe whether, when 
not run on to do (No. 69), it be- 
comes et, ut, hit, het, hid. Also state 
whether its is ever used, as in over 
its or it eyes, or over the eyes of 'un. 

71. again. Note the last vowel as 
in gain, or hen, in, or ee followed by a 
in China. 144. 

72. poor. Note r as in there No. 
25, and vowel as usual or as in oar, or 
like French u or eu. 866. 

73. thing. Note whether acute th' 
in th'in, see No. 17, or flat th in then, 
or t simply is used. Note the vowel 
as in m or hen. Note ng as pure, or 
with an extra g added, as nk or as n. 
If the simple n is not used in thing 
alone, note whether it is not used in 
nothing, something, and write pronunci- 
ation of these words. 480. 

74. look. Note the vowel as in 
*oo, No. 65, or else as long oo in loose, 
or long oh, or short u in full or u in 


dull. Note also such phrases as loo 1 76. true. Observe tr as in straight 

t/teefoT look thnu.-bte. No. 40. The vowel may be oo or 

75. isn't. Note whether any of the you or ee followed by uo or French 

forms beant, ainf, ar'n't, izna, iznad, u, or some variety of these sounds. 

innuf, etc., is used. 482. 436. 


referred to in the following pages as cwl. 

Finding that the cs. did not contain sufficient examples of some categories, and 
that the few examples of rather important cases were often ingeniously evaded by 
my informants, I constructed a "List of Words of which the pron. is wanted," 
and issued large numbers of it to clergymen in different villages where informa- 
tion was wanted. The greater number of these were not returned, but sufficient 
reached me to be of much service. This old word list is referred to as wl. and 
should be distinguished from the present cwl. It was stated to be a selection 
from the word lists in Dr. Sweet's History of British Sounds, and was arranged 
in his order, which, however, was found inconvenient for reference in practice. 
It was printed widely on 7 quarto pages, leaving space for informants to write in 
the pron. Half of the 8th page was occupied with questions on idioms and in- 
tonation. These are reproduced at the end of the cwl. as shewing the chief points 
beyond pron. on which it was attempted to gather information. 

The following cwl. then contains all the words in the wl., cs. and dt. and a 
very few others. Those marked * did not occur in the original wl. Those 
marked f were in the cs., and those marked J in the dt. The words are numbered 
throughout for ease of reference. 

Many other words were given to me by kind informants, most of which 
will be introduced hereafter. But on making out a complete list for my own 
use, it became so unwieldy that it appeared better to confine the cwl. within 
the above limits. As much difficulty will undoubtedly be felt by many readers, 
(judging by the difficulty I have myself experienced,) in assigning any given word 
to its class, an index is added containing the English words in the usual alpha- 
betical order of dictionaries, with the number of the wd. in the cwl. annexed 

All the old wl. and all the local Iw. which I have used will be reduced to this 
order. The pron. is throughout given in pal. and, when the words considered 
occur in this list, their numbers are prefixed as sufficient explanation. When 
they do not, they are placed in the position they would have occupied, if they 
had occurred in the cwl., and is prefixed to shew that they have no number, 
and then the ordinary spelling is annexed in [], in which also any explanation or 
observation is inclosed. 

The order and classification, which differ considerably from those in the 
original wl., are arranged on the following principle. The lists are divided into 
three sections, headed i. WESSEX AND NORSE, n. ENGLISH, in. ROMANCE. 
The words in each list are grouped in classes dependent on the vowel of the 
original language in what corresponds to the accented syllable in received English. 
The words in each class are arranged in order of the letters which follow that 
vowel. Only when all these letters are the same in two or more words are the 
preceding letters taken into account, and then the order is reckoned from the 
vowel backwards. Strictly alphabetical order is followed for these letters, for 
which purpose \>, ft will each be taken as the two letters, t, h. 

i. WESSEX AND NORSE, K"os. 1 TO 712. 

This section contains only such words as can be referred with considerable 
certainty to prototypes existing in Wessex literature, (that is, books in the 
language of King Alfred, as distinguished from the Northumbrian forms,) or in 
Norse as represented by Icelandic. To the latter a small capital N is subjoined. 



When no such prototypes are known, or when there is difference of opinion 
respecting the etymology, even when the class of words is clear, the words are 
placed in Section n., ENGLISH. 

The Wessex or Norse words are placed first in Roman letters, and the arrange- 
ment is by the vowels they contain, which are placed in capitals at the head of each 
class, long vowels being distinguished by a following acute accent. As the change 
which takes place in the vowel depends frequently upon its occurrence in an open 
or closed syllable, as presently defined, these are distinguished thus : A- open 
short A ; A: closed short A ; A- open long A ; A: closed long A. The vowel, by a 
mechanical rule which is sufficiently, but not absolutely correct, is said to be in an 
open syllable, 1) when it is final, and 2) when it is followed by a single consonant 
which is itself followed by a vowel, and to be in a closed syllable, 3) when it has 
one or more consonants after it at the end of a word, and 4) when it has two or 
more consonants between it and a following vowel in the middle of a word. 
In the Wessex words the orthography of Prof. Skeat in his Etymological 
Dictionary is usually followed, but when his differs from Ettmiiller's (except in 
that author's peculiarities) the latter is sometimes preferred. I disclaim all 
responsibility for the orthography, which I could not verify by documents. 
Conjectural forms are excluded. Hence I kave not, with Dr. Sweet, distinguished 
two forms of M', E, 0. 

The Wessex and Norse forms, placed first, are printed in Roman letters, fol- 
lowed by a comma ; the corresponding English is in italics. But some little 
words as a, the, to, I he we, was, had are occasionally prefixed, and thou sub- 
joined, in Roman letters, to shew the part of speech or part of the verb, and only 
when these are insufficient is the part of speech subjoined in Roman letters. 
Verbs are generally cited by their infinitive moods, but occasionally other parts 
are introduced either in their proper order, or placed in [] after the infinitives. 
Such parts are sufficiently shewn by these prefixes, which of course do not form 
part of the translation. Sometimes the English word is still so ambiguous that 
a synonym or explanation has to be prefixed or subjoined, also in Roman type. 


1 swa, so thus * J 

2 gemaca, a make com- 


3 bacan, to bake 

4 tacan, to take 

5 macian, to make^ 

6 gemacod, was made 

7 sacu, the sake 

8 hafa, have thouf 

9 behafa, behave thou 

10 haga, a haw 

11 maga, the maw 

12 saga sagu, a smv 

13 gnagan, to gnaw 

14 dragan, to draw 

15 agi N, awe 

16 dagian, to dawn 

17 lagu, the lawf 

1 8 kaka N, a cake 

19 talu, a tale told 

20 lama, lame 

21 nama, a name\\ 

22 tania, tame 

23 same, same similarly 

24 scamu, shame 

25 manar, of the mane of 

an animal, gen. of 
mon N 

E.E. Pron. Part V. 

26 wanian, to wane 

27 cnapa, a knave 

28 hara, a hare 

29 aron, we or they are*$ 

30 caru, a care*, see 320 

3 1 i. late, ii. laete, late adv. 

32 baftian, to bathe* 

33 hraftor, rather 

34 latest, lastf 

35 awel, an awl 

36 Jmwian, to thaw 

37 clawu, a claw 


38 also, s*t 

39 cwam, he earned 

40 camb, a comb 

41 )>ancian, to thank 

42 and, and*\ 

43 hand, a hand% 

44 land, the land 

45 wand, a want mole, 

animal*, see 114, 

46 candel, a candle 

47 wandrian, to wander 

48 sang, he sang 

49 hangan, to hang*\ 

50 tange, the tonys 

51 mann, a man 

52 wann, a wan 

53 canna, a can 

54 wanta N, to want\ 

55 ascan, ashes of a fire 

56 wascan, to wash f 

57 assa, an ass 

A: or 0: 

58 i. fram ii. from, from] J 

59 i. lamb ii. lomb, lamb 

60 i. lang ii. long, long 

61 on i. gemang ii. ge- 

mong, among 

62 i. strang ii. strong, 


63 i. ge]?rang ii. gejrong, 


64 i. wrang ii. wrong, 

wrong -\\ 

65 i. sang ii. song, a song 

66 i. j>wang ii. }>wong, a 



67 ic ga, I go 

68 nia,w0 more in number* 




69 na, no never, see 122 


70 ta, a <o 

71 wa, woe 

72 hwa, wAo interroga- 

tive f 

73 swa, so like asfj 

74 twa, two^ 

75 stracian, to stroke 

76 tade, a toad 

77 hlaford, a lord 

78 gan, to o?^ = to own 

79 agen, his own f 

80 halig dg, a holiday 

81 i. lane ii. lone, a lane^ 

82 anes, ow^ *t 

83 manian, to moan 

84 mara, wzore in size 

85 sare, sore sorely 

86 ate, oats 

87 claftas, c/o^A^s t 

88 claiSian, to clothe 

89 bair N, AoMf 

90 blawan,too^ow;aswind 

91 mawan, to mow 

92 cnawan, to linow fj 

93 snawan, to swot^ 

94 crawan, to crow f 

95 Crawan, to <Arow 

96 sawan, to sow seed 

97 sawel, the soul 

98 cnawen, has known 

99 J^rawen, has thrown 

100 sawen, has soww seed 


101 ac an oa& 

102 acsian, to as&f 

103 acs6de, 

104 rad, a roc?t 

105 rad, he rocfe 

106 brad, broad 

107 hlaf, 

108 dag, 

109 lag, tow' 

110 i. naht nauht, nought, 

ii. nat, o^ t J 

111 ahte, he ought t 

112 hal, hale 

113 hal, whole '\' 

114 mal, wiofe a body 

mark, not the 
animal, see 45, 769 

115 ham, a horned 

116 hwam, whom, interro 

gative only 

117 an, a} one* 

118 ban, bone 

119 gan, ^o^o*| 

120 agan, ago, i.e. past 

164 maBg, he may f 


165 sajgde, he said 

121 gegan, has gone 

166 msegden, a maid 

122 nan,i. none,\i. wo adj. 

167 da3l, a dale 

123 nan J?ing, nothing 

168 ta3lg, tallow 

124 stan, a so0 

169 hwa3nne, wfow f 

125 anlice, orcfyt 

170 hserfest, harvest 

126 ar, an oar 

171 ba3rlic barley 

127 has, hoarse 

172 gaers, #rs.s 

128 }>as, Mosi? 

173 wa3s, he was f 

129 gast, & ghost 

174 ffisc, an ash tree 

130 bat, a 00* 

175 faest, fast, firm 

131 gat, a goat 

176 eat, at*\ 

132 hat, A/tf 

177 )?a3t, Afl * 1 1 

133 wrat, I wrote 

178 gnast, 

134 aft, an oath 

179 hwa3t, whuf\- 

135 claS, a cloth 

180 baefl, oa^A 

136 awfter = ahwsefter, i. 

181 paB'S, & path 

either, ii. or, see 

213 33'g'Ser 


137 nawfter = nahweefter, 

J& - 

i. neither, ii. nor*~\", 

see 214 na3g'$er 

182 sa3', thestffl 


138 f seder, & father ^~ 

139 drasge (in dra3ge-net), 

a rfray 

140 haagel, the hail 
1-41 naagel, a wae7 

142 snsegel, a sr/i 

143 ta?gel, a tail 

144 onga9gen, again^^. 

145 sla3gen, is s^am 

146 masgen, main strength 

147 breegen, the brain 

148 fa3ger, fair adj. [not 

fair sb., Fr. foire, 
after 921, from 
Lat. feria, after 

149 bla3se, a blaze 

150 tesest, least^c 

151 Isetan, to let or hinder 

152 waater, water 

153 sa3terda3g, Saturday 


154 ba3c, the b(ick*~f 

155 J)a3c, the thatch 

156 glued, ted* 

157 hra3fn, a raven 

158 83fter, /^r 

159 hsefS, he Aas* f 

160 aig, an ^^r 

161 d?eg, a day f 

162 to da3g, to-day*^- 

163 laDg, he % 

183 tse'can, to 

184 laB'dan, to had 

185 ra?'dan, to read 

186 bras'do, breadth 

187 Iffi'fan, to leave 

188 hna3'gan, to neiyh 

189 waj'gan, to weigh 

190 cae'ge, a Aey 

191 hse'lan, to heal 

192 mae'nan, to 

193 claa'ne, clean 

194 a3'nig, any* t 

195 ma3'nig, many 

196 waB'ron, we 

197 cse'se, a cheese 

198 laa'tan, to let allow, 

see 288. 

199 blae'tan, to bleat 

200 hwai'te, wheat 

201 hffi'ften, the heathen 

202 hffi'ta, A^^ 

203 sprae'c, speech 

204 daa'd, ^^ 

205 J^rse'd, thread 

206 raa'dd, he r^ 

207 naj'dl, a needle 

208 se'fre, wr * t 

209 nse'fre, ewr*f 

210 clffi'g, clay 

211 grae'g, yr^y 

212 hwffi'g, whey 

213 aB'giSer = ffihweeder, 

either, see 136 




nse'gfter, neither * f, 


weg, a way f J 


i. neh ii. neah, nigh 

see 137 nawiSer 


on weg, away * f 


ned, need sb. 


ta3'hte, he taught 


eglan, to ail 


sped, speed sb. 


dae'l; a deal portion 


streht, straight f J 


hel, a he$l 


se'lc, each 

[see 923, to which 


ten, ten 


scoe'p, a sheep 

dia. forms seem to 


her, here 


slae'p, a sleep 

be related]. 


hercnian to hearken.^ 


scas'phirfte, a shep- 


wel, tcell, adv. in a 

See 695 hyrcnian 

herd* ^ 

good manner*^, 


geherde, he heard 


f&'rfear sb. 

see 244. 


fet, feet 


hse'r, the hair 


geldan, to yield 


next, next 


J?8e'r, there f % 


eldest, eldest 


hwae'rhwar, where ^ 


self, self* f 



flse'sc, flesh 
mae'st most 
wae't, wet\ 


belg, i. bellows, ii. 
tellan, to tell*\ 



fleagan, to flay 
hleahen,has laughed*\ 


swaa't, sweat 


elm, an elm 


geapian, to gape 


br^'ft, breath, pro- 


men, men f 


cearian, to care\^ see 


perly = odour 
fae'tt,/fl<, adj. 


benc, a bench 
stenc, a stench 

30 caru 

T? A 


]>encan, to think \ 

Hi A.: 



brecan, to break 


drencan, to drench 
wencle, a wench 
wended, he went * f 
endlufon, eleven 


geseah, he saw\ 
hleahhan, to laugh 
feaht, has fought 
eahta, eight 


sprecan, to speak f 
cnedan, to knead 
wefan, to weave 
fefer, a, fever 


tang^, length 
strong^, strength 
merg, merry 
J?erscan, to thresh 




wealcan, to walk, 
properly to full 
eald, oWf J 
beald, bold 


blegan, a chil-blain 
hege, a hedge 
segel, a sail 
gelegen, has lain 


cerse, cress vegetable 
herwe, a harrow 
besni, a besom broom 


ceald, cold 
fealdan, to fold 
healdan, to hold^ 
sealde, he sold 


regen, rain 
twegen, twain 
plegian, to play 


for sweeping 
lettan l'tan letan, to 
let permit, see 198. 


tealde, he told* 
cealf, a calf 
healf, half 


wela, well, argumen- 


eall, all^% 

tative adv.*f, see 



feallan, to fall 



weall, a wall 


melu me\o,meal flour* 


ge, ye 


ceallian, to call * f 


cwene cwen, i. queen 


he, he-f 


earn, I am* 


ii. quean 
wenian, to wean 


}>e, thee 
me, me f 


geard geord, i. a court 
yard\ ii. a stick 


mere, a mare 


we', we f 


mearh, marrow * % 


werian, to wear 
swerian, to swear 


fedan, to feed 
breded, was brfd 


earm, an arm 
wearm, warm 


mete, meat 


gelefan, to believe 


beam, bairn* J 


cetel, a kettle f 


felagi N, a fellow * J 


dearr, I dare 


netele, a nettle 
lefter, leather 


felan, to feel 
grene, green 


geat a gate, door-way, 
not road=gata N 


we'Ser, a wether sheep 


cepan, to keep 
geheran, to hear 



gemetan, to meet 



swete, sweet 


heafod, the head 


betel, a beetle mallet, 


eage, the eye f 


streccan, to stretch* f 

see 499 


feawa, few f 


ecg, an edge 


secg, sedge 




wecg, wedge 


lecgan, to lay 


i. heh ii. heah, high 


dead, dead 


secgan, to say f J 


heh^e, height 


lead, lead metal 


352 read, red I 

353 bread, bread 

354 sceaf, sheaf 

355 deaf, deaf I 

356 leaf, fefff 

357 >eah, Mot^A J 

358 neah, nigh. See 307 

ii. neh 

359 neahgebtir, neigh- 


360 team, a team 

361 bean, a foan 

362 slean, to slay 

363 ceAp, c/^tf/? 

364 ceapman, chap* I 

365 near, wear, compara- 

tive of 358 neah, 

366 great, great ^ 

367 >reat, threat 

368 dea$, death 

369 sleaw, slow 

370 hreaw, raw 

371 streaw streaw streow 

streu strea, straw 


372 ei N, aye t 

373 J?ei N, they f 

374 nei N, nay 

375 reisa N, to raise 

376 beita N, to bait 


377 steik N, a steak 

378 veikr N, weak 

379 heill N, hail 

380 )?eim N, them* f 

381 sveinn x, a swain 

382 }>eirra N, *A'r 


383 seofan, seven 

384 heofon, heaven 

385 beneoftan, beneath 

386 eowe, a 0tw 

387 i. neowe, ii. niwe, 


388 meolc, milk 

389 geolca, yolk of eggs 

390 sceolde, should^- 

391 eom, I cm*-\- % 

392 geond, t/on*f 

393 begeondan, beyond 

394 geonder, yonder * % 

395 geong, young * 

396 i. weorc ii. were, 

work, sb. See 694 
wyrcan, vb. 

397 sweord, a sword 

398 steorfan, to starve = 

be cold 

399 beorht, bright f 

400 eornest, earnest 

401 geornian, to yearn 

402 leornian, to learn t 

403 feorr,/ar 

404 steorra, a star 

405 heorft, the hearth 

406 eofSe, the earth 

407 feorSling, a farthing 

408 cneow, he &ei0 f" 


409 be6, a bee 

410 heo, hoo, she La*t J 

411 >reo fern, and neut., 

]?ri mas., three ^ 

412 seo, sAe f j: 

413 deofol, the <fow7 

414 fleoga, o-fly 

415 leogan, to lie, fib 

416 deore, dear adj. and 

a <fe#" 

417 ceowan, to cheiv 

418 breowan, to brew 

419 eower, 2/owr * f 

420 fe6wer,/ow 

421 feowertig, forty 


422 se6c,teill*t 

423 J>e6h, thigh 

424 hreoh, roug't , 

425 Ie6ht, light 

426 feohtan, to fight 

427 beon, to ^e f 

428 seon, to see-\ 

429 feond, a /enrf 

430 freond, a friend 

431 beor, beer 

432 feotoX/owr/A 

433 breost, breast 

434 beot, he 5ert^ 
436 eow, you t J 

436 treow, true i 

437 treowft, 


439 treysta N, to trust t 


440 i. wicu wice ii. wuce, 

a week f 

441 sife, sieve 


438 deyja N, to 

, ivy 

443 frigada3g, Friday 

444 stigel, a <ife 

445 higian, to hie 

446 nigon, nine\ 

447 hire, A^r * t 

448 >ise, these t 

449 gitan, to get obtain 

450 tiwesdseg, Tuesday 

451 siwian, to sew 


452 ic, Jf t 

453 cwic, quick* \ 

454 wicce, wi^A 

455 licgan, to lie down t 

456 gif, if* t 

457 miht, the might 

458 niht, the night f 

459 riht, right J 

460 wiht, a weight 

461 gelihtan, to o&f& 

462 gesih'S, the sight 

463 tilN, till*^ 

464 hwilc, w/'cA 

465 i. swilc, ii. swylc, 

such f 

466 cild, a child f i 

467 wilde, wild 

468 cildru, children 

469 willan, to will*\ 

470 him, Aim* + 

471 timber, ^'m^r 

472 scrincan, to shrink 

473 blind, blind, adj. 

474 rind, the rind 

475 wind, the wmrf 

476 bindan, to bind 

477 findan, to find \ 

478 grindan, to grind 

479 windan, to wind 

480 >ing, a thing * 1 1 

481 finger, a ^^r 

482 is, t> * 1 1 

483 his, his * f 

484 >is, ifAt'st 

485 )istel, a thistle 

486 gist, &tftfs 

487 gistrandseg, yesterday 

488 git, ye^ 

489 hit, it * t 



490 bi, by near f 

491 sican, to sigh 

492 side, a side * f 

493 drifan, to drive 

494 tima, time\ 

495 hwinan, to whine * f 

496 fren, z'rora 

497 arisan, to ame 

498 writan, to wiite 

499 bitel, a fo^te insect*, 

see 304 


500 gelic, like-\- 

501 wid, wide 

502 fif,>- 

503 lif, life 

504 cnif, a knife 

505 wif, a wife 

506 wif man, a woman f 

507 wifmen, women 

508 mil, a wt7 

509 hwil, while 

510 min, wziwe w/*t 

511 win, wine 

512 spir, a spire steeple 

513 wir, a wj'rtf 

514 is, tw 

515 wis, wise 

516 wisdom, wisdom 
617 iw, 


518 bodig, a body*-\ 

619 ofer, over*^ 

520 boga, a bow weapon 

521 fola, a foal horse 

522 open, open 

523 hopian, to Ao/?e 

524 woruld, the world 


625 of, i. o/tt ii. o/*t 

526 cohhettan, to eoyA 

527 bohte, he bought 

528 >ohte, he thought 

529 brohte, he brought 
630 wrohte, he wrought 

531 dohtor, a daughter f 

532 col, a coflj 

533 dol, dMtf 

534 hoi, a Aofe 

535 folc,/0ftfc*f 
636 gold, gold 

537 molde, mould earth 

538 wolde, would 

539 bolla, a 0ow/ cup 

540 hollegen, holly 

541 wol nat, won't*~\"\. 

542 bolt, fto 

543 on, o*tj 

544 tonne, i. A<w ii. 

545 hoppan, to hop 

546 for, /or* f 

547 bord, a oan? 

548 ford, a, ford 

549 hord, a /O/Y treasure 

550 word, a word\ 

551 storm, a storm 

552 corn, com 

553 horn, horn 

554 kross N, a cross 

555 sco, a shoe 

556 to, to t 
657 to, zJoof 

558 locian, to kok% 

559 modor, mother 

560 scola, a school*^ 

561 bloma, a i/oom flower 

562 mona, the moon 

563 monanda3g, Monday 

564 sona, soo| 

565 nosu, nose 

566 6)er, other 

567 >t 6>er, t other* [ 

568 bro$or, brother* 


569 hoc, 

570 toe, he took 

571 god, ^oorff 

572 blod, the blood 

573 flod, & flood 

574 brod, droo6? 

575 stod, he stood 

57 Q wodnesdaeg, Wednes 

577 bog, a bough 

578 plog N, a, plough 

579 genog, ^wow^AfJ 

580 toh, tough 

581 sohte, he sought 

582 col, coo/J 

583 tol, tool 

584 stol, s^oo/ 

585 brom, broom, the 

plant, not 287 

586 don, to efof 

587 gedon, donef 

588 non, noon 

5.S9 spdn N, a spoon 

590 flor, the^oor 

591 mor, a moor 

592 swor, he swore-f 

593 moste, he must 

594 hot, 000* 

595 fot,foot 

596 rot, roof 

597 sot. soo 

598 so, 


599 abufan, 

600 lufu, love sb. 

601 fugol, a/ou>/ 

602 sugu, a sow pig 

603 cuman, to come^ 

604 sumor, the summer * f 

605 sunu, a sorcf 

606 duru, the cfoort 

607 butere, butter 


608 ugglig N, ugly 

609 full,yWt 

610 wull, woo^ 

6 1 1 bulluca, a bullock 

612 sum, some^ 

613 druncen. has^rww^f J, 

see 804 

614 htind, a hound 

615 pund, a pound weight 

616 grund, the ground']- 

617 gesund, sound in 


618 wund, a wound 

619 funden, was/oe/^f 

620 grunden, was ground 

621 wunden, was wound 

622 under, under 

623 fundon, they/o wwrf*f 

624 grundonjthey^roMwd* 

625 tunge, the tongue 

626 hungor, hunger 

627 Sunnanda3g, Sun- 

day f 

628 nunne, a mw 

629 sunne, the SM 

630 wunnen, was won 

631 Jmnnresda3g, Thurs- 


632 upp, w;? fj 

633 cuppa, cup 

634 >urh, Mroz^Aft 

635 wiir^ weord, worth 

636 furor, further 

637 tusc, a tusk 



638 busca N, to busk make 


639 dust, dust 


640 cu, a cow 

641 hu, how\ 

642 >u, thou 

643 mi, notvt J 

644 sucan, 

645 dufa, a dove 

646 bugan, to iow, bend 
6 17 ule, an ow/ 

648 ure, our 

649 Jju'sand, thousand 

650 abutan, a*o*:t 

651 wtfSutan, without*^ 

652 c6'Se,>u 

653 buton, fort =be tit 


654 scrud, a shroud 
654* i. ruh, ii. rug, iii. 

ruw, rough, see 424 

655 f 61, /OM/ dirty 

656 rum, roow 

657 brun, brown 

658 dun, rfo^nfj 

659 tun, a town any in- 


660 bur, a bower = 

661 scur, a shower 

662 tis, us 

663 hus, house ^^ 

664 lus, a fowse 

665 mus, a mouse 

666 husbonda, husband^ 

667 6t, 0*t 

668 prut, proud 

669 uncut), uncouth 

670 bu-S N, ioofA 

671 mti&, mouth 

672 86-S, 


673 mycel, much f 

674 dyde, he did f 

675 drygan, to dry f 

676 lyge, a lie falsehood 

677 dryge, dry adj.* 

678 dyne, a din 

679 cyrice, a church 

680 bysig, iwsyf 

681 bysigu, business * f 

682 lytel, little f J 


683 mycg, a 

684 brycg, a bridge 

685 brycg, a rt'd^e 

686 bycgan, to buy 

687 flyht, Q. flight 

688 byldan, to 

689 ynce, an inch 

690 gecynd, a kind 

691 mynd, tbe mmrf 

692 gyngest, youngest * f 

693 synn, a sm 

694 wyrcan wyrcean, to 

work vb. See 396 
weorc, sb. 

695 hyrcnian,to^w,fo?t. 

'See 313 hercnian, 
and 710 hy'rcnian 

696 gebyrd gebeord, birth 

697 bebyrgan, to bury 

698 myrgft, mirth 

699 wyrbta, a wright 

700 wyrsa, ;o?-se 

701 fyrsta/rsif 

702 wyS, wt<A * t 

703 pytt, a pit 

704 iyxen, a 

Y 7 - 

705 sc/ N, tbe sky 

706 hwy', wAy f 

707 ]?re6ty'ne, thirteen 

708 ahy'rian, to Air 


709 fy'r, a fire 

710 hy'rciii 

See 313 hercnian, 
and 695 hyrcnian 

711 ly's, lice 

712 my's, mice 

ii. ENGLISH, Nos. 713 TO 808. 

This section contains words of which the precise prototype in "Wessex or Norse 
is unknown ; words of disputed origin ; words derived from foreign sources, except 
Romance ; words formed within the language itself, of which the origin can only 
be con jectur ally, or cannot even be probably, assigned ; slang or familiar words, 
etc. For want of a better plan, these have been arranged according to the vowel 
(or if several, the first vowel) they contain in the accented syllable, following the 
received orthography. Then the rest of the arrangement is alphabetical as in 
Section I. The differences of long and short, open or closed, are of course 
unnoted, as the original form is unknown. The headings of classes are in Roman 
capitals as before, but are distinguished from the last by a following period (.), 
and the absence of the hyphen (-) and colon (:) marking open and close. 

730 a canter 

731 wanton 

732 happen* \ 

733 to scare 

734 to darn 

735 smash 

736 a lass * f 

737 &mate% 

738 to prate i 

739 mouther girl 


713 bad 
714 lad 
715 pad 
716 addle, i. adj. and ii. 
717 &j'ade 
718 trade 
719 a tadpole 

720 a fag 
721 io fag 
722 a drain 
723 a dairy 
724 bald 
725 a sale 
726 to talk * f 
727 jam preserve 
728 sham 
729 a ft ante 



740 a wave 


786 to douse 

741 a maze 

787 to sows*? 

742 lazy 

761 a &><i 

788 to/oMt 

762 oakum 

789 a row noise 

763 roam 

790 &gown 

764 to coddle 

791 a coy * 

743 to scream 
744 the measles 

765 /o/m*t 
766 moidered bewildered 


745 to cheat 

767 a ftozsef 

746 to breathe 
747 to endeavour 
748 i. fledged ii. unfledgei 
749 left* ^ 

768 coke 
769 a wiofe animal*, same 
7 as 45, not 114 
770 Thomas* % 

792 a squabble 
793 a A*/0 
794 9. jug 
795 a Artf^ 

750 to % 
751 jt?#r 

771 fond 
772 a bonfire 

796 blue* 
797 squeaking* ^ 

752 fret, peevish fit* f 

773 a donkey 
774 a pony 

798 queer* ^ 
799 scwW of head 

775 a ioofo/ 

800 wutf of boat 

I. and Y. 

776 goodbye* 

801 rum liquor 

777 s/*p 

802 rum queer 

753 to tickle 

778 ff^bn? 

803 to jump 

754 a /y animal 

779 ortfs remnants 

804 drunken adj. accus- 

755 a filbert nut 

780 to jostle 

tomed to get drunk*, 

756 a shrimp 

781 a bother -\ 

see 61.3. 

757 tXy 

782 & pother 

805 curds 

758 a 0w'Jt+ 

783 poftry 

806 fuss 

759 jfa, suited 

784 to bounce 

807 jos* 

760 shrivelled*^ 

785 to lounge 

808 to put 

in. ROMANCE, Nos. 809 TO 971. 

This section comprises words taken from the French, Latin or any language 
derived from the Latin. Properly speaking the arrangement should have been 
by the Anglo-Norman forms of words, that is, those used in England by speakers 
of Norman- French. Failing this, the old French forms should have been 
adopted. But in both cases insuperable difficulties presented themselves. The 
late Mr. H. Nicol endeavoured to arrange the words by their English sounds in 
the xvi th century, but this would have had to be conjectured in many words. 
Hence I have adopted the modern French forms in almost all cases ; for the few 
old French forms which I could not avoid, I am indebted to Prof. Skeat's 
Etymological Dictionary, and disclaim the responsibility for them. Latin, and 
in one case, Spanish, forms have also been given. The arrangement is by the 
vowels as in the former sections, the Romance word coming first, is followed by 
() if modern, and (...) if old French, ( ) if Latin, and (-) Span, if 
Spanish. The class headings are in capitals followed by ( ). No distinction of 
long and short, open and closed, could be made with any certainty, and hence no 
such distinction has been attempted. 


809 habile- rrJfe 

810 face--a/rtc* 

811 place a place 

812 laceta lace 

813 bacon-- bacon 

814 ma9on a mason 

815 facta -faets^ 

816 fade adj -to fade 

817 radis-- radish 

818 age--a^<2 

819 rage rage 

820 gai..yy* 

821 de\a,i-- delay 

822 mai- May 

823 baie bay of the sea 

824 chaiere... a professor's 

and hence any chair 

825 gaif ..waif 

826 aigle*- an eagle 

828 aigu.-tf^ 

829 gain -gain 

830 train train 

831 destraindre to dis- 


832 maire a mayor 

833 paire-ajtmV 

834 chaise -a chaise 

835 raison reason f 

836 saison --stason 

837 laisse-a leash 




838 traiter-to treat 

884 apprenti apprentice 

926 spolier ... to spoil 

839 balle-i. a bale ii. a 

885 verai ... very t J 

927 tronc- a ^-?o^ 


886 frere-//iar 

928 once- an ounce weight 

840 chambre-a chamber 

887 clerge tf&ryy 

929 concombre - cucumber 

841 chance - a chance J 

888 certain- certain-^ 

930 longe -a loin 

842 planche - a plank 

889 cesser- to mm 

931 iongleur -a juggler 

843 tranche -a branch 

890 bete - beai>t\ 

932 a mont - amount 

844 tranchee-a trench 

891 fte /!** 

933 front -//w^ 

845 ancien ancient 

892 neveu - nephew 

934 bonte - bounty 

846 chandelier - chandler 

893 fleur-./?0Mwingarden 

935 contree country 

847 danger danger 

894 decevoir - deceive 

936 fonts - baptismal font 

848 changer to change 

895 recevoir ra^m; 

937 coq - a cock 

849 etranger a stranger 

896 bevre bever la- 

938 corniere - corner f 

850 danse-a dance 

bourer's drinking 

939 clos - c/ose i. adj. ii. 

851 tante -an aunt 


adv. f iii. sb. 

852 napperon-an apron 

940 cotte - coat f 

853 bargaigner - to bar- 

T .. /7/7 V .. 

941 fou-/oo/ 


JL UlfrUt J. * 

942 boucher - butcher 

854 baril -a barrel 

943 toucher -to towc/i 

855 carotte a carrot 

897 delice- delight 

944 allouer - to allow 

856 ipart-a part 

898 nice ... me* 

945 vouer to voiv 

857 cas - a case\ 

899 niece- m?* 

946 mouiller - to moil 

858 bras -brace 

900 ^rier-pray 

947 bouillir - to boil 

859 chasser - to^?hunt 

901 fin->m? 

948 boule - a bowl ball 

860 pate -paste 

902 mine -a mine 

949 moule-a mould or 

861 tater-to tesfe 

903 diner - i. to dine, ii. a 

form, not 537 

862 sauf-sa/ejf 
863 chauffer - to chafe 
864 a cause - because f 

904 violette - a viofetf 
905 riote ... a riot 

950 souper - supper f 
951 couple - couple 
952 course -i. coarse, ii. 

865 faute -/?</* 

906 vipere- a #?)?> 


866 pauvre poor J 

907 tris Spanish tfn'<:0 

953 cousin -cousin 

908 avis- advice 

954 coussin - cushion 


909 brise-omz* 

955 doute - doubt } 

910 gite- joist 

956 couvrir - to cow 

867 the-ta* 

911 citerne-mtem 

957 employer - to employ 

868 geai-a/ay 

912 riz-rice 

958 froyer to /my 

869 \eau-veal 

959 convoyer-to i. w- 

870 beaute beauty 


t?(?y, ii. convoy 

871 agree? -agree 

872 chef-Mi*/ 

913 coche... a coach 


873 effrei ... a /my 

914 broche-a ^oocA 

874 reine ... a rein of a 

915 etoSe-stuJf 

960 ouai nuaw 


916 ognon-.owiott 

961 jrriiciu OT'iicI 

875 feinte-a/aw* 
876 deintie ... a dainty 
877 heir . heir 

917 rogue- rogue 
918 foible -/< to, adj. 

962 mue - mews stables 
963 quietus quiet f 
964 suit -suet 

878 celeri celery 

920 point - point^ 

965 huile-otf 

880 exemple .. example 

QO 1 

921 accointer -to acquaint 
922 boisseau - bushel 

966 fruit -fruit 
967 suite -suit 

oo 1 sens sense 
882 pensee-^flwsy 

923* moite mot** 

968 huitre - oyster f J 
969 sur - sure 

883 dent de lion - dande- 

924 choix choice 
925 voU"WM*t 

970 juste *>just*t 
971 flute -}?^ 



[The informant was requested to underline the grammatical form which is 
common in his district ; disregarding pronunciation.] 

I am. them am. he am. we am. you am. they am. I are. thou art. 
he are. we are. you are. they are. we ar'n. you ar'n. they ar'n. [The three 
last were intended for the West Midland verbal plural in en, but were generally 
confused hy informants with arri't.'] I be. thou hist, he be. we be. you be. 
they be. we bin. you bin. they bin. [The three last referred to the Sh. 
plural bin for are, but were generally confused with been used for have been.~\ 
I is. thou is. he is. we is. you is. they is. I was. thou was. he was. 
we was. you was. they was. I were, thou wert. he were, we were, you 
were, they were, we wer'n. you wer'n. they wer'n. we ha'n. you ha'n. 
they ha'n. [The six last referred to the West Midland verbal plural in -en, but 
were generally misunderstood.] him is. him be. they goes, we goes. he 
does, he doth, he do. he walketh. he live there. thou (underline if used 
generally, and distinguish by underlining whether it is used to children, husband 
and wife, servants, friends, lovers). I do walk. 1 have a- walked. I be or 
am a-going. she was washu^ on a washs'w7 day (underline the two -ings if 
distinguished) thease thick (=this, that, of shaped things), this that (of shape- 
less things). dat man dere (=that man there). t' man. th' man. 'email. 
theirselves. theirsells. theirsens. I doh (for I don't). I will (for I shall), 
he shall (for he will). I would (for I should), he should (for he would). to 
can, to could (as he won't can do it, he didn't used to could), he didn't ought. 
at eat [meaning the Danishism in parts of D 31, for to eat], to home. 

Try to characterise the nature of the singsong of the speech, underlining as 
may be, rough, smooth, thick, thin, indistinct, clear, hesitating, glib, whining, 
drawling, jerking, up and down in pitch, rising in pitch at end, sinking at end, 

Give any singular pronunciations of words not mentioned; and any information 
respecting your dialect that you will have the kindness to impart. 


A allow 944 at 176 bargain 853 

am 391 aunt 851 barley 171 

able 809 among 61 away 263 barrel 854 

about 650 amount 932 awe 15 bath 180 

above 599 ancient 845 awl 35 bathe 32 

acquaint 921 and 42 aye 372 bay 823 

addle 716 any 19 1 be 427 

advice 908 apprentice 884 B bean 361 

afford 778 apron 852 beast 890 

after 158 are 29 back 154 beat, pt.; 434 

again 144 arise 497 ' bacon 813 beauty 870 

age 818 arm 342 bad 713 because 864 

ago 120 as 38 bairn 344 bee 409 

agree 871 ash 174 bait 376 beer 431 

ague 828 ashes 55 bake 3 beetle, mallet 304 

ail 264 ask 102 bald 724 beetle, insect 499 

alight 461 asked 103 bale 839, i. beg 750 

nil 335 ass 57 ball 839, ii. behave 9 




believe 296 
bellows 270, i. 

brought 529 
brown 657 

coddle 764 
coke 768 

douse 786 
dove 645 

belly 270, ii. 

build 688 

cold 328 

down 658 

bench 274 

bullock 611 

comb 40 

drain 722 

beneath 385 

bury 697 

come 603 

draw 14 

besom 287 

bushel 922 

convey 959, i. 

dray 139 

bever 896 

business 681 

convoy 959, ii. 

drive 493 

beyond 393 

busk 638 

cool 582 

drunk 613 

bind 476 

busy 680 

corn 552 

drunken 804 

birth 696 

butcher 942 

corner 938 

dry, adj. 677 

blain 237 

but 653 

cough 526 

dry, vb. 675 

blaze 149 

butter 607 

could 652 

dull, 533 

bleat 199 

buy 686 

country 935 

dust 639 

blind 473 

by 490 

couple 951 

blood 572 

course, 952, ii. 


bloom 561 


cousin 953 

blow, as wind 90 

cake 18 

cover 956 

each 217 

blue 796 

calf 333 

cow 640 

eager 827 

board 547 

call 338 

cress 285 

eagle 826 

boat 130 

came 39 

cross, sb. 554 

earnest 400 

body 518 

can, sb. 53 

crow 94 

earth 406 

boil 947 

candle 46 

cucumber 929 

edge 257 

bold 327 
bolt 542 

canter 730 
care, sb. 30 

cup 633 
curds 805 

egg 160 
eight 324 

bone 118 

care, vb. 320 

cushion 954 

either 136, i. 213 

bonfire 772 

carrot 855 

eldest, 268 

booby 775 

case 857 


eleven 280 

book 569 

cease 889 

elm 272 

boot 594 

celery 878 

dainty 876 

employ 957 

booth 670 

certain 888 

dairy 723 

endeavour 747 

both 89 

chafe 863 

dale 167 

enough 579 

bother 781 

chair 824 

dance 850 

ever 208 

bough 577 

chaise 834 

dandelion 883 

ewe 386 

bought 527 

chamber 840 

danger 847 

example 880 

bounce 784 

chance 841 

dare 345 

eye 348 

bounty 934 

chandler 846 

darn 734 

bow, weapon 520 

change 848 

daughter 531 


bow, bend 646 

chap 364 

dawn 16 

bower 660 

chase 859 

day 161 

face 810 

bowl, cup 539 

cheap 363 

dead 350 

facts 815 

bowl, ball 948 

cheat 745 

deaf 355 

fade 816 

boy 791 

cheese 197 

deal 216 


brace 858 

chew 4 1 7 

dear 416 

faint 875 

brain 147 

chief 872 

death 368 

fair, adj. 148 

branch 843 

child 466 

deceive 894 

fall 336 

bread 353 

children 468 

deed 204 

far 403 

breadth 186 

choice 924 

delay 821 

farthing 407 

break 232 

church 079 

delight 897 

fast 175 

breast 433 

cistern 9 1 1 

devil 413 

fat 230 

breath 229 

clay 210 

did 674 

father 138 

breathe 746 

clean 193 

die, vb. 438 

fault 865 

bred 295 

clergy 887 

din 678 

fear, sb. 221 

breeze 909 

close 939 

dine 903, i. 

feast 891 

brew 418 

cloth 135 

dinner 903, ii. 

feeble 918 

bridge 684 
bright 399 

clothe 88 
clothes 87 

distrain 831 
do 586 

feed 294 
feel 298 

broad 106 

coach 913 

done 587 

feet 315 

brooch 914 

coal 532 

donkey 773 

fellow 297 

brood 574 

coarse 952, i. 

door 606 

female 879 

broom, plant 585 

coat 940 

doubt 955 

fever 236 

brother 568 

cock 937 

dough 108 

few 349 



fiend 429 

gnat 178 

holiday 80 

lass 736 

fight 426 

gnaw 13 

holly 540 

last 34 

filbert 755 

go, prt. 67 

home 115 

late 31 

find 477 

go, inf. 119 

hoo = she 410 

laugh 322 

fine 901 

goat 131 

hop, vb. 545 

laughed 318 

finger 481 

gold 536 

hope 523 

law 17 

fire 709 

gone 121 

horn 553 

lay, inf. 260 

first 701 
fit 759 

good 571 
goodbye 776 

hot 132 
hound 614 

lay, pt. 163 
lazy 742 

five 502 

gown 790 

house 663 

lead, metal 351 

flay 317 

grass 172 

how 641 

lead, vb. 184 

fledged 748, i. 
flesh 225 

great 366 
green 299 

hug, 793 
hunger 626 

leaf 356 
learn 402 

flight 687 

grey 211 

husband 666 

leash 837 

flood 573 

grind 478 

least 150 

floor 590 

ground, pt. 624 


leather 254 

flout 788 

ground, pp. 620 

leave, vb. 187 

flower 893 

ground, sb. 616 


left 749 

flute 971 

gruel 961 

ice 514 

length 281 

fly, sb. 414 

if 456 

let, permit 198, 288 

foal 521 


inch 689 

let, hinder 151 

fold 329 

iron 496 

lice 711 

folk 535 

hail, sb. 140 

is 482 

lie, sb. 676 

fond 771 

hail, vb. 379 

it 489 

lie, vb. fib 415 

font 936 

hair 222 

ivy 442 

lie, vb. be recum- 

fool 941 

hale 112 

bent 455 

foot 595 

half 334 


life 503 

for 546 

hand 43 

light 425 

ford 548 

hang 49 

jade 717 

like 500 

forty 421 

happen 732 

jam 727 

little 682 

fought 323 

harrow 286 

jay 868 

load 761 

foul 655 

harvest 170 

John 765 

loaf 107 

found, pt. 623 

has 159 

joist 910 

loin 930 

found, pp. 619 

have, imper, 8 

jostle 780 

long 60 

four 420 

haw, sb. 10 

jug 794 

look 558 

fourth 432 

he 290 

juggler 931 

lord 77 

fowl 601 

head 347 

jump 803 

lounge 785 

frame 729 

heal 191 

just 970 

louse 664 

fray, vb. 958 

hear 301 

love, sb. 600 

fray, sb. 873 

heard 3 14 


low 109 

fret 752 

hearken 313, 695, 

friar 886 


keep 300 


Friday 443 

hearth 405 

kettle 252 

friend 430 

heat 202 

key 190 

made, pp. 6 

from 58 

heathen 201 

kind, 690 

maid, sb. 166 

front 933 

heaven 384 

knave 27 

main 146 

fruit 966 

hedge 238 

knead 234 

make, vb. 5 

full 609 

heel 310 

knew, pt. 408 

make, sb. 2 

further 636 

height 306 

knife 504 

man 51 

fuss 806 

heir 877 

know 92 

mane 25 

her 447 

known, pp. 98 

many 195 


here 312 

mare 248 

hie, vb. 445 


marrow 341 

gain 829 

high 305 

mason 814 

gape 319 

him 470 

lace 812 

mate 737 

gate 346 

hire 708 

lad 714 

mauther=girl 739 

gay 820 

his 483 

lain, pp. 240 

maw 11 

get 449 

hoard 54 9 

lamb 59 

may, vb. 164 

ghost 129 

hoarse 127 

lame 20 

may, sb. 822 

girl 758 

hold, vb. 330 

land 44 

mayor 832 

glad 156 

hole 534 

lane 81 

maze 741 


me 292 
meal 245 

nine 446 
no, adv. 69 

pony 774 
poor 866 

saw, pt. 321 
say, vb. 261 

mean, vb. 192 
measles 744 

no, adj. 122, ii. 
noise 767 

pother 782 
poultry 783 

scare 733 
school 560 

meat 251 

none 122, i. 

pound, sb. 615 

scream 743 

meet, vb. 302 

noon 588 

prate 738 

scull, of head 799 

men 273 

nor 137, ii. 

pray 900 

scull, of boat 800 

merry 283 

nose 565 

proud 668 

sea 182 

mews 962 

not 110, ii. 

puss 807 

season 836 

mice 712 

nothing 123 

put, vb. 808 

sedge 258 

midge 683 

nought 110, i. 

see, vb. 428 

might 457 

now 643 


self 2.69 

mile 508 

nun 628 

sense 881 

milk 388 

quay 960 

seven 383 

mind 691 

quean 246, ii. 

sew 451 

mine, pro. 510 

queen 246, i. 

sham 728 

mine, sb. 902 

oak 101 

queer 798 

shame 24 

mirth 698 

oakum 762 

quick 453 

she 412 

moan, vb. 83 

oar 126 

quiet 963 

sheaf 354 

moe = more, in 

oath 134 

sheep 218 

number, 68 

oats 86 


shepherd 220 

moidered 766 

of 525, i. 

radish 817 

shoe 555 

moil 946 
moist 923* 

off 525, ii. 
oil 965 

rage 819 
rain 241 

shop 7.77 
should 390 

mole, animal 769 

ointment 919 

raise, v. 375 

shower 661 

mole, mark 114 

old 326 

rather 33 

shrimp 756 

Monday 563 

on 543 

raven 157 

shrink 472 

moon 562 

once 82 

raw 370 

shrivelled 760 

moor 591 

one 117 

read, inf. 185 

shroud 654 

more,in quantity 84 

onion 916 

read, pt. 206 

shrug 795 

most 226 

only 125 

reason 835 

sick 422 

mother 559 

open 522 

receive 895 

side 492 

mould, form 949 

or 136, ii. 

red 352 

sieve 441 

mould, earth 537 
mouse 665 

orts 779 
other 566 

rein, for horses 8 74 
rice 912 

sigh 491 
sight, 462 

mouth 671 

ought, pt. Ill 

ridge 685 

sin 693 

mow 91 
much 673 
must, vb. 593 

ounce, weight 928 
our 648 
out 667 

right 459 
rind 474 
riot 905 

sky 705 
slain, pp. 145 
slay, inf. 362 

my, pro. 510 

over 519 

road 104 

sleep, sb. 219 

owe 78 

roam vb. 763 

slow 369 


owl 647 

rode, pt. 105 

smash 735 

own, adj 79 

snail 142 

nail 141 

oyster 968 

rogue 917 
room 656 

snow, vb. 93 

name 21 

root 596 

so = like as 73 

nay 374 
near 365 
need, sb. 308 
needle 207 


pad 715 
pair 833 

rough 424, 654* 
row, noise 789 
rum, adj. 802 
rum, sb. 801 

so = thus 1 
sold, pt. 331 
some 612 
son 605 

neigh 188 

pansy 882 

song 65 

neighbour 359 

part 856 

soon 564 

neither 137, i. 214 

paste 860 

soot 597 

nephew 892 

path 181 

safe 862 

sooth 598 

nettle, sb. 253 

pert 751 

said, pt. 165 

sore, adv. 85 

never 209 

pig, animal 754 

sail, sb. 239 

sought, pt. 581 

new 387 

pit 703 

sake 7 

soul, 97 

next 316 

place 811 

sale 725 

sound, adj. 617 

nice 898 

plank 842 

same 23 

souse, vb. 787 

niece 899 
n'gh 307, 358 

play, vb. 243 
plough 578 

sang, pt. 48 
Saturday 153 

south 672 
sow, as seed 96 

night 458 

point 920 

saw, sb. 12 

sow, sb. 602 



sown 100 

thatch 155 

tusk 637 

which 464 

speak 233 

thaw 36 

twain 242 

while 509 

speech 203 

the 231 

two 74 

whine 495 

speed 309 

thee 291 

who, in questions, 

spire 512 

their 382 



spoil 926 

them 380 

ugly 608 

whole 113 

spoon 589 
squabble 792 

then 544, ii. 
there 223 

under 622 
uncouth 669 

whom , in questions. 

squeaking 797 

these 448 

unfledged 748, ii. 

why 706 

star 404 

they 373 

up 632 

wide 501 

starve 398 

thigh 423 

us 662 

wife 505 

steak 377 

thing 480 

wild 467 

stench 275 

think 276 


will, vb. 469 

stile 444 

thirteen 707 

veal 869 

wind, sb. 475 

stone 124 

this 484 

very 885 

wind, vb. 479 

stood -575 

thistle 485 

violet 904 

wine 511 

stool 584 

Thomas 770 

viper 906 . 

wire 513 

storm 551 

thong 66 

vixen 704 

wisdom 516 

straight 265 

those 128 

voice 925 

wise 515 

strait 923 

thou 642 

vow 945 

witch 454 

stranger 849 

though 357 

with 702 

straw 371 

thought 528 


without 651 

strength 282 

thousand 649 

waif 825 

woe 71 

stretch 256 

thread 205 

walk 325 

woman 506 

stroke 75 

threat 367 

wall 337 

women 507 

strong 62 

three 411 

wan 52 

won, pp. 630 

stuff 915 

thresh 284 

wander 47 

won't 541 

such 465 

throng 63 

wane 26 

wool 610 

suck 644 

through 634 


word 550 

suet 964 

throw, vb. 95 

want, vb. 54 

work, sb. 396 

suit 967 

thrown, pp. 99 

wanton 731 

work, vb. 694 

summer 604 

Thursday 631 

warm 343 

world 524 

sun 629 

tickle 753 

was 173 

worse 700 

Sunday 627 

till 463 

wash 56 

worth 635 

supper 950 

timber 471 

water 152 

would 538 

sure 969 

time 494 

wave 740 

wound, sb. 618 

swain 381 

tiny 757 

way 262 

wound, pp. 621 

swear 250 

to 556 

we 293 

wright 699 

sweat 228 

toad 76 

weak 378 

write, vb. 498 

sweet 303 

to-day 162 

wean 247 

wrong 64 

aword 397 

toe 70 

wear 249 

wrote, pt. 133 

swore 592 

told 332 

weave 235 

wrought, pt. 530. 

tongs 50 

wedge 259 


tongue 625 

Wednesday 576 


tadpole 719 

too 557 

week 440 

yard, inclosure, 

tail 143 

took 570 

weigh 189 

340, i. 

take 4 

tool 583 

weight 460 

yard, stick, 340, ii. 

tale 19 

t'other 567 

well, argumenta- 

ye 289 

talk 726 

touch 943 

tive, 244 

yearn 401 

tallow 168 

tough 580 

well, in good state, 

yeast 486 

tame 22 

town 659 


yesterday 487 

taste 861 

trade 718 

wench 278 

yet 488 

taught 215 

train 830 

went 279 

yew 5 17 

tea 867 

treat 838 

were 196 

yield 267 

teach 183 

trench, sb. 844 

wet 227 

yolk 389 

team 360 

trice 907 

wether 255 

yon 392 

tell 271 

true 436 

what 179 

yonder 394 

ten 311 

trunk 927 

wheat 200 

you 435 

than 544, i. 

trust 439 

when 169 

young 395 

thank 41 

truth 437 

where 224 

youngest 692 

that 177 

Tuesday 450 

whey 212 

your 419 





The preceding index will generally, but not always, suffice to refer to the 
numbers which in any future cwl. point out a dialectal alteration, if any, of the 
initial consonant or consonantal combinations, but not so for medial or final 
combinations. Hence the following index has been constructed to shew a few 
of the initial, and most of the medial and final combinations which may be re- 
quired for study. Only the most interesting cases are cited. 

Only Ws. and Norse consonants are given, and the words are cited only in the 
original spelling. 

The Capital Initials mark the consonants selected, and hyphens are used thus 
C- initial, -C- medial, -C final, in this order. 

C- 190 cffi'ge. 197 cae'se. 285 cerse. 300 cepan. 466 cild. 468 cildru. 
679 cyrice. 690 gecynd. -C- 2 gemaca. 3 bacan. 4 tacan. 5 macian. 
6 gemacod. 7 sacu. 183 tse'can. 232 brecan. 233 sprecan. 440 wicu wice 
wuce. 491 sican. 558 Iccian. 673 mycel. 679 cyrice. -C 101 ac. 154 
baec. 155 ba3C. 452 ic. 453 cwic. 500 gelic. 569 boc. 570 toe. -CC- 
256 streccan. 454 wicce. CE- [meaning C before, and hence affected by 
a following E] 320 cearian. 328 ceald. 333 cealf. 363 ceap. 364 ceapman. 
-CG-- 260 lecgan. 261 secgan. 455 licgan. 686 bycgan. -CG 257 ecg. 
258 secg. 259 wecg. 683 mycg. 684 brycg. 685 hrycg. CN- 27 cnapa. 
92 cnawan. 234 cnedan. 408 cneow. 504 cnif. -CS- 102 acsian. 103 
acsode. CTW- 39 cwam. 246 cwene cwen. 

-D- 76 tade. 138 feeder. 385 beneoSan. 518 bodig. 559 modor. -D- 
32 baiSian. 33 hraSor. 87 claSas. 88 claSian. 90 blawan. 136 aw'Ser. 
137 nawfter. 201 hse'Sen. 254 lefler. 255 wefter. 568 broSor. 652 cufte. 
669 uncuS. 670 bu$ N. 671 mu$. 672 su$. -D 134 a'S. 135 cla. 
180 ba3$. 181 pse. 229 braa'S. 368 deaft. 598 s6. 702 wy. -DN- 
576 wodnesdaeg. DR- 613 druncen. DW- 533 dol dwol dwal. 

F- 297 felagi N. 298 felan. -F- 8 hafa. 9 behafa. 187 lae'fan. 235 
wefan. 236 fefer. 296 gelefan. 347 heafod. 383 seofan. 384 heofon. 
413 deofol. 441 sife. 442 ifig. 493 drifan. 519 ofer. 599 abufan. 600 
lufu. 645 dufa. -F 456 gif. 502 fif. 503 lif. 504 cnif. 505 wif. 
506 wifman. 507 wifmen. 525 of. -FR- 208 se'fre. 209 nae'fre. 

G- 267 geldan. 289 ge. 486 gist. 487 gistrandaeg. 488 git. -G- 10 
haga. 11 maga. 12 saga sagu. 12 gnagan. 14 dragan. 15 agi N. 16 
dagian. 17 lagu. 78 agan. 79 agen. 139 draege. 140 haegel. 141 nsegel. 
142 snaegel. 143 ta3gel. 144 ongasgen. 145 slajgen. 146 ma3gen. 147 
braegen. 148 faeger. 188 hnae'gan. 189 wse'gan. 190 cae'ge. 237 blegan. 
238 hege. 239 segel. 240 gelegen. 241 regen. 242 twegen. 243 plegian. 
317 fleagan. 348 cage. 414 fleoga. 415 leogan. 443 frigadseg. 444 stigel. 
445 higian. 446 nigon. 520 boga. 540 hollegen. 601 fugol. 602 sugu. 

677 dryge. -G 80 halig dseg. 108 
163 laeg. 164 maeg. 165 sasgde. 

646 bugan. 675 drygan. 
dag. 109 lag. 160 aeg. 

676 1] 


166 maegden. 194 ae'nig. 195 mae'nig. 210 clae'g. 211 graa^g. 212 hwaa'g. 
213 ae'gfter. 214 nae'g-Ser. 262 weg. 263 on weg. 264 eglan. 577 bog. 
578 plog N. 579 genog. GE- [meaning G before and hence affected by a 
following E] 319 geapian. 340 geard geord. 346 geat. 389 geolca. 392 
geond. 393 begeondan. 394 geonder. 395 geong. GN- 13 ffnagan. 178 
gnaat. GR- 366 great. 

H- 489 hit. -H- 318 hleahen. -H 305 heh heah. 306 hehSe. 307 
neh neah. 321 geseah. 357 beah. 358 neah. 423 beoh. 424 hreoh. 580 
t6h. -HH- 322 hleahhan. 526 cohhettan. -HD 462 gesihft. HL- 77 
hlaford. 107 hlaf. 318 hleahen. 322 hleahhan. HN- 188 hnas'gan. HR- 
157 hraefn. 370 hreaw. 424 hreoh. 685 hrycg. -HT- 111 ahte. 215 
tae'hte. 324 eahta. 426 feohtan. 461 gelihtan. 527 bohte. 528 bohte. 
529 brohte. 530 wrohte. 531 dohtor. 581 sohte. -HT 110 naht nat 265 
streht. 323 feaht. 425 leoht. 457 miht. 458 niht. 459 riht. 460 wiht. 


687 flyht. HW- 72 hwa. 116 hwam. 169 hwamne. 179 hwat. 200 
hwae'te. 224 hwaa'r hwar. 464 hwilc. 495 hwinan. 509 hwil. 706 hwV. 

-K- 18 kaka N. -K 378 veikr N. 

-L- 19 talu. -LC- 325 wealcan. 389 geolca. -LC 217 aVlc. 388 meolc. 
464 hwilc. 465 swilc. 535 folc. -LD- 329 fealdan. 330 healdan. 331 
sealde. 332 tealde. 467 wilde. 537 molde. 538 wolde. -LD 326 eald. 
327 beald. 328 ceald. 524 woruld. 536 gold. -LDR- 468 cildru. -LF 
269 self. 333 cealf. 334 healf. -LG 168 tselg. 270 belg. -LM 272 elm. 
-LN- 541 wol nat. -LT 542 bolt. 

-M- 20 lama. 21 nama. 22 tama. 23 same. 24 scamu. -MB- 471 
timber. -MB 59 lamb lomb. 

-N- 25 manar, 26 wanian. -NC- 41 j?aucian. 276 bencan. 277 drencan. 
278 wencle. 472 scrincan. -NO 274 benc. 275 stenc. -ND- 46 candel. 
476 bindan. 477 findan. 478 grindan. 479 windan. 619 funden. 620 
grunden. 621 wunden. 622 under. 623 fundon. 624 gnindon. -ND 42 
and. 43 hand. 44 land. 45 wand. 429 feond. 430 freond. 473 blind. 
474 rind. 475 wind. 614 hund. 615 pund. 616 grund. 617 gesund. 
618 wund. 690 gecynd. 691 mynd. -NDL- 280 endlufon. -NDR- 47 
wandrian. -NG- 49 hangan. 50 tange. 481 finger. 625 tunge. 626 
huugor. 692 gyngest. -NG 48 and 65 sang. 60 lang. 61 on gemang. 
62 strang. 63 gej^rang. 64 wrang. 66 J?wang. -NG) 281 lengtS. 282 
strengS. -NNR- 631 Jmnnresdseg. -NT- 54 wanta N. 

-R- 248 mere. 249 werian. 250 swerian. 301 geheran. 606 duru. -R 
312 her. 365 near. -RC 396 weorc were. -RON- 313 hercnian. -RF- 
170 hterfest. 398 steorfan. -RD- 314 geherde. -RD 547 bord. 548 ford. 
549 hord. 550 word. -RD- 406 eor$e. 432 feorfta. 636 furftor. -RD 405 
heor$. 407 feorSling. 635 wurft weord. -RG 283 merg. 341 mearh. 697 
bebyrgan. -RGD 698 myrg. -RD 696 gebyrd gebeord. -RH 634 Jmrh. 
-RHT- 699 wyrhta. -RHT 399 beorht. -RM 342 earm. 343 wearm. 551 
storm. -RN- 400 eornest. 401 geornian. 402 leornian. -RN 344 beam. 
552 corn. 553 horn. -RS- 285 cerse. 700 wyrsa. -RS 172 gsers. -RSC- 
284 >erscan. -RST- 701 fyrsta. -RW- 286 herwe. 

S- 412 seo. 422 seoc. -S- 149 blaese. 150 laesest. 375 reisa N. 497 
arisan. 565 nosu. 617 gesund. 649 >usand. 680 bysig. 681 bysigu. 
-S 127 has. 128 Jras. 173 wffis. 482 is. 483 his. 484 >is. 514 is. 
515 wis. 516 wisdom. 662 us. 663 bus. 664 lus. 665 mus. 711 ly's. 
712 my's. -SB- 666 husbonda. SC- 24 scamu. 218 sca'p. 220 sc^'phirde. 
354 sceaf. 390 sceolde. 555 sco. 560 scola. 661 scur. 705 SC/N. -SC- 
55 ascan. 638 busca N. -SC 174 sesc. 225 flas'sc. 637 tusc. SCR- 472 
scrincan. 654 scrud. -SM 287 besm. SP- 309 sped. 512 spir. SPR- 
203 sprge'c. 233 sprecan. ST- 377 steik N. -ST- 593 moste. -ST 34 
latost. 129 gast. 175 faast. 226 nwe'st. 433 breost. 639 dust. -STEL 
485 Jnstel. STR- 75 stracian. 282 streng-5. 371 streaw. SV- 381 sveinn. 
SW- 1 swa. 73 swa. 228 swas't. 397 sweord. 465 swilc. 592 swor. 

-T- 31 late tete. 34 latost. 151 lastan. 86 ate. 198 te'tan. 199^ 
blaj'tan. 200 hwaj'te. 202 h^'ta. 251 mete. 252 cetele. 253 netele. 
302 gemetan. 303 swete. 304 betel. -TER- 152 waater. 153 sasterdseg. 
607 butere. p- 36 >awian. 223 >a3'r. 231 >e. 291 >e. 357 >eah. 373 
>ei N. 382 >eirra N. 423 >eoh. 480 >ing. 484 >is. 485 >istel. 544 
>onne. 631 ] unnresda^g. 634 >urh. 642 >u. 649 >usand. -p- 566 6J?er. 
pR- 205 >ra3'd. 367 >reat. 411 >reo. pW- 66 >wang. TW- 74 twa. 

V- 378 veikr N. 

-W- 35 awel. 36 J?awian. 37 clawu. 90 blawan. 91 mawan. 92 
cnawan. 93 snawan. 94 crawan. 95 brawan. 96 sawan. 97 sawel. 98 
cnawen. 99 >rawen. 100 sawen. 349 feawa. 386 eowe. 387 neowe niwe. 
-W- 417 ceowan. 418 breowan. 419 eower. 420 feower. 421 feowertig. 
450 tiwesdaBg. 451 siwian. -W 369 sleaw. 370 hreaw. 370 streaw streaw 
streow streu strea. 408 cneow. 435 eow. 436 treow. 517 iw. "WR- 
64 wrang. 133 wrat. 498 writan. WU- [that is, W affected by a following 
U] 610 wull. 618 wund. 

-XT 316 next. 





The counties of England, Isle of Man, Wales, Scotland, and Ireland, are 
taken in this order. 

The counties in each country are taken in the alphabetical order of its full 
name (not of the two letter abbreviation, as on p. 4*), each headed by its number 
in the countries (supposing that all the counties were enumerated, which is not the 
case in Wales, Scotland, and Ireland, because all do not speak English), together 
with its two letter abbreviation and full name, and a statement of the number of 
places from which information was obtained, and of the districts over which it is 

Within each county are ranged all the names of places from which information 
has been received, in alphabetical order, preceded by the number of the district 
in which it is contained, and by the initial letter, or letter and number, by which 
it is referred to in the following Alphabetical Informants List, VII. An asterisk * 
shews that the information received is given, or at least spoken of in the work 
itself. It will be seen that a very large number of places named are not further 
spoken of. It must not, however, be supposed that the information received was 
therefore valueless. Far from it. It was often incomplete, and often difficult to 
interpret, but it always helped to bridge over the spaces left between places from 
which more complete or more easily interpretable information was given, and 
without this I should have had the greatest difficulty in assigning the boundaries 
of my districts. 

After the name, its local pron. is occ. given, and if, as is most frequently the 
case, the place is not on the small maps of the dialect districts annexed, the 
distance and direction from a place actually on the map is added in ( ) . When 
the place is on the maps, its name suffices, for a whole county on this small scale 
is easily looked over. The places, or their position (for they are often so in- 
significant as not to be marked on many maps), can thus readily be found on any 
county map. 

Afterwards follows a description of the nature of the information, employing 
the abbreviations explained on p. 6*. If several pieces of information have 
reached me from the same place, they are often numbered as (1), (2), etc., but 
these numbers are generally omitted if the informant is the same. 

At the end of each piece of information, when referred to in the book, is added 
the number of the page on which the information is given or spoken of, preceded 
by the letter p. in case another number comes just before, but not otherwise. 

When the information is given in the book, the indications of its origin are 
here abbreviated as much as possible, the page where it is cited furnishing the rest. 

In VII. I give a list of informants referring to the county in this list, or to the 
place by means of the numbered initials. Many of these obliging informants 
have passed away since they so kindly assisted me. Others have changed their 
address, and I have no means of discovering them. But to each and all I give 
my most hearty thanks for the trouble they have taken, often great, and the time 
they have spent, often very long, in helping me to render this account of English 
local pronunciation as complete as it now appears, a result perfectly impossible 
without a great cooperation. 

1. Bd.= Bedfordshire, 16 places, all in D 16. 

16. A. Ampthill (:semtil) (7 ssw. Bed- 
ford) and 4 or 5 m. round, wl. io. by 
Mr. J. Brown, Dunstable Road, 21 y. 
who says "the old-fashioned native 
dialect is comparatively rare." 

*16. B. Bedford and neighbourhood 
and the county generally, (1) T. 

Batchelor's book 204, (2) cs. and 
phrases from Mr. J. Wyatt, 206 to 
209, cwl. 209, (3) cwl. from Mr. 
Rowland Hill 209. 

*16. D. Dunstable (5 w.Lutou), wii. 
by TH., 209. 

16. E. Edworth (12 se. Bedford), dt. 




io. with notes and wd. from Mrs. 
Buttenshaw of the rectory. 

16. F. Flitwick (rflttik) (9 s-by-w. 
Bedford) wl. io. by Rev. T. W. D. 
Brooks, vie. 

16. G. G-irtford (7 e.Bedford) wn. by 

16. Hi. Harrold (8 nw.Bedford) dt. 
io. notes and Iw. by Rev. J. Steel. 

16. n2. Hatley Cockayne (:kokin 
:aetli) (12 e.Bedford) full wl. io. by the 
Rev. E. Brickwell, rect. 

16. M. Melchbourne (10 n.Bedford) 
dt. io. by Mrs. F. H. Bolingbroke, of 
the vicarage. 

*16. R. Ridgmont (10 ssw.Bedford), 

dt. pal. by AJE. from diet, of Miss 
Susan Wheck, of Whitelands, 206. 

16. si. Sandy (8 e.Bedford), wn. by 

16. s2. Sharnbrook (7 nnw. Bedford), 
wn. by TH. 

16. Tl. Thurleigh (rtherk'i-) (6 
n.Bedford), wl. and dt. io. by Rev. B. 
Trapp, vie. 

16 T2. Tilbrook (12 nne.Bedford), 
wn. by TH. 

16. T3. Toddington (:tAA'tmten) (6 
ene.Leighton Buzzard) wl. and dt. io. 
by Major Cooper Cooper, T. Manor. 

16. u. Upper Dean (11 n.Bedford) 
wn. by TH. 

2. Be. = Berkshire, 14 places in D 5 and 8. 

5. B. Bucklebury (6 ne.Newbury) 
dt. io. by Rev. "W. M. Wallis, Rose- 
lands, for Be. between Thames and 
Kennet rivers. 

*5. c. Cholsey (12 e.Wantage) dt. 
io. with letter from Mr. "W. Brewer, 
national schoolmaster, at Wallingford 
adjoining, obtained through Mrs. 
Parker, Oxford, 96. 

*5. D. Denchworth (rdentjuth) (3 
nnw. Wantage) wl. and Iw. io. by Rev. 
C. H. Tomlinson, vie. 10 y., 96. 

5. E. East Hendred (4 e. "Wantage) 
letter and wds. io. by Ven. Archd. 
Pott, Clifton Hampden, Ox. (3 ese. 
Abingdon, Be.). 

*5. H!. Hampstead Norris (7 nne. 
Newbury) cs. io. by Mr. W. B. Banting, 
LLB. and AJE., 95. 

*8. H2. Hurley (9 nne.Reading) dt. 
io. by Mrs. Godfrey, 129. 

*8. n3. Hurst (5 e.Reading) dt. io. 
by Rev. A. A. Cameron, for the 
Loddon river valley, 129. 

5. K.. Kintbury (:kimbri) (6 w.New- 
bury) from Rev. W . Campbell, vie. 

5. si. Stanford-in-the- Vale (5 nnw. 
Wantage) dt. io. from Mr. W. Cleverley, 
and dt. io. from Miss Collins, both 
through Mrs. Parker, of Oxford. 

*5. s2. Steventon (6 ne. Wantage) 
and neighbourhood dt. glossic by Mrs. 
Parker, of Oxford, from Mr. B. 
Leonard, 94. 

5. s3. Streatley (rstriitli) (9 nw. 
Reading) wl. io. by Rev. John Slatter, 
vie. 15 y. 

*5. wl. Wantage Iw. io. from Mr. 
E. C. Davey, F.G.S., 96. 

*8. w2. War grave (5 ne. Reading) 
Iw. aq. vv. by Mr. T. F. Maitland, 129. 

8. w3. Windsor wn. by TH. 

3. Bu. = Buckinghamshire, 19 places in D 15 and 17. 

17. c3. Cheddington (7 ene.Ayles- 
bury) notes by LLB. 

15. E. Edlesborough (:Edjbre) (10 
ene. Aylesbury) wl. io. by Rev. G. 
Birch, vie. 12 y. 

15. G. Great Kimble (5 s. Aylesbury) 
Iw. io. picked up on the Chilterns by 
Rev. E. K. Clay, vie., communicated 
by Mr. J. K. Fowler (see Aylesbury). 

17. Hi. Hambleden (4 w. Great 
Marlow) Iw. by Rev. W. H. Ridley, 
rec. 60 y. 

ham) wl. pal. by AJE. from diet, of 
Miss Cox, of Whitelands, native, 194 
(see Wendover). 

17. L. Langley (3 e.Eton), letter in 
1875 to LLB. from Rev. W. D. Scoones. 


*15.A. Aylesbttry('-Me'jlzburi} (1) wl. 
io. but partly pal. by AJE. from diet, 
of Mr. J. Kersely Fowler, 192; (2) 
specimen pal. by AJE. from diet, of 
Mr. R. R. Fowler, 190; (3) wn. by 
AJE. from labourer, 1881, 192 ; wn. 
by TH. 192. 

15. si. u., probably the part near 
b. of Bd., pal. vv. by AJE. from Mr. 
J. Wyatt (see Bedford, Bd.). 

*15. B2. .Bwc/ki^Aamwn.byTH.,194. 

*15. cl. Chackmore (1 wnw. Buck- 
ingham) dt. noted by TH., 191 ; wn. 
by TH. 194 (where it is misprinted 
Clackmore) . 

17. c2. Chalvey (name omitted on 
p. 189) (1 n.Eton), letter to LLB. from 
Mr. A. Henry Atkins, 1875. 

E.E. Pron. Part V. 



15. Ml. Marsh Gibbon (7 ssw.Buck- 
ingham]), letter on the pron. of the 
school there by a man of 90, by Mr. 
G. Parker, Oxford. 

15. M2. Marsworth (6 e.Aylesbury) 
letter from Eev. F. W. Eagg, vie. (see 
Wingham, Ke.). 

17. P. Penn (3 e.High Wycombe), 
letter from Eev. J. Grainger, vie., 

15. si. Stowe (3 nnw. Buckingham) 
note by TH. 

15. s2. Swanbourne (8 se. Bucking- 
ham) Iw. by Eev. M. D. Maiden, vie. 
10 y. 


*15. T. Tyrringham with Filgrave 
(13 ne. Buckingham) ("misprinted Ty- 
rinham, p. 194] wl. io. and letters from 
Eev. J. Tarver, rect., 194. 

*15. wl. Wendover (5 sse.Aylesbury) 
1) wl. pal. by AJE. from diet, of 
eby, of Whitelands, native of 
Northampton, but since 8 years old 
living at Aylesbury and Buckingham, 
192; (2) wn. in 1884 by TH. from 
labourers of 82 and 63 and others, 192. 

15. w2. Winslow (:winsloo) (6 se. 
Buckingham) with (s), heard by TH., 
who was told by a fellow traveller that 
the dialect was "very broad." 

4. Cb. = Cambridgeshire, 15 places, all in D 18. 

*18. cl. Cambridge wn. by TH. 

*18. c2. Cambridgeshire generally, 
(1) dt. pal. 1879 by AJE. from diet, 
of Mr. J. Perkins, M.A., Downing 
Coll., 249; (2) notes by Eev. Prof. 
W. W. Skeat. 

*18. c3. Chatteris (9 nw.Ely) wn. 
by TH. 253d', and note from Eev. 
Sidney A. Smith, vie. 

18. E. Ely wn. by TH. 

18. H. Haddenham "(6 sw.Ely) note 
by Eev. J. M. Freeman. 

*18. M. March (12 nw.Ely) dt. io. 
and aq. by Eev. J. "Wastie Green, rect., 
251, and wn. by TH. 

18. P. Pampisford (:paanze) (6 sse. 
Cambridge) reported by TH. from 
Prof. Skeat. 

*18. si. Sawston (5 sse. Cambridge) 
dt. pal. from diet, by TH., 250. 

18. s2. Shelf ord (4 S.Cambridge) 
wn. by TH. 

18. s3. Soham (5 se. Ely), note 
from Eev. J. Cyprian Eust. 

18. wl. Whittlesford (6 s-by-e. 
Cambridge) wn. by TH. 

18. w2. Willingham (8 nnw.Cam- 
bridge) wn. by TH. 

*18. w3. Wisbech (:wtsbitj) dt. and 
wl. io. with letters, 252, by Mr. 
Herbert J. Little, Coldham Hall, 252 ; 
and wn. by TH. 253. 

*18. w4. Wood Ditton (3 sse.New- 
market) dt. and wl. with sentences pal. 
by AJE. in 1879 from diet, of Miss 
Walker, of the vicarage, 251. 

*18. w5. Wryde (9 ene.Peterbro' 
Np.), a farming district 2 e.Thorney 
village, and in Thorney parish, wn. by 
TH., 254. 

5. Ch. = Cheshire, 32 places in D 21, 25, 28. 


25. Al. Altrincham (8 wsw. Stock- 
) (1) wl. and dt. io. by Mr. J. C. 

lough, then Principal of the Agri- 
cultural College, Aspatria, Carlisle, 
native ; (2) notes from JGG. and TH. 

*25. A2. Alvanly (rAA'v'nli) (7 ne. 
Chester) wn. by TH. 421. 

*25. A3. Ashton (7 ene. Chester) wn. 
byTH., 421. 

25. A4. Audlem (rAAl^m) (6 s.Nant- 
wich) wn. by TH. 

*25. Bl. Eeeston (9 se.Chester) wn. 
by TH. 421. 

*25. B2. SicJcley (5 nnw.Whit- 
church, Sh.) (1) dt. pal. by AJE. from 
dictation of Mr. T. Darlington, native 
of Burland (6 ne.Bickley), author of 
Folk-speech of South Cheshire, and wl. 
in gl., 411, 422 ; (2) version of Euth, 
chap, i., 698, No. 4. 

25. B3. Bowdon (16 ene.Euncorn) 
wn. by TH. 

*25. B4. Broxton (9 sse. Chester) 
wn. by TH., 421. 

25. B5. Buerton (6 s-by-e. Nant- 
wich) wn. by TH. 

*28. cl. Churton (6 s. Chester) wn. 
by TH. 457 (wrongly referred to D 25 
on p. 421). 

25. c2. Congleton (11 ene.Crewe) 
wn. by TH. 

*2S. E. Eccleston (:Eklisten) (2 s. 
Chester) wn. by TH., 457. 

*28. F. Farndon (:farn) (7 s. Chester) 
dt. in so. by Mr. E. French, native, 
and wn. by TH. 452, 457. 

*25. G. Great Neston (10 nw. 
Chester) wn. by TH., 421. 

*25. Hi. Hatton Heath (4 se. 
Chester) wn. by TH., 421. 



*25. n2. Helsby (8 ne. Chester) wn. 
by TH. 421. 

25. K. Knutsford (15 ese.Euncorn) 
wn. by TH. 

25. L. Lymm (11 ene.Euncorn) wn. 
by TH. 

26. Ml. Malpas (13 sse. Chester) Iw. 
by Mr. T. Darlington, and wn. by 

25. M2. Marbury (7 sw.Nantwich) 
wn. by TH. 

*25. M3. Middlewlch (7 n.Crewe) 
cs. pal. by TH. from diet., 413. 

25. M4. Mobberly (9 wnw.Maccles- 
field) dt. io. by Mr. Robert Holland, 
of Norton Hill, Halton (2 ese.Runcorn) 
to represent m.Ch., but really repre- 
senting e.Ch. 

25. M5. Mouldsworth (6 ' ene. 
Chester) wn. by TH. 

*25. Nl. Nantwich wn. by TH. 

25. x2. Northenden (4 w. Stock- 
port) phrases noted by TH. 

25. N3. Northwich (lln.Crewe) 
wn. by TH. 

*25. p. Pott Shrigley (4 nne. 
Macclesfield) cs. pal. by TH. in 1874 
from diet, of a native, 413. 

*25. si. Sandbach (4 ne.Crewe) dt. 
pal. by TH. from diet, of a native, 
411; TH. also noted the forms of 
negative canna conner in Manchester 
City News, 26 March, 1881. 

*28. s2. Shoeblack (14 w-by-s. 
Nantwich) wn. by TH. 457. 

*21. s3. Stalybridge, situate half in 
La. and half in Ch., formerly all or 
nearly all the town was in La., which 
see, 317. 

21. s4. StocTcport wn. by TH. 

*25. T. Tarporley (9 ese.Chester) 
cs. pal. by TH. from diet, of a native of 
Burland (3 wnw. Nantwich and 7 sse. 
Tarporley), 413, 421. 

*25. w. Waverton (4 se. Chester) 
wn. by TH., 421. 

6. Co. = Cornwall, 19 places in D 11 and 12. 

*11. cl. Camelford (14 w.Launces- 
ton) dt. pal. by AJE. from diet, of 
Miss Ada Hill, of Whiteknds, 168. 

*11. c2. Cardy'nhamfiene.Bodmin) 
dt. by T. H. Cross, 169. 

12. G. Gwennap (3 ese.Redruth) (1) 
dt. io. by Rev. Saltren Rogers, vie. ; 
(2) wn. by TH. 

11. Ll. LandraJce (8 ese.Liskeard), 
let. from vie. unnamed. 

11. L2. Lanivet (3 sw.Bodmin) dt. 
io. by the late Mr. T. Q. Couch, 
author of the Glossary of Polperro (9 

11. L3. Lanreath (7 sw.Liskeard) 
wl. io. by Rev. R. B idler, rect. 

*12. Ml. Marazion (3 e.Penzance), 
specimen pal. by AJE. from diet, of 
Mr. W. J. Rawlings, Downes, Hayle 
(6 ne.Penzance), 172. 

*11. M2. Millbrook (22 sse. Ounces- 
ton) spec. pal. by AJE. from diet, of 
Mr. J. B. Rundell, 167. 

11. pi. Padstow dt. io. by Hon. 
Mrs. Prideaux Brune, Prideaux Place. 

12. p2. Penzance cs. pal. by AJE. 
from diet, of Mr. "W. Noye and then 

from Mr. "W. Rawlings (see above Ml), 
but not used, 171. 

11. p3. PoundstocJc (12 nnw.Laun- 
ceston) dt. io. by Rev. P. D. Dayman, 

11. si. ff*.JH^(8ne.St.AHstell) 
wl. and dt. io. by Miss A. B. Peniston, 
of the vicarage, 6 y. 

*11. s2. St. Columb Major (10 
wsw.Bodmin) and 10 m. round by Mr. 
T. Rogers, 169. 

11. s3. St. Goran's (6 s.St. Austell) 
also written Gorran, Goram, dt. io. by 
Rev. C. R. Sowell, vie. 

11. s4. St. Ive (4 ne.Liskeard) dt. 
io. by Ven. Archd. Hobhouse, rect. 

12. s5. St. Just (7 w. Penzance) dt. 
io. by Rev. H. S. Fagan, vie. 

11. s6. SL Stephen's (1 n.Launces- 
ton) dt. io. and aq. by Rev. E. S. T. 

12. s7. St.StitMan's(4sse.~Redmt'h) 
dt. by Mr. W. Martin, Penhalvar East, 
churchwarden of St. Stithian's. 

11. T. Tintagel (13 n.Bodmin) dt. 
io. by the Rev. Prebendary Kinsman, 

7. Cu. = Cumberland, 15 places in D 31, 32, and 33. 

*31. A. d.bbey Holme or Holme 
Cultram (12 nne.Maryport) cs. pal. by 
AJE. from diet, of Rev. T. Ellwood, 
562, 563, cwl. 634. 

*33. Bl. Newcastle (16 ne.Carlisle) 
to Longtoivn (8 n. Carlisle) pal. by 
JGG. from a native, 682, 684, 693. 

31. B2. Eorrowdale (7 s.Keswick) 




wl. and dt. io. by Rev. Percy C. 
"Walker, vie. 

*32. B3. Brampton (9 ene. Carlisle) 
cwl. pal. by JGG. from diet. 669. 

*32. cl. Carlisle (1) cs. pal. by 
JGG. from diet, of Mrs. Atkinson, 
562, 563, 602 ; (2) aq. from Messrs. 
Coward, Harkness, Payne, Murray, 
and Dickinson about the s. b. of D 32. 

*31. c2. Clifton (2 e.Workington) 
es. pal. by AJE. from diet, of Mr. 
J. N. Hetherington, 562, 563. 

*32. D. Dalston (4 ssw. Carlisle) cs. 
pal. November, 1873, by AJE. from a 
native maid servant, but not used, 5Q2d. 

*31. E. Ellonby (6 nw.Penrith) cs. 
pal. by JGG. 562, 563, 600. 

31. H. Hale (:jal) (14 ssw.Cocker- 
mouth) wl. from Eev. "W. Sidney 
Pratten, vie. 

Holme Cultram, see Abbey Holme 

*31. K. Kesivick es. pal. by JGG. 
from diet, of Mr. "W. Postlethwaite, 
562, 563, 600. 

*31. L!. Langwathby (:la 1 q'Bnbi) (4 
ne.Penrith) pal. 1876-7 by JGG. from 
diet, of Miss Powley, 561, 563, 600. 

*33. L2. Longtown (8 n. Carlisle) 
cs. io. by Rev. R. D. Hope, native, 
vie. of Old Button (4 n.Kendal), We. 
See under Bewcastle, 682, 693. 

31. P. Penrith, notes on m.Cu. and 
a translation of A. Craig Gibson Joe 
and the Jolly Jist, pal. January, 1873, 
by AJE. from diet, of Mr. William 
Atkinson, an excellent authority, but 
this early work sadly wants revision, 
and as I have not been able to recover 
Mr. A.'s address, I have been obliged 
to pass it over. 

31. K. Ravenglass (13 w.Coniston, 
La.) notes by Rev. H. Bell, vie., which 
enabled me to complete the s. hoose 
line 6 through s.Cb. 

31..S. South Cumberland, corre- 

Tndence with Rev. E. H. Knowles, 
St. Bees, Cu., and his friends con- 
cerning the use of at and to. 

31. w. Working/ton, cs. io. and wl. 
io. with many letters from Mr. W. 
Dickinson, author of the Cu. Glossary. 
As I was unable to have an interview 
with Mr. D., I have been obliged to 
pass over this work. 

8. Db. = Derby, 67 places in D 21, 25, 26. 

*26. Al. Alvaston (:AA'VBsten) (3 
ese.Derby) wn. by TH. 446. 

*26. A2. Ashbourn (10 sw.Matlock 
Bath) two cs. pal. by TH. from diet. 

426, 427. 

*26. A3. Ashford (8 ese.Buxton) 
with Bakewell (2 se. Ashford) cs. pal. 
by TH. from diet. 427. 

*26. A4. Ashover (5 ssw. Chesterfield) 
wn. by TH. 427, 445. 

*26. Bl. Bamford (12 ne.Buxton) 
wn. by TH. 442. 

*26. B2. Barlboroug h (7| ene. Ches- 
terfield) dt. pal. from diet, by TH. 

*26. B3. Belper wn. by TH. 445. 

*26. s4. Bolsover (iba'wzur) (5 
e. Chesterfield) wn. and dt. pal. by TH. 
from diet, of a native, 438, 442, 445. 

*26. B5. Bradwell (:brad-e) (9 
ne.Buxton) cs. pal. by TH. from diet, 
of natives, 427, and wn. 442. 

*26. s6. #ratf/0r<*(7 
pal. by TH. from a native, 438. 

*26. B7. Brampton (3 w.Chester- 
field) (1) wn. by TH., (2) cs. io. by 
Rev. J. M. Mello, rect., with observa- 
tions on the same by TH., and (3) cs. 
pal. by TH. from diet, of natives, 

427, No. 7. 

26. B8. Brampton Moor, near 
Brampton, wn. by TH. 

*26. cl. Castleton (10 ne.Buxton) 
wn. by TH. 442. 

*21. c2. Chapel - en -le- Frith (5 
n.Buxton), (1) the Song of Solomon 
complete in his own original so. trans- 
lated by TH., and Chaps, i. and ii. in 
pal. and gl. compared with Taddington, 
which see ; (2) cs. from personal know- 
ledge by TH. with variants for places 
in the neighbourhood, and notes on 
the use of thou and (kh), 317, and dt. 
322 ; (3) Parable of the Prodigal Son ; 
(4) complete cwl. from personal know- 
ledge with the minute distinctions 
which TH. prefers, 323 to 329. 

*26. c3. Chellaston (4 sse. Derby) 
wn. by TH. 446. 

*26. c4. Chesterfield wn. by TH. 

*26. c5. Codnor (5 ene.Belper) 
lw. io. by Rev. H. Middleton, vie 

*26. c6. Codnor Park (5 ene.Belper) 
wn. by TH. 445. 

*25. c7. tfowfoFflJfeyCSnw.Buxton) 
notes by TH., see Chapel-en-le-Frith, 
and dt. from personal knowledge, 




26. c8. Crick (4 n.Belper) notes by 

*26. c9. Cromford (I s.Matlock 
Bath) wn. by TH. 444. 

26. D!. Derby, wn. by TH. and 
also by AJE. 

*26. D2. Doe Hill Station (7 s. Ches- 
terfield) wn. by TH. probably belong 
to Codnor Park, Ilkestone, etc. 445. 

*26. o3. Dore (8 nw. Chesterfield) 
wn. by TH. 427. 

*26. D4. Dronfield (5 nnw.Chester- 
field) wn. by TH. 445. 

*26. o5. Dronfield Woodhouse(6nw. 
Chesterfield) wn. by TH. 427. 

*26. El. Eckington (6 nne. Chester- 
field) dt. pal. by TH. from a native, 

*21. E2. Edale (7 se.Glossop) wn. by 
TH. 317, 322. 

*26. E3. Eyam (10 ene.Buxton) wn. 
by TH. 442. 

*25. F!. Fernilee, near Combs 
Valley, wn. by TH. 411. 

26. F2. Foolow (9 ene.Buxton, 1 
e. Eyam) wn. by TH. 

*21. Gl. Glossop cs. pal. by TH. 
from a man born 3 miles oif, 317. 

*25. o2. Got/t,Daleof(3nw.Buxton) 
cs. pal. from personal knowledge by 
TH., whose father resided there from 
TH.'s childhood, 321, in the notes to 
Chapel-en-le-Frith, and 414. 

26. o3. Great Hucklow (8 ene. 
Buxton) wn. by TH. 

*26. nl. Hartinffton(lQwnwM&t- 
lock Bath) joke pal. by TH. 441. 

*26. H2. Hathersage (1 2 ne. Buxton) 
and 3 or 4 miles round, wn. by TH. 

*26. n3. Heanor (5 ese.Belper) wn. 
by TH., and dt. in gl. by Mrs. Parker, 
of Oxford, from diet. 445. 

*26. n4. Higham (1 s. Chesterfield) 
wn. by TH. 445. 

*26. HO. Holmesfield (6 nw. Chester- 
field) wn. by TH. 427. 

*21. n6. Hope Woodlands (10 se. 
Glossop) wn. by TH. 317, 322, and in 
note to Chapel-en-le-Frith, 321. 

*26. il. Idridgehay (4 wnw.Belper, 
and 4 s.Wirks worth, to which region it 
belongs) wii. by TH. 441, 444. 

*26. i2. Ilkeston (8 se.Belper) wn. 
by TH. 445. 

26. L. Little Hucklow (7 ene. 
Buxton) wn. by TH. 

*26. Ml. Mattock Bath, wn. by 
TH. 444. 

*26. M2. Middleton-by-Wirksworth 
(2 sw.Matlock Bath), a mining village, 
said to speak more broadly than at 
Wirksworth, wn. by TH. 441, 444. 

26. M3. Middleton-by-Youlgrave (7 
nw.Matlock Bath) wn. by TH. 

*26. M4. Milford (2 s.Belper) wn. 
by TH. 445. 

*26. M5. Morton (8 nne.Belper) wn. 
by TH. 445. 

*26. N. Norton (7 nnw. Chesterfield) 
Iw. io. by Rev. H. H. Pearson, vie. 

*26. o. OldBrampton (3 w. Chester- 
field) wn. by TH. 427. 

*21. P. Peak Forest (5 ne.Buxton) 
wn. by TH. 322. 

*26. Q. Quarndon (3 nnw. Derby) 
wn. by TH. 446. 

*26. Rl. Repton (6 sw.Derby) (1) 
Iw. io. by the curate, name not 
mentioned, and TH.'s observations on 
them; (2) cs. pal. by TH. from diet, 
of a native, 427 ; (3) wn. by TH. 446. 

*26. R2. Ripley (3 ne.Belper) wn. 
by TH. 445. 

26. si. Sandiacre (:sEn'djik^) (8 e. 
Derby) wn. by TH. 

*26. s2. South Wingfield (5 nne. 
Belper) dt. 438, and wn. both by TH. 

*26. s3. Stenson (4 ssw.Derby) wn. 
by TH. 446. 

*26. s4. Stretton (6 s. Chesterfield) 
wn. by TH. 445. 

*26. s5. Button (3 ese. Chesterfield) 
wn. by TH. 445. 

*26. Tl. Taddington (5 ese.Buxton) 
(1) Song of Solomon, chaps, i. and ii. 
in gl. and pal. by TH. ; (2) cs. pal. 
by TH. and corrected by a native, 
426, 427. 

*26. T2. Tideswell (:tidzu) (6 ene. 
Buxton) wn. by TH. 442. 

26. x3. Twyford (5 ssw.Derby) wn. 
by TH. 

*26. u. Tinstone (4 nnw.Chester- 
field) wn. by TH. 445. 

*26. wl. West Hallam (6 ne. Derby) 
dt. by TH. from diet. 438, 439. 

*26. w2. Whittington (2 n. Chester- 
field) wn. by TH. 445. 

*26. w3. Winster (3 nw.Matlock 
Bath) cs. pal. by TH. and corrected 
by natives, 427, also wn. by TH. 

*26. w4. Wirksworth (:wase) (3 
ssw.Matlock Bath) Iw. io. with notes 
by Dr. Spencer T. Hall, and wn. by 
TH. 441, 444. 




9. Dv. = Devonshire, 21 

4. A. Axminster (8 se.Honiton) cs. 
io. by the late Mr. G. P. R. Pulman, 
not used because I had no vv. 

11. B!. Barnstaple, cs. io. by Mr. 
W. F. Rock, native, pal. in 1873 by 
AJE. from diet, of Mr. D. H. Harris, 

11. B2. Bigbury (12 sw.Totness) 
phr. noted, 1876, in gl. by Mr. J. B. 

1 1 B3. Burrington(\Q sse Barnstaple) 
characteristic wds. and phr. io. by Mrs. 
Davis, of the vicarage, native. 

*11. cl. Challacombe (9 ne.Barn- 
staple) wds. and phr. obtained from 
Anne Ridge, native, cook to Rev. J. 
P. Faunthorpe, see notes to Iddesleigh, 

11. c2. Cotyton (7 se.Honiton) dt. 
io. by Mr. W. H. H. Rogers. 

Dartmoor, see Plymouth. 

*11. D. Devonport dt. pal. from 
Messrs. J. Tenney and J. B. Rundell, 

11. E. Exeter (1) wl. gl. by Mr. N. 
W. Wyer, collected 1873-7; (2) dt. 
io. with aq. by Mr. R. Dymond, F.S.A. 

11. H. Harberton (2 sw.Totness) 
wn. by AJE. 1 and 2 Sept. 1869, 
written in the glossotype of the period 
and pal. 23 July, 1878. This was my 
first attempt to write English peasant 
speech from hearing. I stayed with 
Mr. J. Paige, Little Inglebourne, 
Harberton, and listened while he con- 
versed with his labourers, and then 
wrote down the sounds on my return 
to the house. I was not very success- 
ful, and the notes made have therefore 
not been used. 

*11. -il. Iddesleigh (:i^\i} (15s.Barn- 
staple) (1) wl. io. written by Rev. J. P. 
Faunthorpe, Principal of Whitelands 

places in D 4, 10, 11. 

Training Coll. from the diet, of his 
housemaid ; (2) cs. pal. by AJE. from 
the dictation of the same housemaid, 
Mary Anstey, native, who had not been 
many months from Dv. 157. 

11. i2. Insto w (5 w-by-s. Barnstaple), 
from Rev. W. F. Dashwood Lang, 

11. Ml. Modbury and 6 m. round 
(10 sw.Totness) dt. io. by Miss Green, 
of the Vicarage. 

10. M2. Morebath (8 n.Tiverton) 
nwl. and dt. io. by Rev. S. H. Berkeley. 

*11. Nl. North Molton (12 e-by-s. 
Barnstaple), (1) wl. io. by Mr. R. H. 
S. Spicer, B.Sc., of that place, (2) by 
Mr. J. Abbot Jarman, pal. by AJE. in 
1877, dt. 160, cwl. 161. 

11. N2. North Petherwin (14 nw. 
Tavistock) dt. io. by Rev. T. B. 

11. pi. Parracomb (11 nne.Barn- 
staple) nwl. taken from n.Dv. servants 
by Miss Wakefield, of the Rectory. 

*11. P2. Plymouth (1) cs. gl. for 
Dartmoor, (2) Iw. gl., (3) wl. gl. (4) 
dt. gl., (5) numerous printed papers 
and much correspondence from 1868 
onwards, all five from Mr. John Shelley, 
native of Norfolk, but long resident 
in Plymouth, 163 to 166. 

11. si. St. Marychurch (2 n. 
Torquay) dt. by Rev. G. H. White, 
with words and phrases by Miss Miles. 

11. s2. Stoke (1 nw. Plymouth) nwl. 
by Rev. H. G. Wilcocks, Stoke 

11. wl. Warkleigh (8 sse. Barn- 
staple) wl. io. by Mrs. W. Thorold, of 
the Rectory, 30 y. 

11. w2. Werrington (12 nw. Tavi- 
stock) dt. io. by Rev. R. W. Margesson, 

10. Do. = Dorsetshire, 14 places, all in D 4. 

4. Bl. Bingham's Melcombe (7 sw. 
Blandford, near Melcombe Horsey) 
nwl. and dt. io. by Rev. Canon Bing- 

4. B2. Blackmore, Vale of (11 sw. 
Shaftesbury) wl. io. with notes and 
letters by Rev. John Smith, Kington 
Magna, rect. 

4. B3. Bradpole (:biefpool, :bRjefl) 
(1 ne. Bridport) wl. io. and notes by 
Rev. Canon Broadley, vie. 

4. n4. Bridport, wl. by Mr. T. A. 
Colfox, native, Westmead, Bridport. 

*4. c. Cranborne (12 ene. Blandford, 
and wrongly referred to Blandford on 
p. 37) cs. by Mr. Clarke, Gen. Michel, 
and Mrs. Clay-Kerr- Seymour, 75-84. 

*4. El. East Lulworth (rkknth) 
(12 ese. Dorchester, on Purbeck hills) 
wl. io. by Rev. Walter Kendall, vie. 80. 

4. E2. East Horden (7 sse.Bland- 
ford) wl. io. by Rev. T. Pearce, vie. 

*4. H. Hanford( nw. Blandford) dt. 
pal. by AJE. from diet, of Mrs. Clay- 
Kerr- Seymour, see 75, dt. 76, cwl. 80. 

4. si. SA^oro*(16wnw.Blandford) 




dt. io. with notes and letters by Rev. 
0. W. Taucock, school. 

4. s2. Sturminster Marshall (6 se. 
Blandford) phrases by Mr. C. Kegan 
Paul, formerly curate there. 

4. s3. Swan-age (7 s.Poole) note by 
Mr. Paige, artist. 

4. wl. Walditch (1 e.Bridport) notes 
by Mr. W. G. Stone, lOy. 

*4. w2. Whitchurch Canonlcorum 
(5 wnw. Bridport) (1) transcripts of 
letters and articles in Pulman's Weekly 
News, Crewkerne, written in glossic 

with great care by Mr. N. W. "Wyer, 
from dictation of John Taylor, a small 
freeholder, but doubts having arisen of 
the trustworthiness of Taylor's Dorset 
pronunciation, they have been re- 
luctantly cancelled; (2) wn. by the 
same, 83. 

*4. w3. Winterbourne Came (2 sse. 
Dorchester), by Rev. W. Barnes, the 
Dorset poet (see p. 75), cs. in so. with 
numerous letters of explnnation, from 
which it was pal. by AJE. 76 ; list of 
Do. words with initial (f) or (v), 38. 

11. Du. Durham, 31 places in D 31 and 32. 

*32. Al. Annfield Plain (8 nw. 
Durham), dt. from Rev. Dr. Blythe 
Hurst, vie. See Collierley, 653. 

31. A2. Aycli/e (5 n. Darlington) 
pc. from anonymous vicar. 

*31. Bl. Bishop Auckland '(20 
wsw.Hartlepool) (1) pc. and letter from 
Rev. R. Long ; (2) dt. by Mr. J. Wyld, 
master of the workhouse, 617. 

*31. B2. Bishop Middleham (8 
sse.Du.) (1) pc. and letter from Rev. 
C. A. Cartlege, vicar, who introduced 
me to dialect speakers, 653. 

*31. B3. Bishopton (5 nw. Stockton) 
pc. by Rev. C. H. Ford, vie. 644. 

*32. cl. Clickeminn (spelling un- 
known) (10 w. Durham, in Lanchester 
par.) dt. pal. by AJE. from Mr. Robson, 
bailiff, introduced by Canon Greenwell, 
653, No. 2. 

*32. c2. Collierley (\\ nw.Durham, 
containing Dipton and Pontop) dt. io. 
by Mr. Hugh Leslie, see Al, 653. 

32. D. Dalton-le-Dale (6 s. Sunder - 
land) pc. from Rev. T. T. Allen, vie. 

*31. El. Easington (9 e. Durham) dt. 
io. by Miss E. P. Harrison, of the 
rectory, 617. 

*32. E2. Edmundbyers (17 wnw. 
Durham) dt. io. with notes by Rev. 
W. Featherstonehaugh (-ha 1 ^, rect. 

31. G. Greatham (:griitem) (6 ne. 
Stockton), pc. from Rev. J. MacCartie, 

Hart, see Easington. 

31. H!. Hartlepool, pc. from Rev. 
E. R. Ormsley, rect. 

*31. H 2. Heathery Cleugh (rkliuf) 
(27 w.Durham) dt. io. by Mr. Dalton, 
schoolmaster, 617. 

*32. K. Kelloe (6 se.Durham) (1) 
pc. from Rev. W. S. Kay, vie., (2) dt. 
pal. by AJE. from R. Heightley, 653. 

*32. Ll. Lanchester (7 nw.Durharn) 

wl. io. by Rev. J. Dingle, vie., and 
see cl, 653. 

*31. 1,2. Lower Teesdale,near Stock- 
ton, cs. pal. by AJE. in 1876 from 
Mrs. Alfred Hunt, 617. 

*31. Ml. Middleton-in-Teesdale (30 
wnw. Stockton) on the Tees (1) wl. io. 
by Rev. J. Milner, vie., 634, and 
notes by JGG. 

31. M2. Monk Hesledon (5 nw. 
Hartlepool) pc. from Rev. R. Taylor, 

31. B. Eyhope (3 s.Sunderland) pc. 
from Rev. W. Wilson, vie. 

31. si. St. Andrew Auckland (1 
s. Bishop Auckland, see B!) pc. from 
Rev. R. Long, vie. 

*31. s2. St. John's Wear dale (24 
wsw. Durham) wl. pal. by JGG. 634 

31. s3. Seaham (4 s.Sunderland) pc. 
from Rev. W. A. Scott, vie. 

31. s4. Sedgefield (10 sse. Durham) 
pc. from Rev. J. P. Eden, rect. 

32. s5. Shincliffe (2 sse. Durham) 
pc. from Rev. G. P. Bulman, rect. 

*32. s6. South Shields from Rev. 
C. Y. Potts, wl. in gl. 672, and cs. 
in gl. pal. by AJE. from diet, of Mr. 
T. Pyke, native, 645. 

*31. s7. 

(1) pc. from Rev. C. Clayton, vie., 
and letter from Rev. C. Cosbey, curate ; 

(2) dt. io. with notes by Mr. W. M. 
Egglestone, 617 to 619. 

*32. s8. Sunderland (1) dt. io. by 
Mr. E. Capper Robson, Esplanade; 
(2) full wl. by late Mr. Tom Taylor, 
native; (3) letter from Mr. W. Brockie 
with local song of ' ' Spottee ' ' and notes ; 
(4) dt. pal. by AJE. from Mr. Taylor 
Potts, 17, Derwent Street, Bishop 
Wearmouth, 653. 

31. Tl. Trimdon (8 se.Durham) pc. 
from Rev. R. Simpson, curate-in- 


32. T2. Tyneside, 6 or 8 miles each 
way, dt. io. and MS. glossary of 
Tyneside words by Rev. Blythe Hurst, 
vie. of Collierly, see A! and c2. 

31. wl. Witton-le-Wear (10 sw. 

12. Es.=Essex, 25 

16. B 1 . lack Notley (9 nne . Chelms - 
ford) aq. from Rev. T. Owen, rect. 

*16. B2. Bradfield (9 ene. Colchester) 
dt. io. by Rev. L. G. Hayne, rect. 

*16. B3. Braintree (:braintri) (10 
nne.Chelmsford) wn. by TH. 221. 

16. s4. Brentwood (:barnt^d) (7 
ne.Romford) and 4 m. round, wl. io. 
by Mr. Arthur H. Brown. 

*16. s5. Brightlingsea (8 se. Col- 
chester) dt. and notes by Rev. Arthur 
Pertwee, vie., to illustrate Tendring 
hundred, 221. 

16. c. Chelmsford (:t|Emzfd) pron. 
of name obs. from a native by TH. 

16. El. Elsenham (15nw.Chelmsford) 
wl. by Rev. J. Whateley, vie. 15 y. 

*16. E2. Essex, various places, wn. 
by TH. 224. 

16. Gl. Great Chesterford (3 nw. 
Saffron Walden) wn. by TH. 

16. o2. Great Chishall (1 w. Saffron 
Walden) wl. io. by Mrs. Saraita Kent, 
wife of a principal farmer, obtained 
through Rev. S. S. Lewis, Corpus 
Christi College, Cambridge. 

16. o3. Great Clacton (13 se.Col- 
chester) dt. io. by Mr. G. Woodfall, 
certificated teacher. 

*16. o4. Great Dunmow (9 nnw. 
Chelmsford) cs. pal. by AJE. in 1873 
from diet, of Mr. J. N. Cullingford, 
native, 222, and phr. pal. from diet, of 
Mr. Roderick (see Ware, Ht.), together 
with wn. by TH. 221. 

Durham) pc. from Rev. J. F. Hodgson, 

31. w2. Wolsingham (12 wsw. 
Durham) aq. from Rev. R. H. Gray, 

places, all in D 16. 

*16. o5. Great Easton (8 sse. Saffron 
Walden) wn. TH. 221. 

16. 06. Great Saling (14 nvi Maldon) 
aq. from Rev. T. W. Elvington, vie. 

*16. o7. Great Shalford (15 nnw. 
Maldon) aq. from Rev. H. B. Philip, 
vie., andwn. by TH. 221. 

16. H. Henham (6s. Saffron Walden) 
wn. by TH. 

16. i. Ingatestone (10 ne.Romford) 
Iw. from Mr. N. W. Wyer. 

*16. M. Maldon, dt. pal. by AJE. 
from Miss Wing, of Whitelands, 
formerly pupil teacher there, 223. 

16. N. Newport (4 ssw. Saffron 
Walden) wn. by TH. 

*16. pi. JF 
dt. io. by Mr. J. F. T. Wiseman, the 
Chase, 221. 

*16. p2. Panfield (13 nnw.Maldon) 
dt. io. and aq. by Rev. E. J. Hill, 
rect., with wn. by TH. 221. 

*16. R. Rayne (12 nw. Maldon) aq. 
from (anonymous) rect., 221. 

*16. si. Southend, Iw. byLLB. and 
Mr. Ph. Benton, WakeringHall, 221 -2. 

*16. s2. Stanway (3 w.Colchester) 
dt. io. by Rev. E. H. Crate, Rose 
Cottage, 221. 

*16. s3. Stebbing (Bran End), (11 
n. Chelmsford) wn. by TH. 221. 

16. T. ^aarferf(16nnw.Chelmsford) 
Iw. compiled by Rev. Prof. Skeat, 
Cambridge, from the pron. of his cook, 
native, and pal. by AJE. from Prof. 
S.'s reading. 

13. Gl.= Gloucester, 

6. Al. Ashchurch (3 ne.Tewkesbury) 
wl. by Rev. H. S. Warleigh, rect. 
10y., andwn. by TH. 

*4. A2. Aylburton (4 wnw. Berkeley) 
phr. from Miss Trotter, and cwl., 66 ; 
see Coleford Gl. (name misprinted 
Potter on 66). 

4. si. Berkeley, Vale of, cs. io. 
from Mr. J. H. Cooke, of that place, 
25 y., obtained by Mr. Bellows for 

4. B 2. Birdlip (rbaidi'p) (7 ese. 
Gloucester) wn. by TH. 

4. B3. Bishop's Cleve (3 n.Chelten- 
ham) wn. by TH. 

26 places in D 4 and 6. 

4. B4. Bisley (3 e.Stroud) wl. io. 
from Rev. T. Keble, vie. 

4. B5. Bristol wn. by TH. 

4. s6. Brockworth (4 ese. Gloucester) 
wn. by TH. 

*6. B7. BucUand (11 ene.Tewkes- 
bury) wn. by TH. from native railway 
porter, who resided there till 25, p. 113. 

4. cl. Cheltenham (itiEltoem) wn. 

*4. c2. Cirencester (rsmteii) wl. by 
Miss Martin, of Whitelands, pal. vv. 
by AJE. 66, and wn. by TH. 

*4. c3. Coleford (9 nw. Berkeley), 
representing the Forest of Dean, from 




Mr. E. D. Trotter (misprinted as 
Potter on 66), cs. 60, phr. 66, cwl. 66. 

4. c4. Compton Abdale (8 se. Chelten- 
ham) dt. io. by Rev. H. Morgan, vie., 
assisted by Rev. "W. H. Stanton, rect. 
of Hazleton (9 ese. Cheltenham) and 
Rural Dean, representing the Cotswold 
hills Gl. 

4. Dean, Forest of. See Coleford. 

*6. E. Ebrington (18 ne. Cheltenham) 
wn. by TH. 113. 

4. p. Fairford (23 ese, Gloucester) 
wn. by TH. 

*4. G. Gloucester Vale and Town, 
vv. from Mr. J. Jones, cs. 60, cwl. 66. 
Town, wn. by TH. 

4. nl. Highnam (2 wnw. Gloucester) 
wn. by TH. 

4. n2. Hucclecote (3 e. Gloucester) 
wn. by TH. 

6. K.1. -ZT<?m<erfow(5ene.Tewkesbury), 

on spike of Gl. projecting into Wo., 
words noted by Rev. J. I. Mercier, 
3 months. 

4. K2. King's Wood (4 ene. Bristol), 
representing the colliery region of 
King's Chase or King's Wood, cs. io. 
by Samuel Griffith. 

6. L. Long Marston or Marston Sicca 
(21 ne. Cheltenham) note by TH. 

4. M. Maisey Hampton (6 ese, Ciren- 
cester) wn. by TH. 

*6. s. Shenington (5 wnw.Banbury), 
locally in Ox., (1) lw. from diet, by 
TH. 118, (2) dt. pal. by AJE. from 
Miss Harris, of Whitelands, 117, 118. 

*4. Tl. r^wv/(8sse.Stroud),from 
Miss Frampton, cs. 60, cwl. 66, wn. 
by TH. 

6. T2. Tewkesbury, wn. by TH. 

*4. w. Whitcomb or Witcomb (5 ssw. 
Cheltenham) wn. by TH. 66. 

14. Ha. = Hampshire, with Wi.= Isle of Wight, 13 places in 
D 4 and 5. 

*5. A. Andover (1) lw. io. by 
E. S. Bewly, see Stowmarket, Sf . ; 
(2) specimens taken down by Prof. 
Schroer, 98 to 107. 

4. B. Broughton (10 wnw. Win- 
chester) wl. by Rev. S. Lee, rect. 

*4. cl. Christchurch notes in letter 
from Lady Wolf to LLB., see also 
Iford below, 75. 

5. c2. Corhampton (10 se.Win- 
chester) lw. from Rev. H. R. Fleming, 

*5. E. East Stratton (8 nne. Win- 
chester) dt. io. by Rev. S. E. Lyon, 
vie. 96. 

*4. i. Iford (1 w. Christchurch) wl. 
io. by Mr. W. W. Farr, representing 
the part, of Ha. w. of the Avon, 75. 

5. N!. Northwood (:naRthwd) (2 s. 
Cowes, Wi.) wl. and dt. io. by Rev. 
C. E. Seaman. 

4. N2. Nursling (rnaslin) (12 sw. 
Winchester) wl. by Rev.H. C.Hawtrey. 

4. K. Ringwood (7 n. Christchurch) 

15. He. = Herefordshire, 

13. A. Almcley (ra'mijlii) (8 s-by-e. 

Presteign, Rd. and He.) from the 

(unnamed) vie. who said Eardisley 

(2 sw.Almeley) is called (arslii). 

13. D!. Dinmore (7 n-by-w. Here- 
ford) wn. by TH. 

*13. o2. Docklow (5 ese.Leominster) 
cs. and other specimens in so. by Mr. 
R. Woodhouse, Newhampton, 30 y. 
obtained by LLB. 177. 

by AJE. from diet, of a carter in 
service of Messrs. Moore and Moore, 
native, 15 y. away. 

*5. si. Shorwell (:shaK,'L, :shon'L) 
(5 ssw.Newport, Wi.) wl. io. from 
Mr. James Titmouse, schoolmaster, 
14 y. continuously, through Rev. R. 
Broughton, vie. 107. 

*5. s2. Southampton to Winchester, 
so called on p. 97, see below Win- 
chester to Southampton, so called on 
p. 91, cs. from diet, of Mr. Percival 
Leigh, 97. 

*5. wl. West Stratton (7. ne.Win- 
chester) dt. io. from the late Dr. A. C. 
Burnell, native, 96. 

5. w2. Wight, Isle of, generally, 

(1) wds. by Rev. R. N. Durrant, 
Arreton Vic. (2 se. Newport, Wi.) ; 

(2) wds. and letter from Mr. C. Roach 
Smith, F.S.A., of Stroud, author of the 
Isle of Wight Glossary. 

*5. w3. Winchester to Southampton, 
see above s2. 

17 places in D 4 and 13. 

*4. E. Eggleton (8 ne. Hereford) cs. 
and spec, both in a peculiarly keyed 
orthography by Miss Anna M. Ford 
Piper, obtained in 1875 by LLB. 69 
to 75. 

*13. H. Hereford and its neighbour- 
hood, (1) cs. in so. by Mr. James 
Davies, solicitor, of that town, obtained 
by LLB. ; (2) cs. in the 1847 phono- 
typy of EUis and Pitman [see Part IV. 


pp. 1183-1186] by Mr. Joseph Jones, 
bookseller, transliterated into pal. by 
AJE., obtained in 1875 by LLB. 
I was not able to use either version ; 
(3) wn. TH. 180. 

*4. Ll. Ledbury (12 e.Hereford) cs. 
by Rev. C. Y. Potts and Mr. J. C. 
Gregg, 69-73. 

13. L2. Leintwardine (11 nnw.Leo- 
minster) wn. by TH. 

*13. L3. Leominstervtn. b. TH. 180. 

*13. L4. Lower Bache Farm (3 
ene.Leominster) (1) Iw. in io. and aq. 
by Mr. G. Burgiss, native, fanner, 
obtained through LLB. ; (2) wn. and 
dt. pal. by TH. from diet, of Messrs. 
T. and J. Burgiss, brothers of Mr. 
G. Burgiss, 176, 180. 

13. L5. Lucton (:kk'n) (5 nw. Leo- 
minster) note by Rev. A. C. Auchmaty, 
Lucton House, 4 y. 

*4. M. Much Cowarne (9 ne Hereford) 
cs. in 1847 phonotypy written in 1847 

by Mr. J. Jones (see Hereford above) 
from diet, of Mr. Herbert Ballard, 
10 y., pal. by AJE., obtained by LLB., 
see also Eggleton, given at p. 69 ; (2) 
wn. by TH. from Mrs. S. Griffiths, 
native, b. 1816, given on p. 73, notes 

*4. R. Ross (1) letter from W. H. 
Green to LLB. 68 ; (2) wn. by TH. 

13. si. Stockton (2 ne.Leominster) 
wn. by TH. 

4. s2. Stoke Edith (6 e-by-n. 
Hereford) wn. by TH. 

4. u. Upton Bishop (4 ne.Ross) dt. 
by Mr. Havergal. 

13. wl. Wacton (7 e.Leominster) 
wn. by TH. 

13. w2. Weobley (7 sw.Leominster) 
cs. io. written by a farmer, communi- 
cated to LLB. by Rev. C. J. Robinson, 
of Norton Canon (10 nw. Hereford), 
and by him referred to "Weobley. 

16. Ht.= Hertfordshire, 32 places in D 15, 16, and 17. 

16. Al. Anstey (14 ene.Hitchin) 
from Rev. T. T. Sale, rect. 

*16. A2. Ardeley or Yardley (8 
e-by-s.Hitchin) dt. io. with aq. by Rev. 
C. Malet, then curate, and wn. from 
several old natives by TH. 200, 201. 

15. al. Berkhampstead (10 w.St. 
Albans) notes obtained by LLB. 

16. B2. Bishop's Stortford (:stA'fed) 
(11 ne. Hertford) pron. of name ob- 
tained by TH. 

16. s3. Boxmoor (7 ws w.St. Albans) 
note from Rev. A. C. Richings sent 
to LLB. 

16. B4. Braughing (:brafin) pron. 
of name obtained by TH. 

*16. B5. Buntingford (:bamfet) (10 
nne.Hertford) wn. by TH. 201. 

*17. B6. Bushey (2 se. Watford) 
from Rev. W. Falconer, rect., 235. 

16. F. Furneaux Pelham (11 nne. 
Hertford) phr. by Rev. W. Wigram, 
vie., with notes by Mr. Roderick, 

16. Gl. Gilston (5 e.Ware) notes 
from Rev. J. L. Hallward, rect. 

16. o2. Great Gaddesden (7 wnw. 
St. Albans) notes by LLB. 

16. o3. Great Hormead (13 e. 
Hitchin) dt. io. from Rev. J. S. F. 
Chamberlain, vie., representing the 
" Wilds of Herts." 

16. Hi. Hadham (7 ne. Hertford) 
wn. by TH. 

*16. H2. Harpenden (4 n-by-w.St. 

Albans) dt. io. from Mr. T. Wilson, 
Rivers Lodge, 203. 

*16. n3. Hatfield (6 wsw.Hertford) 
wn. by TH. 203. 

16. n4. Hemel Hempstead (5 w.St. 
Albans) note by LLB. 

*16. n5. Hertford wn. by TH. 

*16. n6. Hertford Heath (2 se. 
Hertford) wn. by TH. 

*16. n7. Hitchin dt. by Mr. C. W. 
Wilshere, the Frythe, Welwyn, pal. 
from indications by AJE. 203. 

17. K. King's Langley (6 sw.St. 
Albans) note by LLB. 

15. Ll. Little Gaddesden (10 nw. 
St. Albans) note obtained by LLB. 

15. L2. Long Marston (16 wnw. St. 
Albans) note obtained by LLB. 

*17. R. Rickmansworth (3 sw. 
Watford) note sent to LLB. by Mr. 
W. H. Brown,' national school master, 
and note by LLB. 235. 

*16. si. St. Albans, wds. from Mr. 
R. R. Lloyd, 8y., 235. 

16. s2. Sandridge (3 ne.St. Albans) 
dt. notes, and Iw. all in io. by Rev. J. 
Griffith, of that place. 

16. s3. Sawbridgeworth, called 
(rsaep-surd) by old people (10 e-by-n. 
Hertford) (1) wl. and dt. io., and notes 
by Mrs. John Barnard, Spring Hall, 
12y., and (2) note by TH. from Prof. 
Skeat, who give (:saapsB). 

*16. s4. Stapleford (3 nnw.Hertford) 




(1) dt. io. by Rev. D. Barclay, rect., 
and (2) wn. by TH. 199. 

15. T. Tring (14 wnw.St. Albans), 
note obtained by LLB. 

*16. wl. Ware cs. and Iw. pal. in 
1876 from diet, of Mr. J. W. Roderick, 
197 to 200, wn. by TH. 199. 

16. w2. Watford, note by LLB. 
*16. w3. Welwyn (1) wl. pal. by 

AJE. from diet, of Miss Foxlee, of 
Whitelands, not usable, 197 ; (2) dt. 
io. with notes and phr. by Mr. C. W. 
Wilshere, of the Frythe, 202. 

16. w4. Weston (5 e.Hitchin) wl. 
io. by Rev. A. C. Roberts, vie., as- 
sisted by Mr. M. R. Pryor, Manor 
House, native. 

17. Hu.= Huntingdonshire, 21 places, all in D 16. 

16. A. Alconbury (4 nnw. Hunting- 
don) Iw. io. by Rev. R. Con way, vie., 
assisted by Mr. G. Johnston, of 
Broughton (5 ne. Huntingdon). 

16. ol. Godmanchester (1 se.Hun- 
tingdon) wn. by TH. 

16. o2. Great Catworth (9 w. Hun- 
tingdon), from Rev. E. C. Purley, 

16. o3. Great Gidding (10 nw. 
Huntingdon 1 ) wn. by TH. 

16. o4. Great Paxton (4 ssw. Hun- 
tingdon), from Rev. H. I. Nicholson, 
of that place. 

*16. o5. Great Stukeley (2 nnw. 
Huntingdon), (1) wl. and dt. io. by 
Miss Mary E. Ebden, then of the 
vicarage, with numerous notes pal. by 
AJE. 211 ; (2) wn. in 1881 by TH. 
from W. Johnson, b. about 1803, 
farm labourer, and James Valentine, 
b. 1806, to whom TH. was introduced 
by Miss Ebden, 211. 

16. nl. Hamerton (8 nw.Hunting- 
don), from Rev. D. G. Thomas, rect. 

16. n2. Hilton (4 se.Huntingdou), 
from Rev. T. Carrol, vie. 

*16. n3. Holme (10 nnw. Hunting- 
don), (1) wl. io. from Rev. W. A. 
Campbell, rect., representing the 
drained fen about Whittelsea Mere ; 
(2) wn. by TH. 212. 

16. H4. Houghton (:howt'n, rhoot'n) 

(3 e. Huntingdon), from Rev. E. A. 
Peck, rect. over 50 y. 

16. n5. Huntingdon, wn. in 1881 

16. K!. Keyston (12 wnw. Hunting- 
don), from Rev. J. P. Goodman, rect. 

16. TS.2. Kimbolton (9 wsw. Hunting- 
don) wn. by TH. 

16. L. Little Stukeley (3nnw.Hun- 
tingdon) wn. by TH. 

16. o. OldFletton(l S.Peterborough, 
Np.) wn. by TH. 

16. P. Pidley (7 ne. Huntingdon) 
wl. io. by Rev. R. W. Close, 2y., as- 
sisted by Mr. "W. Mason, Soinersham, 
(which see) representing e.Hu. 

16. si. St. Ives (5 e. Huntingdon) 
wn. 1873 and 1882 by TH. 

*16. s2. Sawtry (9 nnw. Hunting- 
don), (1) dt. io. by Miss Ebden, of 
Great Stukeley, (which see) from diet. 
of a maid servant, 212 ; (2) wn. by 
TH. in 1881 from J. Harlock,b. 1800, 
to whom he was introduced by Miss 
Ebden, 212. 

16. s3. Somersham (8 ene. Hunting- 
don) dt. io. by Mr. "W. Mason (see 
Pidley, which it adjoins). 

16. s4. Staneley (8 wsw. Huntingdon) 
wn. by TH. 

16. s5, Stilton (12 nnw. Hunting- 
don), (1) dt. io. from Rev. Thomas 
Hatton, rect., (2) wn. by TH. 

18. Ke. = Kent, 16 places, all in D 9. 

*9. cl. Charing (6 uw.Ashford) dt. 
from Miss Croucher, of "Whitelands, 

9. c2. Chatham, a wd. from Mr. S. 
Price, see Montacute, Sm. 

9. D. Denton (7 nw. Dover) from 
Rev. C. J. Hussey, rect. 

*9. F!. Faversham (8 wnw.Canter- 
bury) cs. written by Rev. H. Berin, 
pal. by AJE. in 1873 from diet, 
of Mr. H. Knatchbull-Hugessen, of 
Provender, with phrases and Iw. 137 
to 141. 

*9. r2. Folkestone Fishermen, dt. 
glossic by Mr. R. Stead, master of the 
Grammar School, Folkestone, 143. 

9. K. Kent county generally, wn. 

*9. Ml. Maidstone note by AJE. 
from Mr. Streatfield, native, Bank- 
house, 131, 1. 13. 

*9. M2. Margate Iw. by Mr. Basil 
Hodges, 20 y., 141. 

*9. R. Rolvenden (12 sw.Ashford) 
Iw. and dt. io. from Rev. J. W. Rumny, 
vie. misprinted Ramsay on p. 136. 


*9. si. Shadoxhurst, mispelled 
Shadshurst, on p. 131, 1. 6 (3 ssw. 
Ashford) dt. io. by Kev. C. T. Eolfe, 

9. s2. St. Nicholas (5 wsw.Margate) 
wl. and notes pal. by AJE. from diet, 
of Miss Peckham, of Whitelands, 141, 

*9. s3. Sheerness, nw. point of Isle of 
Sheppy, note by Miss Lowman, native 
of Ha., who had been all over it, 137. 

9. s4. Strood (1 W.Rochester) note 
by Miss Calland, of Whitelands. 

*9. s5. Stoke (6 nne. Chatham, be- 
tween Thames and Medway) Iw. and 
dt. io. with aq. by Eev. A. E. Harris, 

*9. s6. Stourmouth (5 nw. Sandwich) 
notes by Rev. R. Drake, rect., 141. 

*9. w. Wingham (6 e. Canterbury) 
dt. io. by Rev. F. W. Ragg, for the 
Highlands of Kent, 142. 

19. La. = Lancashire, 61 places in D 21, 22, 23, and 31. 

23. Al. Ableystead (7 se.Lancaster) 
wn. by TH. 

Ashton-under-Lyne, see Stalybridge. 

*22. Bl. Blackburn (1) wn. and dt. 
pal. by TH., cwl. 346, dt. 339 ; (2) 
Iw. io. by Mr. T. Fielding in cwl. 346, 
this list comprised also words from 
several other places mentioned below, 
very valuable at first, but superseded 
by TH.'s work afterwards. 

23. s2. Blackpool (15 wnw. Preston) 
from H. Fisher, Mus.D. 

*22. B3. Bolton (1) wl. by Mr. Ch. 
Rothwell, M.R.C.S., 40y. to 50 y. 343 ; 
(2) wn. by TH. ; (3) Iw. io. by Mr. T. 
Fielding, see B!. 

*31. s4. Broughton -in- Furness 
(ibra'wtf'n i :fA ( rnes) (8 ssw.Coniston) 
wn. and dt. pal. from diet, by TH., 
dt. and phr. 553, cwl. 627. 

*22. s5. Burnley (1) cs. pal. 1875-6 
from a native by TH. 332 ; (2) cwl. by 
Mr. T. Healey, of the Science and Art 
Department, with wn. by TH., form- 
ing a cwl. 350. 

21. s6. Bury, Miss ffarington's cs. 
(see Leyland) read to me in 1873 by 
Rev. Mr. Langston, sometime cm-ate 
of Bury, but I was unable to make use 
of it. 

*31. cl. Cark-in-Cartmel(5e-\)y-s. 
TJlverston), wn. in 1881 by TH. es- 
pecially from Betty Butler, b. 1797, 
near Grasmere, but her speech was too 
mixed to be trustworthy, cwl. 627. 

*31. c2. Caton (4 ene. Lancaster) 
wn. by TH. given in wl. 626. 

*22. c3. Charley (10 nw.Bolton) wn. 
by TH. 345. 

22. c4. Clitheroe Iw. io. by Mr. T. 
Fielding, see Bl. 

*22. c5. Cliviger Valley (2 sse. 
Burnley) wn. TH. 350. 

*31. c6. Cockerham (6 s-by-w.Lan- 
caster) wn. by TH. 626. 

*22. c7. Colne Valley (6 nne. Burnley) 

, , , 

wl. io. by Rev. T. Ellwood, pal. 
AJE. from diet, of Miss Bell ; (3) wn. 

from Mr. Hartley Stuttard, through 
Mr. John Shelly, 340, 341. 

*31. c8. Coniston (1) cs. originally 
written io. by Mr. Roger Bowness, 
b. 1804, with aq. and explanations 
from Rev. T. Ellwood, of Torver (2 
ssw.Coniston), afterwards pal. from 
Miss Bell, native, 558, 563, 597 ; (2) 

l. b 
ll ; (3 
by TH., the last two, 627. 

31. D. Dalton (5 sw.IJlverston) wl. 
io. by Rev. John Atkinson, Rydal, 
Ambleside, occasioning, on account of 
some anomalies, a long correspondence, 
and Rev. T. Ell wood's obtaining a 
partial wl. from Mr. T. Butler, solici- 
tor, native, who had known the place 
intimately for 45 years, and who de- 
cided against the anomalies. 

22. E. Earlestown (8 sw.Wigan) wn. 
by TH. 

21. rl. Failsworth (4 ne. Manches- 
ter), phrs. noted from ' Ben Brierley' 
in his public readings, by TH. 

*22. F2. Farrington (3 s. Preston) 
wn. by TH. 345. 

*23. r3. Fylde district, see 352 for 
full account ; note from Mr. T. Cum- 
berland, Harburn, St. (3 sw. Birming- 
ham, Wa.), not used. 

23. Gl. Crarstanff(:gJB.a-stin) (lOnnw. 
Preston), note by TH. attached to next. 

*23. o2. Goosnargh (:gwuzner) (5 
nne.Preston), (1) cs. pal. by TH. from 
diet, of Mr. E. Kirk, native, 354 ; (2) 
wn. by TH. 359. 

22. Hi. Halliwell (2 wnw.Bolton) 
wn. by TH. 

*22. n2. Haslingden (7 ssw.Burnley) 
wn. by TH. 346. 

*31. H3. Heysham (:iisi3m) (4w-by-s. 
Lancaster) wl. by Rev. C. Twenlow 
Royds, rect. 12 y., cwl. 626. 

22. n4. Higham (3 nw. Burnley) Iw. 
io. from Mr. T. Fielding, see Bl. 




*31. n5. High Nibthwaite (7 n. 
Ulverston) wn. by TH. 627. 

Higher Walton, see Walton -le- dale, 
wl, below. 

*22. n6. Hoddlesden (4 sse. Black- 
burn) dt. pal. 1879 by TH. from diet, 
of native, 339, and wn. 346. 

*31. n7. Hornby (8 ne. Lancaster) 
wn. by TH. 626. 

*23. K. Kirkham (8 w-by-n. Preston) 
wn. by TH. 359. 

*31. Ll. Lancaster, wn. by TH. 

22. L2. Leigh (9 ene.St. Helens). 
Rev. J. H. Stanhing, curate in charge 
in 1873 said the gh was pron. as a 
guttural ; places of the same name were 
in 1875 called (rlis'tth) in Ch., and (:lai) 
also written Lye in Ke. 

*22. L3. Leyland (5 s. Preston) cs. 
pal. 1877 from Miss ffarington, with 
remarks by three other natives, 332, 
337, and wn. by TH. 345. 

*31. L4. Lower Holker in Cartmel 
(5 e.Ulverston) cs. pal. 1877 by TH. 
from diet. 558, 563, 596<f. 

21. Ml. Manchester (1) wl. io. by 
Mrs. Linnaeus Banks, acquainted with 
the dialect from childhood ; (2) note by 
JGG. ; (3) nwl. io. by Rev. J. C. 
Casartelli, M.A., St. Bede's, Man- 
chester College, for the environs. 

22. n2. Mellor (2 nw. Blackburn) cs. 
pal. 1876 by AJE. from diet, of Mrs. 
Coulter, native, but long absent, and 
I felt that my appreciation was inac- 
curate, hence I have not used it. 

21. M3. Moston (4 ne. Manchester) 
nwl. by Mr. G-. Milner. 

*31. Nl. Newton -in -Cartmel (7 
ene.Flverston) note by Mr. J. Stock - 
dale, writer of the translation of SS. 
chap. ii. for Lonsdale n. of the Sands, 
reproduced on p. 550. 

*31. N2. Newton -le- Willows or 
Newton-in- Makerfield (4 e.St. Helens) 
wn. by TH. 342. 

*21. ol. Oldham (1) Iw. from Mr. 
T. Fielding, see B! ; (2) wn. by TH. 

*22. o2. Ormskirk (7 se.Southport) 
wn. by TH. 342. 

*21. pi. Patricroft (4 w. Manchester) 
wn. by TH. 322. 

*22. p2. Penwortham (rpEn-Brd^m) 
(1 sw. Preston) wn. 1877 by TH. 
from Mr. Kirk, see Goosnargh, of 
which he was a native, though he had 
resided 60 years in Penwortham. 

*23. p3. Ponlton-le-Fylde (13 nw. 
Preston) cs. first by Mr. Bellows sent 
to LLB., not used, and second pal. 
1876 by TH. with phrases, 354, 

*22. p4. Prescot (3 wsw.St. Helens) 
wn. by TH 342. 

23. p5. Preston, wn. by TH. 

31. a. Quernmoor (3 ne. Lancaster} 
wn. by TH. 

21. Rl. Royton (2 nnw. Oldham) wn. 

*21. R2. Rochdale and neighbour- 
hood, wn. by TH. 322. 

22. si. Sabden (5 nw.Burnley) Iw. 
from Mr. T. Fielding, see si. 

*22. s2. Samlesbury (:sanrzbm) (4 
ene. Preston) wl. io. by Mr. "W. 
Harrison, F.S.A., Samlesbury Hall, 
representing the parishes of Blackburn, 
Preston, and Whalley, 346. 

*22. s3. Skelmersdale (:skjvm-vrzdil) 
(1 nnw. St. Helens) cs. pal. 1878 by 
TH. from natives, 332 ; wn. by TH. 

31. s4. Skerton (1 nw.Lancaster) 
wn. by TH. 

*21. s5. Stalybridge (1 e.Ashton), 
half in La. and half in Ch. (which 
see s3) cs. pal. 1876 by TH. from Mr. 
J. Marsland, 317. 

*31. u. Ulverston (:us"n) (1) cs. io. 
by Mr. Pearson, native, obtained by 
Rev. T. Ellwood, but I was not able 
to interpret it satisfactorily ; (2) wn. 
by TH. 627. 

*22. wl. Walton-le-dale, or Higher 
Walton (2 se.Preston) wn. by TH. 

*22. w2. Warrington wn. by TH. 

*22. w3. Westhoughton (ra'wt'n) (5 
wsw.Bolton), this represents the Bolton 
neighbourhood, cs. pal. 1876 with wn. 
by TH. 332, 343. 

*22. w4. Whalley (3 s-by-w. 
Clitheroe) Iw. io. by Mr. T. Fielding, 
see si, and Mr. "W. Harrison, 346. 

*2 2 . w5 . Wig an ( : wigin) and neigh - 
bourhood, (1) wn. by TH. 343; (2) 
wl. io. from Wigan to Ashton in 
Makerfield (4 s. Wigan), by Sir J. A. 
Picton, F.S.A., Sandy Knowe, Waver- 
tee (3 ese. Liverpool) 50 y., during 
which the dialect has much changed. 

*22. w6. Worsthorn (2 e. Burnley) 
wn. by TH. 350. 

*23. w7. Wyersdale (6 sse. Lancaster) 
dt. and wn. by TH. 358, 359. 



20. Le.= Leicester, 19 places in D 29. 

29. A. Ansty (3 nw.Leicester) wn. 
by TH. 

29. B!. Barlestone (10 w-by-n. 
Leicester) wn. by TH. 

29. B2. Barwell (rbarel) (2 ne. 
Hinckley) wds. by Rev. R. Titley, 

*29. B3. Belgrade (1 n. Leicester) 
nwl. and dt. by Miss Charlotte Ellis, 
who has lived near Leicester all her 
life, 472, 489. 

*29. B4. Sir stall (3 n. Leicester) 
wds. from Miss Allen, 489. 

29. s5. Blaby (5 s-by-w.Leicester) 
wn. by TH. 

*29. c. CottesbacJi (:ko'tesbati) (10 
~ 3V. J. S. Wa 

se. Hinckley) wl. by Re 1 
rect. 489. 

*29. E. Enderby (4 sw. Leicester) 
variants by Miss E. Hirst, of White - 
lands, from the "Waltham cs. 464, and 
wn byTH. 

*29. G. Glenfield (3 wnw. Leicester) 
wn. by TH. 489. 

29. H. Harby (14 ne. Lough - 
borough) wds. by Rev. M. 0. Norman, 

29. i. Elston-on-the-Hitt (8 ese. 
Leicester) wn. by TH. 

*29. Ll. Leicester (1) cs. in gl. with 
aq. by the late Mr. Geo. Findley, not 
used, see 464 ; (2) wn. by TH. from 

Mr. Findley, 489 ; (3) letter from Mr. 
W. Napier Reeve, F.S.A., 35y., saying 
he could not see in my wl. any word 
"of which the pron. in Leicester is 
different from rec. pron., I am," he 
added, "an Essex man. I have been 
in this town 35 years. I have been 
often struck with the few provincialisms 
among the people of this county com- 
pared with those of Essex" ; (4) for 
town and neighbourhood a few notes 
from J. H. Chamberlain, Small Heath, 
Birmingham, having been 20 years 
there and 40 in Leicester. 

*29. L2. Loughborough wn. in 
1878-9 by TH. 489. 

*29. Ml. Market Harborough (14 
se.Leicester) wn. by TH. 489. 

29. M2. Mount Sorrel (6 n. Leicester) 
wn. by. TH. 

29. N. Normanton (3 sse.Ashby-de- 
la-Zouche) from Miss Green of the 

*29. s. Syston (5 nne. Leicester) full 
wl. pal. by AJE. from Miss M. A. 
Adcock, teacher at Whitelands, 489. 

29. T. Thurcaston (4 nnw. Leicester) 
wn. by TH. 

*29. w. Waltham (16 ene. Lough - 
borough, in the horn of Le.) cs. pal. 
by AJE. from Miss H. Bell, of White- 
lands, see also E above, 464. 

21. Li. = Lincolnshire, 55 places in D 18 and 20. 

20. Al. Aisthorpe (6 nnw.. Lincoln), 
aq. by Rev. T. W. Bury, rect. 

20. A2. Alford (10 se.Louth), 
note by Mrs. "Williams, see s2 below, 

20. A3. Axholme, Isle of (4 to 18 
n. Gainsborough) Iw. io. by Mr. Stand- 
ring, of Working Men's College. 

20. Bl. Barnoldby-le-Beck(.\)AJJw\>\) 
omitting le Beck (4 sw. Great Grimsby), 
full wl. and dt. io. by Rev. Morgan G. 
Watkins, M.A. 

*20. B2. Barrowby (2 w.Grantham) 
wn. by TH. from a native then living 
at Newark, Nt. 299. 

20. B3. Bechingham (11 nnw. Gran - 
tham) aq. from the (anonymous) 

*20. B4. Billingborough (13 e.Gran- 
tham, and 6 m. round), full wl. cor- 
rected w. by AJE. from Mr. T. 
Blasson, surgeon, b. 1833, native and 
constant resident, 299. 

20. B5. Blyton (3 nne. Gainsborough), 
aq. from Rev. J. S. Cockshall, vie. 

20. B6. Bracebridge (2 S.Lincoln) 
aq. from Rev. C. C. Ellison, vie. 

*20. s7- Brigg or Glanford Brigg 
(17 w.Great Griinsby) (1) wl. pal. by 
AJE. from diet, of Mr. E. Peacock, 
F.S.A., Bottesford Manor, author of 
the Manley and Corringham Glossary, 
b. 1833, with a dt. pal. by AJE. from 
the wl. 312, 313 ; (2) wn. by TH., see 

20. B8. Brocklesby (8 wnw.Great 
Grimsby), note by Mrs. Williams, see s2. 

20. cl. Caistor(\\ wsw.Gt. Grimsby) 
note by Mrs. Williams, see s2. 

20. c2. Conlngsby (rkz^-nwrsbi) (10 
wnw.Boston) wl. and dt. io. by Rev. 
Canon Wright, rect. 

20. c3. Crowle (14 n-by-w.Gains- 
borough) aq. from Rev. F. W. White. 

*20. E. Epworth (8 nnw. Gains- 
borough) cs. pal. by AJE., described, 
and why rejected, on p. 312, see w2. 

20. rl. Faldingworth (10 ne. Lincoln) 
aq. by Rev. W. S. Mackean, pro. rect. 




20. F2. Fillingham (9 se. Gains- 
borough) note from Rev. J. Jenkins, 

*20. j?3. FrisTcney (3 sw-by-s.Wain- 
fleet) nwl. with rules and ex. io. by 
Rev. H. J. Cheales, vie. 298. 

20. r4. Fulstow (1 n.Louth) Iw. by 
Rev. Alex. Johnson, vie. 

20. ol. Gainsborough, aq. by Rev. 
W. J. Williams, vie. 

20. o2. Glanford Brigg, see Brigg. 

20. o3. Grantham (tgra^tham) cs. 
io. by Mr. Cockman, national school- 
master, read to AJE. by Miss Cockman, 
of Whitelands, but as both were London- 
ers and she was uncertain on some points 
I was obliged to pass it by. 

20. o4. Great C&ates (2 w. Great 
Grimsby) note by Mrs. Williams, see s2. 

20. G<5. Great Grimsby note by Mrs. 
"Williams, see s2. 

*20. Hi. Halton Holegate (6 nw. 
"Wainfleet) dt. and many specimens and 
notes pal. in April, 1881, from diet, 
of Mrs. Douglas Arden, 306 to 309, 

20. n2. Haxey( nnw. Gainsborough) 
aq. from Rev. J. Johnston, vie. 

20. n3. Healing -(3 w. Great Grimsby) 
note by Mrs. Williams, see s2. 

20. n4. Horbling (13 e.Grantham) 
wl. by Mr. H. Smith, representing 
"the parts of Kesteven" in sw.Li. 

20. H.5. Horncastle (17 e.Iincoln) 
note by Mrs. Williams, see s2. 

20. Kl. Keelby (6 w. Great Grimsby) 
note by Mrs. Williams, see s2. 

20. K2. Killingholme (8nw. Great 
Grimsby) note by Mrs. Williams, 
see s2. 

20. K3. Kingerby (15 e. Gains- 
borough) phr. from Rev. W. A. Cottee, 

20. Ll. Laceby (3 sw. Great Grimsby) 
note by Mrs. Williams, see Scartho. 

*20. L2. Lincoln, see Spilsby for 
wn. by TH. 309. 

*20. L3. Louth (1) Tennyson's 
Northern Farmer New Style rendered 
in gl. by Mr. T. Wemyss Bogg, 
surgeon, then of that place, see 
Somerby beloAV, and p. 297 ; (2) wn. 
by TH., see Spilsby, 309 ; (3) wl. by 
Mr. W. R. Emeris ; (4) note by Mrs. 
Williams, see s2. 

20. Nl. North Hykeham (:atan) 
(4 ssw. Lincoln) wl. by Rev. F. T. 
Cusins (:kiuzinz), 9 y. 

20. N2. North Kclsey (14 wsw. 
Great Grimsby) note from Rev. W. J. 
Chambers, vie. 

20. si. Saxby (10 nne.Lincoln) aq. 
from Rev. C. W. Markham, rect. 

20, s2. Soartho (2 s. Great Grimsby) 
wl. and dt. io, by Mrs. Williams, of 
the rectory. In relation to the s. 
hoose line 5, Mrs. Williams informed 
me that (uus) was said at Killing- 
holme, Ulceby, Thornton, but (a'us) 
at Brocklesby, Keelby, Great Coates, 
Stallingborough, Healing, Louth, Al- 
ford, Spilsby, Horncastle, Caistor, 
Great Grimsby, Laceby, Scartho, 
Waltham, which see in this list, thus 
completing line 5. 

*20. s3. Scatter (8 ne. Gainsborough) 
wl. corrected vv. by AJE., written 
by Rev. J. P. Faunthorpe, native and 
resident till 15, Principal of White - 
lands Training College, to whom I 
am indebted for the great assistance 
rendered by its teachers and students, 

20. s4. Scunthorpe (15 nne. Gains- 
borough, in parish of Frodingham) full 
wl. by Mr. Bernard Dawson, C.E. 
Mr, Peacock (see Brigg), who lives 
3 s. Frodingham, says it is full of 
miners, and that he should not trust 
any one's pron. unless he knew his 
birth. Hence I have thought Mr. 
Peacock's wl. p. 313, safer. 

20. s5. Skellingthorpe ( w. Lincoln) 
aq. from Rev. E. P. Armstrong, vie. 

*20, s6. SUaford (16 w.Boston) wn. 
by TH. 309. 

20. s7. Snitterby (11 ene. Gains- 
borough) note from Rev. R. E. 
Warner, rect. 

*20. s8. Somerby (22 e-by-n.Lincoln) 
representing the dialect from Horn- 
castle (17 e.Lincoln) to Spilsby (27 e. 
Lincoln), here I received great assist- 
ance on 23 March, 1881, from Lord 
(then Mr.) Tennyson, detailed 302 to 
306, who introduced me to Mrs. 
Douglas Arden, see Hi. 

*20. s9. Spilsby (8 ne. Wainfleet) 
(1) wn. by TH. from Rev. W. 
Jackson, 309 ; (2) note from Mrs. 
Williams, see s2. 

20. slO. Springthorpe (4 e. Gains- 
borough) note from Rev. E. L. 
Blenkinsopp, rect. 

20. sll. Stallingborough (4 nw. 
Great Grimsby) note by Mrs. Williams, 
see s2. 

*18. s!2. Stamford wn. by TH. 
from a man of 60, and again from 
a Rutland man who may not be trust- 
worthy, 254. 

20. Tl. Thoresway (10 sw.Great 




Grimsby) aq. from Rev. G. Maule, 

20. x2. Thornton (12 nw. Great 
Grimsby) note from Mrs. Williams, 
see s2. 

20. ul. Vlceby (10 nw. Great 
Grimsby) note from Mrs. Williams, 
see s2. 

20. u2. Vsselby (18 e-by-n. Gains- 
borough) aq. from Rev. A. Bower, vie. 

20. wl. Waltham (4 s-by-w.Great 
Grimsby) note from Mrs. Williams, 
see s2. 

*20. w2. Winterton (22 wnw. Great 
Grimsby) cs. pal. 1874 from diet, of 
Rev. J. J. Fowler, of Hatfield Hall, 
Durham, curate of Winterton in 1870 ; 
and this version was also read to me 
by a maid servant from Ep worth, 
which see, 312. 

22. Mi. = Middlesex, 7 places in D 17. 

*17. A. Ashford (7 sw. Brentford) 
note by Rev. F. B. Dickinson, 235. 

*17. B. Bromley (5 e. Charing Cross, 
London), representing e. London, wl. 
by JGG. 233. 

*17. E. Enfield (5 e.Barnet), (1) 
note by Mr. Joseph Whitaker, F.S.A., 
White Lodge, 15y., (2) note by Mr. J. 
H. Meyers, editor of Enfield Observer, 
(3) wn. io. from the chief mason, by 
LLB., 235. 

*17. nl. Hanwell (2 nnw. Brentford) 
note from Miss E. Coleridge, of the 
rectory, 235. 

*17. n2. Harmondsworth (7 w. 
Brentford) Iw. from Mr. Lake, school- 

*17. L. London wn. in various parts 
of the metropolitan area at very various 
times, by TH. 231. 

*17. s. South Myms (3 nnw.Barnet) 
notes from Rev. P. F. Hamond, vie. 

*17. w. Willesden (5 nne. Brentford) 
letter from Rev. J. Crane Wharton, 
vie. to LLB., and note from LLB. in 
Meyer's Enfield Observer, 28 Sep. 
1875, p. 235. 

23. Mo. = Monmouthshire, 3 places in D 13. 

13. cl.Caerleon or Liang attock (2 
ne. Newport) aq. by Rev. H. Powell 
Edwards, vie. 

*13. c2. Chepstow Iw. io. with long 
note, through Dr. J. Yeats, 179. 

*13. L. Llanover (12 w-by-s. Mon- 
month) cs. read to me by Lady Llanover 

in the presence of LLB., and variants 
suggested by LLB. from his own ob- 
servations and communications by Mr. 
Meredith, 179. 

13. P. Pontypool (8 nnw.Newport) 
aq. by Rev. J. C. Llewellin, vie. 

24. Nf.= Norfolk, 51 places in D 19. 

County, see Norwich. 

*19. A. Ashill (:ashel) (12 n.Thet- 
ford) notes by TH. 262. 

19. Bl. Binham (4 se.Wells-next- 
Sea) wn. by TH. 

19. s2. Brancaster (7 w. Wells - 
next-Sea) wn. by TH. 

*19. B3. Burnham (:baamm) West- 
gate (4 sw. Wells-next- Sea) wl. io. by 
Mr. C. H. Everard, Eton Coll., 28 y., 
p. 264. 

*19. 4. Buxton (9 n.Norwich) wn. 
by TH., who here had the misfortune 
to lose his note book containing the 
details of the pron. of numerous places 
visited in 1883, p. 278. 

19. c. Congham (:koqgmn) (6 ene. 
King's Lynn) nwl. by Rev. Canon 
Kersley, LL.D., rect. 

19. Dl. Diss (15 e-by-s.Thetford) 

wn. by TH. in 1881, with example, 
278, from a farm -labourer, native. 

19. D2. Ditchingham (12 sse. 
Norwich) wl. and phr. from Rev. W. 
Skudamore, rect., assisted by Rev. H. 
Frere, native of s.Nf. 

*19. D3. Downham Market (10 s. 
King's Lynn) wn. by TH. 262. 

*19. E. East Dereham (15 w-by-n. 
Norwich) (1) cs. io. with aq. by Mr. 
G. A. Carthew, of Millfield in 1873 ; 
(2) wn. by TH. 273. 

19. F. Fakenham (8 s.Wells-next- 
Sea) wn. by TH. 

19. ol. Gay wood (2 e. King's Lynn) 
wn. by TH. 

*19. o2. Great Dunham (14 ese. 
King's Lynn) wn. by TH. 262. 

*19. o3. Great Yarmouth (rjaameth) 
nwl. and dt. io. by Rev. J. J. Raven, 




D.D., then of the school house, with 
notes made vv. from him by AJE. in 
1879, this represents s.Nf. and nw.Sf. 
gen. 278. 

19. nl. Hardingham (13 w-by-s. 
Norwich) wn. by TH. 

*19. n2. Heacham (:itpm) (12 nne. 
King's Lynn) wn. by TH. 262. 

19. n3. Hempton (9 s.Wells -next- 
Sea) wn. by TH. 

19. H4. Hemsby (6 n. Great Yar- 
mouth) wl. io. by Rev. H. W. Harden, 

*19. H-5. Holme-next- Sea (13 w. 
Wells-next- Sea) wn. by TH. 262. 

*19. n6. Hunstanton St. Edmunds, 
close to Old Hunstanton (12 nne. King's 
Lynn), wn. by TH. 262. 

19. i. Ingham (14 .se.Cromer) wl. 
by Rev. G. Sharley. 

*19. K.1. Kimberley (10 wsw.Nor- 
wich) cs. pal. in 1873 from diet, of 
G. Ashby, native, but absent 33 years, 
and then gardener to LLB. 273. 

*19. x2. King's Lynn, wn. by 
TH. 262. 

*19. K3. Kirby Sedon (3 se.Nor- 
wich) Iw. pal. in 1868 by AJE. from 
diet, of Miss Cecilia M. Day, of the 
Vicarage, his first attempt at writing 
dialect from diet, with additions from 
her sister, Mrs. Luscombe, and Mr. 
Keith, 275 ; cs. io. with aq. by the 

*19. Ml. Mar ham (8 se. King's 
Lynn) wn. by TH. from J. W. Little, 
gardener, 45, then at W isbech, Cb. 262. 

*19. M2. Mattishall (imsets'l) (11 
wnw. Norwich) cs. pal. by AJE. from 
Miss Buckle, of Whitelands, 273. 

*19. M3. Middleton (3 se.King's 
Lynn) wn. by TH. 261, 262. 

*19. N!. Narborough (9 se.King's 
Lynn) wn. by TH. 262, and dt. 
pal. by TH. from diet, of a labourer, 
aged 70, p. 263. 

19. N2. Forth Elmham (13 sse. 
Wells-next- Sea) wn. by TH. 

*19. N3. North Tuddenham (11 nw. 
Norwich) wn. by TH. 279. 

*19. N4. North Walsham (:wAlsmn) 
(13 nne. Norwich) wl. and dt. io. by 
Mr. Baker, J.P. 272. 

*19. N5. Norwich (1) wn. by TH. 
from a native living in Db., also 279 ; 
(2) street cries pal. by AJE. in 1867, p. 
277 ; (3) wl. io. by Rev. G. P. Buck ; 

(4) various ex. pal. from diet, by AJE. 
from Dr. Lomb, 276, Mrs. Luscombe, 
277, Anonymous passenger, 277, and 
from letter of Rev. T. Birmingham, 27 7. 

*19. ol. Old Hunstanton (13 nne. 
Lynn) wn. by TH. 262. 

19. o2. Ovington (:aviqten) (12 nne. 
Thetford) wl. io. representing 3 n. and 
3 ne. of Watton (11 ne. Thetford) by 
Rev. C. J. Evans, rect. 12 y., native 
of Norwich. 

19. K. Ringstead (13 w-by-s.Wells- 
next-Sea) wl. io. by Mr. Everard 

*19. si. Snettisham (isnEtsum) (10 
nne. King's Lynn) wn. by TH. 262. 

*19. s2. Stmhoe (ista 1 ^) (8 sw. 
Wells-next-Sea) full wl. pal. in 1877 
by AJE., dt. pal. by AJE. 1879, both 
from diet, of Rev. Philip Hoste, native, 
50 y., in 1877, but then rect. of 
Farnham (10 wsw.Guildford, Sr.), 
with many notes and illustrations given 
me in two long visits, with an exami- 
nation of Forby, 264 to 272 ; (2) wn. 
by TH. 272. 

19. s3. Stoke Ferry (13 sse.King's 
Lynn) wn. by TH. 

19. s4. Stow (9 ssw.King's Lynn) 
wn. by TH. 

*19. s5. Swa/ham (13 se.King's 
Lynn) wn. by TH. 262. 

*19. Tl. Terrington St. Clements 
(4 w.King's Lynn) wn. by TH. 262. 

*19. T2. Thetford wn. by TH. 279. 

19. T3. Tivetshall (rtitsel) (17 ene. 
Thetford) name noted by TH. 

19. T4. Tuttmgton (12 n.Norwich) 
wl. io. by Rev. J. Gostle. 

19. wl. Walsingham (:wA > lziqgjam) 
(3 s. Wells-next- Sea) name noted by 

*19. w2. Warham (2 se. Wells- 
next-Sea) wl. io. by Rev. C. T. Digby, 

19. w3. Watton (11 nne.Thetford) 
wn. by TH. 

19. w4. Wells-next-Sea, wn. by 

*19. w5. Wiggenhall St. German's 
(4 ssw.King's Lynn) wn. by TH. 262. 

19. w6. Witton (9 se.Cromer) notes 
by Rev. F. Procter, vie. 

*19. w7. Wolferton (6 nne.King's 
Lynn) wn. by TH. 262. 

*19. w8. Wymondham (:wmdBm) 
(9 sw.Norwich) wn. by TH. 278. 

E.E. Pron. Part V. 



25. Np. = Northamptonshire, 52 places in D 6, 16, 18. 

*18. Al. Ailesworth (5 w.Peter- 
borough) in Castor parish, wn. by TH. 
from a labourer b. 1808, p. 254. 

*6. A2. Ashby St. Legers (3 n. 
Daventry) wn. by TH. from a native 
shepherd b. 1845, and another b. 1805, 
p. 120. 

*6. Bl. Badby (2| ssw.Daventry) 
wn. by TH. from persons b. 1807, and 
about 1831, p. 120. 

16. B2. Ellsworth (4 ssw. Northamp- 
ton) note by TH. 

*16. B3. Brixworth (6 n. Northamp- 
ton) wn. by TH. 219. 

*6. B4. Byfield (8 nne.Banbury) (1) 
from Rev. F. H. Curgenven, rect. 4 or 
5 y. ; (2) wn. by TH. especially from 
a native farm waggoner, b. 1803, p. 120. 

*18. cl. Castor (4| W.Peterborough) 
wn. by TH. 254. 

*16. c2. Clay Coton (6 w.Naseby) 
wn. by TH. 219. 

*6. Dl. Daventry (12 w-by-n. 
Northampton) wn. by TH. 120. 

16. D2. Denton (6 ese.Northampton) 
wn. by TH. 

16. D3. Duston (2 W.Northampton) 
from Rev. Peake Banton. 

*16. El. EastMaddon(7mr.yiortii- 
amptou) cs. wds. and phr. pal. by AJE. 
in 1873 from diet, of G. S. Hadley, 
railway porter, 213 to 216. 

*18. E2. Eye (3 ne. Peterborough) 
wn. by TH. from a carpenter, b. 1822, 
and a widow, a cottager, b. 1829, 
p. 254. 

6. F. Farthmghoe (:fardhin;oo) (5 
e-by-s.Banbury) wn. by TH. 

*16. G. Great Houghton (:a'wt"n) 
(3 ese.Northampton) wn. by TH. 219. 

16. H!. Hackleten (5 se. Northamp- 
ton) wn. by TH. 

*16. n2. .Zfcmmw^ow (5 nw. Welling - 
borough) wl. dt. io. with Iw. and aq. 
by Miss Downes, of the rectory, 216. 

*16. n3. Hardingstone (2 sse.Nor- 
thampton) wn. by TH. 219. 

16. n4. Hargrave (9 ene.Welling- 
borough) dt. and notes from Rev. R. 
S. Baker, rect. 

*16. n5. Harrington (:arinten) (5 
w.Kettering) wl. and dt. io. by Hon. 
and Rev. H. F. Tollemache, rect., and 
Miss Tollemache, 217. 

*6. n6. Helmdon (9 e-by-n. Ban- 
bury) wn. by TH., who says the dialect 
is similar to that of Towcester (which 
see), 120. 

16. il. //raster, formerly (.-aa'tjiste), 

now (raa'tjfsfre) (2 se.Wellingborough) 
wn. by TH. 

*16. i2. Islip (:A"islip) (Se.Ketter- 
ing) wn. by TH. 219. 

6. L!. Long Buckley (5 ne. Daventry) 
wn. by TH. 

*16. L2. Lower Benejield (:bEmfild) 
(14 nnw.Wellingborough) wl. and dt. 
io. by Rev. E. M. Moore, rect., and 
Mr. C. H. Wykes, schoolmaster, and 
the dt. afterwards pal. by TH. from 
the dictation of Mr. Wykes and various 
wn. from the same, 218, 219. 

*16. L3. LowicJc (7 ene.Kettering) 
wn. by TH. 219. 

*16. Nl. Nether Heyford (6 w-by-s. 
Northampton) wn. by TH. 219. 

*16. N2. Northampton (1) wn. by 
TH., and (2) notes from Miss Eva 
Chapman, of Whitelands, who knew 
the town speech only, 219. 

*16. o. Oundle (12 ne.Kettering) (1) 
notes from Mr. J. Cunnington, Tansor 
Lodge, and Mr. H. St. John Reade, 
school house, (2) wn. by TH. 219. 

*18. pi. Peakirk (5 n. Peterborough) 
wn. by TH. 254. 

*18. p2. Peterborough notes of town 
pron. from Miss E. Furness, of White - 
lands, and wn. by TH. 254. 

*18. R. Rockingham (Sn.Kettering) 
wn. by TH. from a native, b. 1814, 
and others, 254. 

*16. si. Sibbertoft (3 n-by-w. 
Naseby) wn. by TH. 219. 

6. s2. Silverstone (12 ssw.North- 
ampton) wn. by TH. 

6. s3. Slapton (11 sw. Northampton) 
dt. io. by Rev. Philip Lockton, rect. 

*16. s4. Stanion (6 nne.Kettering) 
wn. by TH. 219. 

*16. s5. Sudborough (1 ene.Ketter- 
ing) wn. by TH. 219. 

*6. s6. Syersham (11 e.Banbury) 
wn. by TH. 120. 

18. T!. Thornhaugh (8 w-by-n. Peter- 
borough) dt. io. from Rev. J. Jenkyns, 

*16. T2. Thrapston (8 e.Kettering) 
wn. by TH. 219. 

*6. x3. Towcester (8 ssw.North- 
ampton) wn. by TH. 120. 

18. u. U/ord (7 nw. Peterborough) 
note by Rev. T. Paley, rect. 

*18. wl. Wakerley (14 w. Peter- 
borough) wn. by TH. from a farm 
labourer, b. 1806, p. 254. 

*6. w2. Watford (5 line. Daventry) TH. 120. 



*6. w3. Weedon (4 se.Daventry) 
wn. by TH. 120. 

*16. w4. 
wn. by TH. 219. 

*16. w5. Wellingborough wn. by 
TH. 219. 

*18. w6. Werrington (3 nnw.Peter- 
borough) wn. by TH. 254. 

16. w7. West Haddon (1 ne. 

Daventry) from Rev. G. L. W. 
Fauquier, vie. 

6. w8. Wood Burcote (10 ssw. North- 
ampton) wn. by TH. 

*6. w9. Woodford (7 ssw. Daventry) 
wn. by TH. 120. 

*16. Y. Telvertoft (:jsrhtBt) (8 nne. 
Daventry) wn. by TH. in 1886 from a 
farm waggoner, b. 1812, p. 219. 

26. Kb. = Northumberland, 25 places in D 32. 

32. Al. Acklington (:<?<rklmten) (7 
sse.Alnwick) notes from Mr. Middleton 
H. David, Hauxley Cottage. 

*32. A2. Alnwick (1) dt. io. from 
Rev. James Blythe ; (2) dt. io. from 
Mr. R. Middlemas, solr., 654, 656, 
668 ; (3) Alnwick vowels, by Mr. G. 
Thompson, 668. 

32. A3. Ancroft (a'nkra^t) (4 s. 
Berwick-upon-Tweed) wl. io. and aq. 
from Rev. J. Henderson, 30 y. 

*32. B!. Backworth (5 ne. Newcastle) 
wl. by Mr. G. B. Foster, see Pitmen's 
speech, 674. 

*32. s2. Berwick-upon-Tweed, cs. 

l. by AJE., from Mr. G. M. Gunn, 
45, 652. 

*32. B_3. Birtley (9 nnw.Hexham, 
spelled Birkley in the parish registers) 
wl. io. with notes by Rev. G. Rome 
Hall, 674. 

32. D. Doddington (13 s. Berwick- 
upon-Tweed) wl. and aq. from Mr. 
J. F. Rea, 17 y. 

*32. E. Embleton (6 ne. Alnwick) 
(1) dt. io. for the agricultural popula- 
tion by Rev. M. Creighton, vie. ; (2) 
dt. io. for the fishing population up to 
Bamborough (14 n.Alnwick) by Rev. 
C. E. Green), both on 655, 656, 668. 

*32. F. Falstone (19 nw.Hexham), 
note in 1878 by JGG. 644. 

*32. Hi. 


dt. io. with aq. by Rev. "W. Howchin, 
654, 656, 664, No. 9. 

*32. H 2. Har bottle (17 wsw. Alnwick} 
dt. io. and notes by Dr. F. T. Richard- 
son, 654, 656, 664, No. 16. 

*32. n3. Hexham dt. pal. in 1879 
by AJE. from Messrs. J. Wright and 
Dobson, 654, 656, 663, Nos. 7 and 8. 

*32. K. Knaresdale(l7 sw.Hexham) 
cs. pal. 1876 by JGG. from diet, of 
Mr. Jacob Bell, 563, 602, No. 22. 

32. M. Morpeth wn. by AJE. 

*32. N!. New castle- on -Tynecs. pal. 
1879 by AJE. from writing of Mr. 
W. H. Dawson, and reading of Mr. 
T. Mitcheson, and Mr. T. Barkas, and 

conversations with J. Bryson and R. 
Young, miners, and Mrs. Ferschl, 645, 
650, and dt. pal. 1879 by AJE. from 
Mr. W. Lyall, 654, 656, No. 12. 

*32. N2. North Shields dt. pal. 
1879, by AJE. from Mr. J. S. Eding- 
ton, Symes Walk, 654, 656, No. 13. 

*32. n. Eothbury (11 sw. Alnwick) 

(1) cs. io. with aq. from Rev. Dr. 
Ainger, rect., written in 1873 from 
old men of 86 and 72, but it could 
not be properly interpreted even w. ; 

(2) dt. io. by Mr. C. H. Cadogan, 
Brenchburn Priory, Morpeth ; (3) wn. 
February, 1879, by AJE. from J. 
Ramsey, procured by Dr. Ainger, 678 ; 
(4) dt. pal. by AJE. from Mr. A. 
Scott, 654, No. 14. 

*32. si. Snitter (12 wsw. Alnwick) 
pal. by AJE. from Mr. T. Allen, 
of Whittingham, 654, No. 15, serving 
also for w3. 

*32. s2. Stamfordham (rsta'norten) 
(12 nw.Newcastle) dt. io. by Rev. 
J. F. Bigge, vie. 654, No. 10. 

*32. T. Tyne to Wansbeck Rivers, 
that is, the coal-fields, for the Pit- 
men's speech by Rev. Hugh Taylor, 
of Humshaugh (:hwmz'ha'f), 40 y., 
revised by Rev. J. Taylor and Mr. 
W. B. Forster, see si, p. 674. 

*32. wl. Warkworth (6 se. Aln- 
wick) dt. and wl. both pal. by AJE. 
from Mr. T. D. Ridley, 654, No. 17; 
Ned White, a yarn, pal. by AJE. from 
the same, 666 ; cwl. 678. 

*32. w2. Whalton (5 sw.Morpeth) 
dt. io. by Rev. J. Walker, rect., from 
notes by Mr. R. Bewick, 654, No. 11. 

*32. w3. Whittingham (7 w.Aln- 
wick) (1) note by Rev. R. W. Good- 
enough, vie. ; (2) dt. io. by Mr. W. 
Dixon, 655, No. 19, see also si. 

32. w4. Woodhorn (6 ene. Morpeth) 
notes by Rev. E. N. Mangin, vie. 

*32. w5. Wooler (1) dt. io. by Mr. 
M. T. Culley, 655, No. 22 ; (2) dt. 
pal. by AJE. from Mr. T. Kirkup, 
655, No. 22, and 669, No. 22. 




27. Nt.= Nottinghamshire, 25 places, all in D 27. 

27. B!. Buckingham (2 wnw. Gains- 
borough, Li.) aq. from Eev. D. 
Hooke, vie. 

*27. s2. Bingham (7 e. Nottingham) 

(1) Iw. by Mrs. Miles of the Rectory ; 

(2) part .of a cs. pal. in 1873 by AJE. 
from the diet, of Mr. Francis Miles, 
son of the rect. 449 ; (3) part of a cs. 
pal. in 1879 by TH. from a native, 
449 ; (4) wn. by TH. 450. 

27. s3. Blyth (6 nne.Worksop) aq. 
from Rev. Ch. Gray, vie. 

*27. s4. Bulwell (4 nnw. Notting- 
ham) dt. pal. from a retired labourer 
by TH. 448. 

*27. El. East Retford (7 ene.Work- 
sop) (1) dt. pal. by TH. from the lock- 
keeper at the Chesterfield Canal, 76, 
who had been there 44 years, and his 
father 56, p. 449 ; (2) wn. by TH. ; 

(3) a note from Rev. A. J. Ebsworth, 

27. E2. Eastwood (8 nw.Notting- 
ham) wn. by TH. 

27. F. Finningley (7 ese.Doncaster, 
Yo.) wl. and aq. from Rev. G. H. 
"Woodhouse, rect. 

27. G. Gringley (5 wnw. Gains- 
borough, Li.) aq. from Rev. G. H. 
Scott, vie. 

27. K. Kirkby-in-Ashfield (4 sw. 
Mansfield) wn. by TH. 

27. L. Laxton (10 nnw.Newark) wl. 
by Rev. H. A. Martin, 19 y. 

*27. Ml. Mansfield &i. and wn. pal. 
1879 by TH. 448. 

*27. M2. Mansfield Woodhouse (2 n. 

Mansfield) dt. pal. by TH. from a 
native, 448. 

27. M3. Mattersey (9 ne.Worksop) 
wds. by Rev. J. M. Lewes. 

27. M4. Misson (9 nw. Gains- 
borough, Li.) aq. from Rev. I. N. 
Baldwin, vie. 

27. n5. Misterton (5 nnw.Gains- 
borough, L.) aq. from Rev. G. Swift, 

*27. Nl. Newark dt. pal. by TH. 
from a butcher, native of Caunton (5 
nw. Newark), 449, and wn. by TH. 

27. N2. North Carlton (4 n.Work- 
sop) aq. from Rev. J. Foxley, rect. 

27. N3. North Wheatley (12 nne. 
Worksop) from Rev. T. C. B. 
Chamberlain, vie. 

*27. N4. Nottingham dt. pal. by 
TH. from a native of "Widmerspool 
(7 sse. Nottingham), and wn. by TH. 

27. Hi. Eaidiffe (4 e. Nottingham) 
full wl. io. by Rev. J. Cullen, vie. 4 y. 

27. R2. Rempstone (9 s. Nottingham) 
wl. by Rev. G. Pope. 

*27. si. Southwell (5 w.Newark) 
wn. by TH. 450. 

27. s2. Button (7 ne.Worksop) aq. 
from Rev. J. Farmer, vie. 

27. wl. Walesby (8 se.Worksop) 
Iw. by Rev. R. Pocklington, vie. 

*27. w2. Worksop dt. pal. 1879 by 
TH. from the porter at the canal wharf, 
56, a native of Blyth, see B3, which he 
left at 9, and wn. from the same, 

28. Ox. = Oxfordshire, 22 places in D 5, 6, and 7. 

5. A. Alvescot (rselshet) (6 sw. 
Witney) wl. by Rev. F. C. Marshall, 
rect. 2 y., assisted by an unnamed lady 
who had been there all her life. 

*6. nl. Banbury (1) cs. by Mr. T. 
Beesley, 116; (2) Iw. by his uncle, 118; 
(3) wn. by TH. 118 ; (4) dt. io. by Mrs. 
P. Bradshaw, jun., Wykham Mills. 
All (1, 2, 4) refer to about 6 m. round 
Banbury, encroaching on Ox., Bu., 
Wa., which belong to D 7. 

*7. s2. Blackthorn (11 ne. Oxford) 
wd. pal. by TH. from diet, of Mrs. 
Angelina Parker, 122, 127. 

5. cl. Charlbury (rtjAAlberi) (12 
nw. Oxford) from Rev. C. F. West, vie. 

5. c2. Chastleton (14 sw.Banbury 
dt. io. from Miss Whitmore Jones, 
Chastleton House. 

*5. D. DucJclington (:dak'lt'n) (1 s. 
"Witney) wl. and dt. both io. from 
Rev. W. D. Macray, rect. pal. vv. by 
TH., who noted other words from 
J. Brain, then 81, since deceased, 

7. E. Ensham or Eynsham (:eensvm) 
(5 nw. Oxford) specimens from diet, in 
glossic from Rev. W. W. Skeat, sent 
me in MS. but afterwards printed in 
Mrs. Parker's Oxford Glossary, and 
wn. by TH. 

*7. Pl. Freeland (4 ene.Witney) 
wn. by TH. 127. 

*7. F2. Fringford (rfriqkfenD) (15 
nne. Oxford) wl. and dt. io. with aq. 
by Rev. C. Coker, 123. 

*7. G. Greys (2 nw.Henley-on- 
Thames) wl. and dt. both io. by Rev. 




N. Finder, rect. 17y., representing 
10 m. round, 122. 

*7. nl. ITandborough (7 -nw. Oxford) 
cs. and dt. glossic with many letters 
and explanations by Mrs. Angelina 
Parker, author of the Oxford Glossary, 
with wn. by TH. from Mrs. Parker, 

*7. n2. Henley -on- Thames (22 se. 
Oxford) from vicar, 235, where it is 
wrongly attributed to Bu. 

*7. n3. Holton (5 e. Oxford) Iw. 
glossic by Mrs. A. Parker, 127. 

*7. i. Islip (5 n-by-e. Oxford) dt. io. 
by Mr. J. W. F. Walker, obtained by 
Mrs. Parker and wn. by TH. 127. 

*5. Ll. Leafield (4 nw.Witney) wn. 
from old natives by TH. 93. 

5. L2. Lew (3 sw.Witney) wds. pal. 
by TH. from diet, of Mrs. A. Parker. 

5. M. Milton (8 nw.Witney) wn. 
from a working man by TH. 

7. o. Oxford City, dt. io. by Mr. W. 
H. Allnutt, procured by Mrs. A. Parker, 
with notes by TH. 

*7. si. Sonning (4 ssw.Henley-on- 
Thames) dt. io. by Miss Slade, school- 
mistress, obtained by Mrs. A. Parker, 

7. s2. Stonesfield (5 nne.Witney) 
note by TH. 

7. T. Tiddington (8 e. Oxford) note 

*5. w. Wilney, dt. by Mrs. A. 
Parker and TH. with wn. from natives 
by TH. 92, 93. 

29. Ku.= Rutland, 5 places in D 18. 

*18. c. Cottesmore (4 nne.Oakham) 
wl. and dt. pal. by AJE. from diet, of 
Mr. T. E. Cattell, native, to whom I 
was introduced by Miss Kemm (see 
Oakham), 255, 256. 

18. E. Empingham (6 e. Oakham) 
from Rev. Lovick Cooper, rect. 

*18. o. Oakham (:uu'kem) town, 
full wl. io. partly pal. by AJE. from 
diet, of Miss Kemm, native, a teacher 

at Whitelands Training College, 
Chelsea, 256. 

*18. s. Stretton (7 ne.Oakham) wl. 
and dt. both io. from Rev. Edward 
Bradley (" Cuthbert Bede ") rect. 
256. " 

18. u. TTppingham dt. and notes 
from Mr. H. Chandler, West Bank. 

18. w. Whitwell (4 e.Oakham) Iw. 
io. from Rev. J. Breechen, rect. 

30. Sh.= Shropshire, 39 places in D 13, 14, 25, 28, 29. 

14. B!. Baschnrch (7 nw.Shrews- 
bury) wn. by TH. 

29. B2. Bolas Magna (6 n. Welling- 
ton) wn. by TH. 

14. s3. Bridgenorth, notes by TH. 

*14. cl. Church Pulverbach (7 sw. 
Shrewsbury) (1) cs. in gl. by Miss G. 
Jackson, author of the Shropshire 
Wordbook ; (2) specimen pal. by AJE. 
from her diet. ; (3) Iw. with pron. pal. 
from her diet. ; (4) wds. taken from 
TH.'s account of the pron. prefixed to 
her Wordbook, and revised by her, with 
examples, 183 to 187. 

14. c2. Glee Hills (7 ne.Ludlow) 
wn. by TH. with note on the verbal 
plural in -en. 

13. c3. Clun (22 ss W.Shrewsbury) 
notes by TH. 

*29. c4. CoalbrooJcdale (4 s. Welling- 
ton) dt. by Rev. F. W. Ragg, native, 

14. c5. Corve Dale, from Wenlock 
Edge to Ludlow, wn. by TH. 

14. c6. Craven Arms (7 nw. Ludlow) 
wn. by TH. 

29. c7. Crudginqton (4 n-by-w. 
Wellington) wn. TH. 

*29. El. Edgmond (6 ne. Wellington, 
1| w.Newport) dt. pal. by TH. from 
a native, and wn. 471, 476, 478. 

*28. E2. Ellesmere (7 ne.Oswestry) 
wn. and dt. pal. by TH. from a native 
b. 1809, p. 452, 455. 

14. F. Ford (5 W.Shrewsbury) nwl. 
from Miss Hawkins, Dinthill. 

28. Hi. Hadnall (4 n-by-e. Shrews- 
bury) wn. by TH. 

*29. n2. Hodnet (:odnit) (10 nnw. 
Wellington) wn. by TH. 478. 

*28. H3. Hordley (13 nnw.Shrews- 
bury) wl. io. by Rev. J. W. Moore, 
rect. 455. 

*29. i. Ironbridge, wn. by TH. 

14. L!. Llanymynech (15 wnw.S.) 
aq. on CB. by Rev. N. E. Price, rect. 

14. L2. Longville (11 w.Bridge- 
north) wn. by TH. 

*28. L3. Loppington (:lopeten) (10 n. 
Shrewsbury) wl. by Rev. J. W. Davis, 
M.A., 25 y. p. 455. 



*13. L4. Ludlow wn. by. TH. 180. 

*2 9 . Ml. Madeley (5 sse . W ellington) 
wn. by TH. 483. 

*29". M2. Market Dray ton (.fali' > ti) (17 
ne. Shrewsbury) wn. by TH. 476, 478. 

14. M3. Much Wenlock (10 se. 
Shrewsbury) wn. by TH. in 1880. 

*29. Nl. Newport (8 ne. Wellington) 
(1) full wl. io. by Mrs. Burne, Loyn- 
ton Hall, Edgmond, whose daughter 
assisted Miss Jackson in her Sh. 
Wordbook, and (2) wn. by TH. 478. 

25. N2. Norton-in-Haks (20 ne. 
Shrewsbury) wn. by TH. 

14. o. Oswestry (:hodjestri) according 
to Rev. W. Walsham How, of Whit- 
tington, Sh. ; wn. by TH. 

25. pi. Pipegate (6 ne. Market 
Drayton, see n2, just on ne. horn of 
Sh.) wn. by TH. 

28. p2. Pra;s (13n-by-e. Shrewsbury) 
wl. by Yen. Archdeacon Allen, vie., 
14 y. 

*29. si. SMfnal (7 ese. Wellington) 
wn. by TH. 483. 

14. s2. Shrewsbury wn. by TH. 

*28 u. Upton Magna (4 e. Shrews- 
bury) wn. by TH. 455. 

*29. wl. Wellington (rwEHten) wn. 
and dt. pal. by TH. from a working 
man, 472, and wn. 483. 

*28. w2. Welsh Frankton (3 sw. 
Ellesmere) wn. by TH. 455. 

*28. w3. Wem (10 n-by-e. Shrews- 
bury) wn. by TH. 455. 

28. w4. Whitchurch(lSimG. Shrews- 
bury) wn. by TH. 

14. w5. Whittington (2 ne. Oswestry) 
full wl. by Rev. W. Walsham How, 

*28. w6. Whixall(\ 3 n. Shrewsbury) 
dt. io. with explanations from Rev. J. 
Evans, vie., a very old resident, but 
a Welshman, not a native, 452. 

*28. Y. Torton (7 n. Shrewsbury) 
wn. by TH. 455. 

31. Sm. = Somersetshire, 26 places in D 4 and 10. 

*3. A. Axe- Tarty district by the late 
Mr. G. P. R. Pulman, s.Sm. 87-89. 

4. Bl. Bath, cs. gl. by Mr. C. 
Galbraith, written on the spot by a 
long resident, but when I, who had 
resided in Bath two years, attempted 
to pal. it, I was so often brought to 
a standstill, that 1 was only able to use 
it as a Iw. 

10. B2. Bishop's Hull (1 w-by-s. 
Taunton) cs. pal. by AJE. from diet, of 
Rev. Wadham Williams, author of a 
glossary, but as he was a native of 
e.Sm. I have preferred Mr. Elworthy's 
version, see Wellington. 

3. B3. Burtle Turf Moor (8 ne. 
Bridgewater to centre of Burtle Heath 
on the river Brue) wds. and phr. by 
Miss Westmacott, sent through Mr. 
F. H. Dickinson, of King's Weston, 
Somerton (4 ene. Langport). 

*4. cl. Castle Gary (:kEri) (10 se. 
Wells) wl. io. by Mr. Ross, resident 
above 80 y. 89. 

4. c2. <?Aar^(12sse.Taunton)wl. by 
the late Rev. Henry Thompson, vie. 

4. c3. Chedzoy (:t}vdp.} (2 e. Bridge- 
water) from Mr. G. Winter, resident 

*4. c4. Combe Deivn (rkuum) (2 s. 
Bath) wl. by Mr. C. Daubeny, The 
Brow, 89. 

4. c5. Compton Dando (6 w.Bath) 
note by Rev. C. M. Christie, 4 mouths' 

4. c6. Crewkerne (11 s-by-e. Lang- 
port) dt. io. with notes by the late Mr. 
G. P. R. Pulman (d. 1880), author of 
''Rustic Sketches." 

4. c7. Croscombe (3 e. Wells) wl. io. 
by Mr. James Rossiter. 

4. E. East Harptree (12 sw.Bath), 
from Rev. C. H. Nutt, 25 y. 

4. H. High Ham (3 n.Langport) 
from Rev. C. D. Grossman, 2^ y. 

*4. L. Langport (rla'mpijRT) words 
collected in 1877 from a native servant 
by Mrs. Dawes, then of Newton House, 
Surbiton, 89. 

*4. Ml. Merriot (9 s-by-e. Langport) 
cs. and wl. by Mr. G. P. R. Pulman, 
87, 88. 

10. M2. Milverton (6 w.Tauuton) 
cs. io. by Mr. H. Randolph, surgeon, 
resident 42 y., procured for me by Dr. 
Prior (see Corsham, Wl.) . I have found 
it quite impossible to determine the 
pron. from this writing. 

*4. i3. Montacute (:ma:mkiu) (8 sse. 
Langport) pal. in 1880 by AJE. from 
Messrs. G. Mitchell and S. Price, 

4. N!. Nailsea (rna'm) (16 w-by-n. 
Bath) from Rev. J. Johnson, rect. 3 y. 

4. N2. North Wootton (2 se.Wells) 
from Rev. Owen B. Tyler, vie. 30 y. 

4. si. Sutton Mallet (4 e.Bridge- 
water) wds. by Rev. A. Yarrantou, 
representing 7 e. Bridgewater, obtained 
by Miss Westmacott, and sent through 



Mr. F. H. Dickinson, see Burtle Turf 

4. s2. Swanswick (:swanzw*k), the 
spelling Swainswick is a literary revival 
(2 ne.Bath), note by Rev. John Earle, 
rect. 20 y. 

10. T. Taunton cs. io. by Mr. 
Cecil Smith. I have found it im- 
possible to determine the pron. from 
the spelling. 

*4. wl. Wedmore (7 wnw. Wells) 
phr. procured from a friend by Mr. 
C. A. Homfray, Manor House, 89. 

*1 . w2 . Wellington (6 wsw. Taunton) 
(1) pal. by AJE. in 1874, 1875, and 
1885, from diet, of F. T. Elworthy, 
cs. 148 ; (2) specimens 151 to 153, 

cwl. 153; (3) from Mr. E.'s West 
Somerset Grammar, version of Ruth, 
chap. i. 698, No. 5. 

West Somerset, see Wellington. 

4. w3. Wincanton (15 se. Wells) 
pal. by JGG. from diet, of Mr. Roberts, 
native, who had known the dialect 
30 y., but was then living at New- 
biggin, Cu. On account of Mr. R.'s 
long residence in the North, this care- 
fully pal. wl. was found untrustworthy, 
and could not be used. 

*4. w4. Worle (2 ne.Weston- super - 
Mare) uwl. with long explanatory letter 
from Rev. W. F. Rose, vie., referring 
to the whole of nw.Sm. 90. 

32. St. = Staffordshire, 51 places in D 25, 26, 29. 

*26. Al. Alstonefield (^rsMd) (9 
e.Leek) including Narrowdale (2 n. 
Alstonefield) wn. by TH. 441, 444. 

25. A2. Alton (:6wt'n) (10 sse.Leek) 
wn. by TH. 

25. A3. Audley (:E'idli) (6 nw. 
Stoke-upon-Trent) wl. io. and aq. from 
Mr. G. Till, 11 y., but notwithstanding 
explanations I was too uncertain of the 
meaning of his symbols to use it. 

*29. si. Barton-under-Needwood(5 
sw. Burton -on -Trent) Iw. by the late 
Mrs. Willoughby Wood, of Hollyhurst, 
482, and pron. of a carol, 477. 

25. B2. Betley (6 wnw.Newcastle- 
under-Lyme) wl. and dt. io. from 
Miss E. Toilet, from observation made, 

25. B3. Biddulph (rbid'l) (9 n.Stoke) 
wds. from Rev. F. Elmes. 

25. B4. Blythe Marsh (7 se.New- 
castle-under-Lyme) wn. by TH. 

29. s5. Bradley (4 ssw. Stafford) 
wl. and phrases io. by Rev. R. L. 
Lowe, vie. 

*25. B6. Burslem (3 n.Stoke) cs. 
pal. by TH. from diet, of one native, 
and corrections by another, and wn. 
414, 422. 

*29. B7. Burton-on- Trent dt. pal. 
by TH. from diet, of a native, 471, 
and wn. and exs. 477, cwl. 482. 

*29. cl. Cannock Chase (e. of Cannock 
Town c2, and w. of Lichfield) cs. pal. 
by TH. from diet, of a native, 463, 
and wn. 480. 

*29. c2. Cannock Town (9 sse. Staf- 
ford) wn. on a market day by TH. 480. 

25. c3. Cheadle (:tjiid'l) (9 ese. 
Stoke) wl. by Rev. R. Watt, rect., 
and wn. by TH. 

*29. c4. Codsall (5 nw. Wolver- 
hampton) just on b. of Sh., wl. by 
Mr. E. Viles, of CodsaU Wood, 484, 
and dt. pal. by TH. from a man of 69. 

*29. Dl. Darlaston (3 wsw.Walsall) 
dt. pal. by TH. from diet, of a native, 
472, and also the anecdote of the Wake 
Beef pal. by TH. 478,andwn. 461, 484. 

25. D 2. Denston (12 sse.Leek) wn. 
by TH. 

*29. El. Eccleshall (7 nw. Stafford) 
wn. and dt. pal. by TH. 471, 476, 478. 

29. E2. Enville (10 ssw.Wolver- 
hampton) wl. by Mr. E. Bennett, of 
the Schoolhouse, which is close by the 
b. of Sh. Wa. and St. 

*26. Fl. Flash (7 nne.Leek) dt. pal. 
by TH. from a native, 438, additional 
ex. 441, and wn. 444. 

*25. r2. Froghall (9 e.Stoke) wn. 
by TH. 422. 

*29. Hi. Hanbury (6 nw. Burton - 
on-Trent) wn. and part of a dt. pal. 
by TH. 482. 

*29. n2. Haughton (4 sw. Stafford) 
wn. by TH. in 1882 from Powell, b. 
1798, and his wife, the latter a native, 
and says there is no difference between 
the speech of Bradley and that of 
Haughton, 477, 480. 

*29. n3. Hopwas (:op-z) (2 wnw. 
Tamworth) wn. by TH. 482. 

*25. Ll. Leek, dt. and wn. by TH. 
411, 422. 

*25. L2. Leek Frith (4 n.Leek) wn. 
by TH. 422. 

29. L3. Leigh (11 se. Stoke) wn.byTH. 

*29. L4. Lichfield, wn. and dt. by 
TH. from a native, 472, 482. 

*25. L5. Longport (2 n.Nevrcastle- 
under-Lyme) wn. by TH. 422. 




25. L6. Longton (3 se. Stoke) wn. 
by TH. 

25. M. Madeley (4 wsw.Newcastle- 
under-Lyme) wn. by TH. 

29. N. Newborough (7 w-by-n. 
Burton-on-Trent) nwl. by Kev. J. P. 
"Wright, vie. 8 months. 

25. o. Oakamoor (12 e.Newcastle- 
under-Lyme) wn. by TH. 

*26. n. Eocester (15 ese.Stoke) wn. 
by TH. 422, 444. 

25. si. Shelton (1 n.Stoke) full wl. 
by Dr. J. B. Davis, F.E.S., F.S.A., 
materially assisted by Mr. Levi Stan way, 
Registry St., Stoke, and wn. by TH. 

29. s2. Stafford, wn. by TH. 

25. s3. Stoke -upon -Trent and neigh- 
bouring villages, wn. by TH. 

26. s4. Stoke Gutter Farm, about 
5 ne.Leek, on the way from Leek to 
Flash and past the Roaches, wn. by 
TH. shewing the division between 
D 25 and D 26. 

29. so. Stone (:stuun) (7 s. Stoke) 
wn. by TH. 

29. s6. Stretton (8 ssw.Stafford) wl. 
and dt. io. by Rev. J. "W. Napier, vie. 

*29. Tl. Tamworth,ym. by TH.482. 

*25. T2. TwwstaW(4nnw.Stoke) wn. 
by TH. 422. 

*29. T3. Tutbury (4 nw.Burton-on- 
Trent) wn. by TH. 482. 

29. ul. Upper (or Over) Arley 
(13 sw.Dudley, Wo.) note by Rev. 
C. J. Wilding, vie., who said there 
was only one St. man resident there. 

29. u2. Uttoxeter (12 ne.Stafford) 
wn. by TH. 

*29. wl. WalsaM wn. by TH. 461, 
478, 484. 

*29. w2. Wcdnesbury (3 sw.Walsall) 
wn. by TH. 461, 484. 

*29. w3. West Bromwich (5 ssw. 
Walsall) wn. by TH. 461, 484. 

*29. w4. Willenhall (3 e.Wolver- 
hampton) wn. by TH. 461, 484. 

25. w5. Wolstanton (:unsten) (1 
nne.Newcastle-under-Lyne) nwl. by 
Mr. W. Field, Brighton Road School, 

*29. w6. Wolverhampton, wn. by 
TH. 461, 484. 

*29. w7. Wootton (1 ssw.Eccle- 
shall) wn. by TH. 478. 

*29. Y. Yoxall (6 nne.Lichfield) wn. 
by TH. from a native, 482. 

33. Sf. = SufMk, 12 places in D 19. 

19. B!. Boijton (13 e-by-n.Ipswich) 
note from Rev. G. C. Hoste, rect. 

19. B2. Bradwell (rbrsed'l) (7 nnw. 
Lowestoft) note by Rev. J. Walker, 
rect., "13 years resident, but does not 
profess acquaintance with the dialect." 

*19. F. Framlingham (13 nne. 
Ipswich) cs. pal. in 1880 by AJE. 
from diet, of Mr. J. B. Grant, native 
of Kettleborough, 279. 

*19. ol. Great Bealings (4 ne. 
Ipswich) wn. by TH. 281. 

19. o2. Great Finborough (rfmbre) 
(10 se.Bury St. Edmunds) full wl. io. 
by Rev. W. V. Kitching, 16y. 

19. H. Heming 'stone (6 n. Ipswich) 
Iw. by Rev. T. Brown, rect. 54 y., 
who says: "what between railroads 
and education the Sf. dialect is fast 
dying out." 

*19. o. Orford (rAAfud) (4 sw. 
Aldborough) including Sudbourne (1 n. 
Orford) and neighbourhood, dt. pal. by 
AJE. from diet, of Mr. C. Davis, 285. 

*19. P. Pakenham (5 ene.Bury St. 
Edmunds), pal. in 1873 and 1886 by 
AJE. from diet, of Rev. C. W. Jones, 
vie. native, 287. 

*19. si. Southwold (11 ssw. Lowes- 
toft), full wl. from diet, of Miss C. M. 
Mallett, teacher at Whitelands, native, 

19. s2. StowmarJcet (13 ese.Bury St. 
Edmunds) Iw. partly in gl. by Mr. E. 
S. Bewley, 15 y. 

19. u. Ufford (10 ne. Ipswich) wl. 
io. by Mr. F. C. Brooke, 60 y. 

19. Y. Taxley (20 ene.Bury St. 
Edmunds) notes in 1873 from Rev. 
H. Sewell, vie. 

34. Sr. = Surrey, 13 places in D 5, 8. 

*5. cl. Charlwood, caUed (rtpred) 
by old people, (6 ssw.Reigate) wl. and 
ex. io. by Rev. T. Burningham, then 
rect., more than 50 y., 109. 

*8. c2. Chertsey (18 w.Croydon) 
from Rev. R. Marshall Martin, 3 y., 

*8 c3. Chobham (8 nnw.Guildford) 
note by Rev. J. J. Jewan, vie., more 
than 50 y., 130. 

*8. c4. Croydon wl. by Mr. W. 
Taylor Malleson, Duppas Hill, 11 y., 

5. El. Elstead (:aelsted) (7 sw. 




Guildford) from Rev. I. R. Charles- 
worth, rect. 

5. E2. Ewhurst (8 se. Guildford) 
notes by Eev. J. Mount Barlow, rect. 

5. ol. Godalming (4 sw. Guildford) 
note from Mr. J. W. Sharpe, Charter- 

5. o2. Godstone (9 sse.Croydon) wl. 
by Rev. G. T. Hoare. 

5. H. Haslemere (12 sw. Guildford) 
note by Mr. T. J. Ellis. 

*8. L. Leatherhead (7 nw.Reigate) 
note in a letter from Mr. Alfred W. T. 
Martel to LLB. 130. 

*5. o. Ockley (8 sw.Reigate) wl. 
pal. by AJE. from diet, of Miss Jane 
Sayers, of Whitelands, and of Miss 
M. A. Firth, 109 (where the name is 
misprinted 'Forth'), and Iw. and notes 
from Rev. T. P. du Sautoy, Oxford, 
rect., 12 y. 

*5. s. Stoke (1 n.Guildford) wl. 
pal. by AJE. from diet, of Miss Jane 
Slyfield, of Whitelands, 109. 

*5. w. Weald of Surrey s. of 
Reigate ; the Weald extends into Kent 
and Sussex, nwl. and dt. io. by Dr. 
Clair Jas. Grece, Redhill, Reigate, 109. 

35. Ss. = Sussex, 19 places in D 5, 8. 

9. A. Ashburnham (reshbBKem) (10 
nne. Eastbourne) note from Rev. J. R. 
Munn, vie. 50 y. 

9. B!. Battle (6 nnw. Hastings), wn. 

5. B2. Bolney (:boom) (12 n-by-w. 
Brighton) Iw. and notes by Mr. Alfred 

9. B3. Brighton, wn. by TH. 

5. cl. Compton (8 nw.Chichester) 
note from Rev. Harry Peckham, 25 y. 

*8. c2. Cuckfield (9 se.Horsham) (1) 
wl. pal. by AJE. from diet, of Miss 
A. Sayers, of Whitelands, 134 ; (2) 
wd. by Archd. Fearon, native. 

5. E!. Eartham (:sntlmn) (5 ne. 
Chichester) note by Rev. E. Kelly, 

*9. E2. Eastbourne, wl. pal. by AJE. 
from diet, of Miss Francis, of White - 
lauds, 134. 

9. E3. Etchingham (18 ne. East- 
bourne) note by Rev. W. H. Eley, rect. 

5. K. Kirdford (:kaafu'd), a nearly 
extinct pron. (10 w-by-s.Horsham), 
wl. by Miss Cole, of the rectory. 

9. L!. Leasam or Leesham (8 ne. 
Hastings) wl. from Miss Bessie Curteis. 

9. L2. Lewes, name noted by TH. 

*9. M. MarMy (8 wnw.Battle) dt. 
with aq. and notes by Miss Anne M. 
Darby, 133. 

9. P. Pasingworth (:p8es'nweth), 
wrongly spelled on p. 131, 1. 4, but 
rightly 1. 14 (14 nnw.Eastbourne and 
4 e.Uckfield), notes from Mr. Louis 
Huth, Pasingworth Hawkhurst. 

*9. s. Selmeston (8 nw.Eastbourne) 
dt. io. by Rev. W. D. Parish, author 
of the Sussex Glossary, 133. 

5. T. Twineham (10 nnw. Brighton) 
from Rev. W. Molyneux, rect. 

9 . w 1 . Weald of Sussex (n . Brighton) 
Iw. from Mr. Somers Clarke, jun., 
Belgrave Mansions, Grosvenor Gardens, 
S.W., 30y. 

5. w2. West Wittering (6 sw. 
Chichester) from Rev. W. D. Under- 
wood, vie. 

*5. w3. Wisborough Green (8 wsw. 
Horsham) Iw. from Rev. W. A. Bartlett, 
vie. 109. 

36. Wa. = Warwickshire, 23 places in D 6, 29. 

*29. Al. AllesleyGate (4 w.Coventry) 
wn. by TH. 487. 

*29. A2. Atherstone (12 n.Coventry) 
cs. pal. by AJE. from diet, of Mr. R. 
S. Knight, 14 y., 464, and wn. by 
TH. 487. 

6. Bl. Bearley (4 nnw.Stratford-on- 
Avon) wn. by TH. shewing southern 

*29. B2. Bedworth (5 nne.Coventry) 
wn. by TH. 487. 

*29. s3. Birmingham, often (:bronr- 
Bdpm, brw - bra-) full wl. by Mr. 
Samuel Tirnmins, 488. 

*29. B4. Brandon (5 ese. Coventry) 

wn. by TH. from a native then at 
Leamington, 487. 

*29. s5. Bulkington (6 ne. Coventry) 
wn. by TH. in 1880 from a native and 
his mother, in whose lifetime the pron. 
had changed, 487. 

*6. B6. Butler's Marston (rmaas'n) 
and 6 miles round (10 s-by-e. Warwick) 
wl. io. by Rev. E. Miller, 115. 

*6. cl. Claverdon (5 w. Warwick) 
wn. and dt. by TH. from a native, 114. 

*29. c2. Coventry refined town 
speech, wn. by TH. 487. 

*29. c3. Curdivorth (:kardeth) (7 
ne. Birmingham) wl. and dt. io. by 




Mr. J. Montague Dormer, Dunton 
Hall, Minworth (:num?th), 28 y. 

*29. E. Elmdon (7 ese. Birmingham) 
wl. by Mr. F. J. Mylins, of the rectory, 

*6. Kl. Kineton (:kjraten) by work- 
ing men, (:k'int'n) by the middle class 
(9 s-by-e. Warwick) wn. by TH. from 
a native, 115. 

6. x2. Knowle (10 nw.Warwick) 
wl. io. by Rev. J. Howe, vie. 40 y. 

*29. L. Leamington (2 e. Warwick) 
wn. by TH. from a native, 488. 

*29. N. Nuneaton (9 nne. Coventry) 
wn. by TH. 487. 

*6. pi. Pillerton Priors (7J se. 
Stratford-on-Avon), now united with 
Pillerton Hersee to form one parish, 
wn. by TH. from a native labourer, b. 
1819, 115. 

*29. p2. Polesworth (14 n-by-w. 
Coventry) wn. by TH. in 1879 from 

elderly resident natives and habitual 
dialect speakers, 487. 

29. si. Saltley (2 ene. Birmingham), 
a mere suburb, wn. by TH. from 
people in the street. 

29. s2. Sherborne (3 ssw. Warwick) 
wl. io. by Rev. W. Grice, shewing 
practically rec. pron. 

*6. s3. Stratford-on-Avon (1) cs in 
so. by Mr. G. H. Tomline, school- 
master, made for LLB. who passed it 
on to AJE., who did not succeed in 
palaeotyping it ; (2) wn. by TH. in 
1880, 115. 

*6. T. Tijsoe (11 se. Stratford-on- 
Avon) (1) wl. by Mrs. Francis, of the 
vicarage, completed from diet, by TH. ; 
(2) wn. by TH. in 1886 principally 
from a man b. 1802, and his wife b. 
1809, p. 115. 

*29. w. Warwick wn. by TH., the 
general effect on the ear being quite 
Midland, 488. 

37. We. = Westmoreland, 10 places, all in D 31. 

31. A. Appleby cs. io. with aq. by 
Rev. C. Holme, native of Orton (9 
ssw Appleby), several years in Mr. 
Richardson's school at Appleby, repre- 
senting m.We. This careful work, 
over which Mr. Holme and I spent 
much time in 1873, has been entirely 
superseded by JGG.'s work. 

*31. cl. Casterton (10 se.Kendal, 
and 2 ne. Kirkby Lonsdale) cs. pal. 
1875 by JGG. from a native, 558, 
563, 597^', No. 6. 

*31. c2. Crosby Ravensworth (6 sw. 
Appleby) pal. 1875 by JGG. from 
dictation of Mr. J. Dover, 560, 563, 
599d, No. 13, 633. 

*31. xl. Kendal (1) cs. pal. by 
JGG. from diet, of Mr. Joseph Brown, 
559, 563, No. 9 ; (2) wl. in glossic by 
Mr. J. Brown himself. 

*31. K2. Kirkby Stephen (9 sse. 
Appleby) pal. 1876 by JGG. from diet. 

of Mr. Joseph Steel, 560, 563, 599, 
633, No. 12. 

*31. L. Long Sleddale (6 n.Kendal) 
cs. pal. 1875 by JGG. from diet, of 
Rev. T. Clarke, 559, 563. 

*31. M. Milburn (5 nnw. Appleby) 
cs. and wl. pal. by JGG. while residing 
there two years with the assistance of 
natives, 561, 563, 599, 633. 

*31. o. Orton (11 ne.Kendal) (1) cs. 
pal. by JGG. from diet, of J. Dover, 
560, 563; (2) wl. io. by Rev. C. Holme, 
superseded like A. by the work of JGG. 

31. s. Shap (9 wsw. Appleby) note 
by JGG. that Mr. Hindsou, of Kirkby 
Lonsdale, b. 1800, remembered hearing 
(kh, kwh) in use near this place in 

*31. T. Temple Sowerby (6 nnw. 
Appleby) cs. pal. by JGG., and finally 
revised 1877 from diet, of Mrs. Atkinson, 
of Winderwath, 561, 563, 599, 633. 

38. Wl. = Wiltshire, 18 places, all in D 4. 

4. A. Aldbourne (raab^RN) (8 se. 
Swindon) wl. io. from Mr. T. H. 
Chandler, jun., who spent the greater 
part of his youth there. 

4. cl. Calne (6 n.Devizes) (1) nwl. 
Rev. G. H. Wayte, Bonehill, Tarn- 
worth, 30 y. ; (2) nwl. Rev. W. 
Wayte, 30 y., his brother. 

*4. c2. Chippenham (8 nnw.Devizes) 

from JGG., Hornet and Beetle, 51, 
cwl. 54. 

*4. c3. Christian Malford (10 nnw. 
Devizes) pal. by AJE. from diet, of 
Rev. Arthur Law, cs. 44; phrases, 48 ; 
cwl. 49. 

4. c4. Corsham (7 n.Trowbridge) 
from Dr. R. C. A. Prior, Halse 
House, Taunton, cs. pal. from diet, by 




AJE. Dr. Prior introduced AJE. to 
Rev. A. Law, whose cs., p. 44, 
superseded this one. 

4. co. Corsley (8 ssw.Trowbridge) 
from Mrs. G. M. E. Campbell, Corsley 
House, 50 y., wl. io. and notes. 

4. D. Damerham (:daem"BRBm) (9 s. 
Wilton) wl. io. by Eev. W. Owen, 
vie., assisted by his schoolmaster, a 

4. E. East Knoyle (13 w. Wilton) 
wl. from Eev. E. N. Milford, rect., 
12 y. 

4. K. Kemble (4 sw. Cirencester, Gl.) 
wn. by TH. 

4. M. Maddington (:maed'nton 
maannt'n) (7 n.Wilton) wl. io. from 
Eev. Canon Bennett, vie. of Shrewton 
(1 n. Maddington). 

4. o. Orcheston (:os'n) St. George 
(10 sse. Devizes) wl. io. from Eev. 
Gorges Paulin Lowther, rect., from 
70 y. to 80 y., then 85. 

4. p. Purton (5 nw.Swindon) (1) wl. 
io. for 4 m. round by Major Purton, 
Purton House ; (2) wn. by TH. 

4. si. Salisbury (3 w-by-s. Wilton) 
to Warminster (16 nw. Wilton) (1) wl. 
io. 1877 by Mr. T. H. Chandler, 
Eowde ; (2) dt. 1879 written from his 
diet, by his son. 

4. s2. Seend (4 w. Devizes) wl. io. 
by Eev. A. B. Thynne, vie. 

4. s3. Sopworth (izaep-eth) (18 n. 
Trowbridge) wl. io. for 4 m. west 
and 10 m. east of Swindon, by Eev. 
Joseph Buckley, rect. 

*4. T. Tilshead (8 sse. Devizes) from 
Miss L. H. Johnson, Hocktying and 
dt. 58, cwl. 59. 

4. w. Wilton wl. and dt. by Mr. 
Edward Slow, coachbuilder, and con- 
stant resident. 

4. Y. Yatesbury (:J8etsbOTi) (7 nne. 
Devizes) wl. io. from Eev. A. C. 
Smith, rect., 50 y. 

39. Wo. = Worcestershire, 25 places in D 6, 13, 29. 

*6. A. Abberley (8 ssw. Kidder- 
minster) wn. by TH. 113. 

*6. si. Benge worth (a suburb of 
Evesham on the opposite side of the 
Avon) wn. by TH. 113. 

*6. B2. Sewdley(:}ris!udli) 3 sw.Kid- 
derminster) wn. in 1880-1-2 by TH. 
especially from a nonagenarian, about 
94, full of vivacity, reading and sewing 
without spectacles', when young a maker 
and seller of ling brooms, 113. 

6. B3. Bir?s Morton (6 s. Great 
Malvern) wn. from a native by TH. 

*29. c. Cradley (:krmlli) (9 ne. 
Kidderminster) wn. from native hop- 
pickers by TH. 485. 

*6. Dl. Droitwich (6 ne-by-n. 
Worcester) wn. by TH. 113. 

*29. o2. Dudley (on an island of 
Wo. locally in St.) cs. by Mr. E. Woof, 
procured by LLB. 463, 464. 

6. D3. Dunley (5 ssw. Kidderminster, 
between Abberley and Stourport) wn. 

13. El. Eastham (10 sw. Kidder- 
minster) wl. and dt. io. by Eev. H. 
Browne, rect., see Tenbury. 

*6. E2. Eldersfield (9 s. Great 
Malvern) wn. in 1880 by TH. from a 
native b. 1801, left at 13 and resided 
since in m.Wo. 113. 

6. E3. Evesham, dt. and wn. by TH. 
from a market gardener. 

*6. ol. Great Malvern, wn. by TH. 

*6. o2. Great Witley (9 sw. 
Kidderminster) wn. by TH. 113. 

*29. nl. Hagley (6 ene.Kidder- 
minster) wn. by TH. 485. 

*6. n2. Hanbury (6 wsw.Eedditch) 
dt. and wn. pal. by AJE. from diet, of 
Miss Turner, of Whitelands, native, 
112, 113. 

6. n3. Hartlebury (3 sse. Kidder- 
minster) dt. with aq. from the Misses 
Haviland, of the rectory, and wu. by 

6. K. Kidderminster, wn. by TH. 
from natives. 

*6. M. Malvern Wells and Link, wn. 
by TH. see Gt. Malvern, 113. 

*6. si. Saleway (8 sw.Eedditch) 
wn. by TH. in 1880 from a native, 

*29. s2. Selly Oak (14 ene. Kidder- 
minster) wl. pal. by AJE. from diet, 
of Miss Sadler, of Whitelands, a 
native, and wn. by TH. in the neigh- 
bourhood, 485. 

*29. s3. Stourbridge (6 ne. Kidder- 
minster) wn. by TH. who found the 
speech quite Mid. 485. 

6. s4. Stourport (4 ssw.Kidder- 
minster) wn. by TH. who said the 
speech had "the southern ring." 

13. T. Tenbury (:tEmberi) (16 wsw. 
Kidderminster) dt. io. by Miss Sweet 
(now Mrs. Chamberlain), author of 
"A Glossary of West Worcestershire 
Words with Glossic Notes by TH.," 




and wn. by TH. in 1880 from Miss 
Sweet and others. [This was acci- 
dentally omitted in giving the account 
of D 13.] 

6. u. Vpton Snodbury (6 e. Worcester) 
note per Rev. J. Wright, vie. 

*6. w. Worcester (1) dt. pal. by TH. 
112; (2) wn. by TH. 113. 

40. Yo.= Yorkshire, 93 places in D 24, 30, 31. 

24. A. Armitage Bridge (:eemtidj) 
(2 s.Huddersfield) nwl. by Mr. Thomas 
Brooke, 45 y. 

24. B!. Barnborough (6 w.Doncaster) 
pc. from Rev. Wilmot W. Ware, rect. 

*24. B2. Barmley dt. pal. 1887 by 
TH. from diet, of a native, 403. 

24. s3. Birkenshaw (7 sw. Leeds) 
wn. by TH. 

*31. B4. Black Burton or Burton- 
in-Lonsdale, Yo. (32 nw.Keighley) on 
b. of La., on the Greta, Seward's Dia- 
logue translated by Mr. J. Powley, and 
pal. by JGG. 608 to 616, also cwl. 619. 

*24. s5. Bradford (1) cs. written in 
gl. by CCR. 367, notes 390 ; (2) words 
from Preston's Poems, 391 ; (3) wn. by 

24. s6. .5n>i^rfcw(3nne.Pontefract) 
pc. from Rev. G. Haslam, vie. 

*30. B7. Burton Constable (7 ssw. 
Hornsea) wn. by TH. incidentally 
mentioned on the middle of p. 501. 

Burton -in -Lonsdale, see Black Bur- 

*24. cl. Calverley (6 wnw.Leeds) 
dt. pal. 1887 by TH. from a native, 

24. c2. Campsall (6 nnw.Doncaster) 
pc. from Rev. Edwin Castle, vie. 

*31. c3. Cautley, a hamlet in the 
township of Sedberg (41 nw.Keighley), 
on b. of We., (lj cs. pal. 1876 by 
JGG., used as variants to the cs. for 
Sedberg, notes No. 8, p. 559, 598 ; (2) 
portion of a wl. pal. by JGG. from 
the diet, of Mr. Law, then 60, a 
regular old dalesman, in whose house 
JGG. lived some weeks, left incomplete. 

*31. c4. Chapel-le-dale (29 nw. 
Keighley) wl. pal. by JGG. 619. 

31. c5. Clapham (16 n.Clitheroe, 
La.), extracts from a cs. pal. 1887 by 
TH. from W. Metcalfe, native. 

Dacre, see Lower Nidderdale, p. 500. 

*30. Dl. Danby -in- Cleveland (15 
se.Middlesborough) wl. and dt. both 
io. by Rev. J. C. Atkinson, author of 
the Cleveland Glossary, dt. 519, 521, 
cwl 527. 

*31. D2. Dent town (27 n-by-w. 
Clitheroe, La., 12 ese.Kendal, We.) 
cs. and wl. pal. 1876 by JGG. from a 
native, cs. 558, 563, 598, cwl. 630. 

*24. D3. Dewsbury (6 w.Wakefield) 
(1) cs. written in gl. by CCR. with 
notes, 367, 404; (2) cs. io. by Mr. 
M. Ridgway, 37 y., sent to LLB., who 
communicated it to AJE., with CCR.'s 
notes on his orthography. 

*24. D4. Doncaster, wl. pal. by 
AJE. 1877 and 1882 from Dr. John 
Sykes, who kindly came to town twice 
for the purpose, 406. 

30. D5. Drax (5 nw.Goole) 2 pc. 
from Rev. S. H. Hooper, vie. 

30. El. East Haddlesey (11 wnw. 
Goole) pc. and letter from Rev. J. N. 
Worfold, rect. 

*24. E2. East Hardwick (2 s.Ponte- 
fract) pc. from Rev. G. Eel, vie. ; 
alluded to, 405^. 

*30. E3. East Holderness, se.Yo. 
dt. pal. by AJE. from diet, of Mr. 
Stead, 522. 

*24. E4. Elland (3 sse.Halifax) dt. 
pal. 1887 by TH. from a native, 384. 

*31. ol. Giggleswick (% w.Settle, 
19 n. Burnley, La.) dt. pal. 1887 by 
TH. from diet, of a native, 548. 

*24. o2. Golcar (2 w.Huddersfield), 
see 377^. 

*30. a3. Goole and Marshland dt. 
pal. by AJE. from diet, of the late 
Rev. Dr. W. H. Thompson, 522. 

30. H!. Hackness (5 W.Scarborough) 
wl. io. from Rev. Thomas Cheese. 

*24. n2. Halifax (1) cs. written in 
gl. by CCR. 367; notes 384; (2) 
Parable of the Prodigal Son translated 
by CCR. in Part. IV. pp. 1400 to 
1405 ; (3) wn. by TH. ; (4) cwl. from 
J. Crabtree, 383. 

30. n3. Hatfield (6| ne. Doncaster) 
pc. and letter from Rev. G. Haydon, 

Hawes, see Upper Wensleydale, u6, 

24. n4. Haworth (3 sw. Keighley) 
wn. by TH. 

*30. n5. Holderness district, forming 
se.Yo. from Hull to Spurnhead, and 
n. to Bridlington: (1) cs. pal. by AJE. 
from Rev. Henry Ward, 501, 502, 518, 
who also gave me a version of Launce 
and Speed, not used. The assistance 
of Rev. H. Ward was obtained by the 
late Rev. J. R. Green, the historian ; 




(2) dt. for East Holderness, see above 

E3 ; (3) cwl. made from wl. furnished 

by Messrs. R. Stead, F. Ross, and 

\ Holderness, the three authors of the 

Holderness Glossary, 532; (4) TH.'s 

~"~ dhr-) 
absence of article, 501. 

visits to examine (thr- dhr-) and 

*24. H6. Holnifirth (6 s.Hudders- 
fieldj nwl. by Mr. A. Beardsell, 40 y., 

*30. H7. Hornsea, TH.'s examina- 
tion of (thr- dhr-), 50 1, c. 

*31. n8. Horton-in-Ribblesdale (19 
n-by-e.Clitheroe, La., 21 ene.Lan- 
caster, between Ingleborough and 
Penyghent Hills) wl. pal. by JGG-. 
from a native, 619. 

*31. n9. Hoivffill(8 ene.Kendal,We.) 
wl. pal. 1876 by JGG-. from Mr. Best, 
a native, who called on AJE. also, 630. 

*24. HlO. Huddersfield (rw/luzftld, 
:?lhBzfil) (1) cs. written in gl. by CCR. 
367, 378 ; (2) wl. by Messrs. Dowse 
& Tomlinson, and Miss Mercy Hibbard, 

*30. nil. Hull (1) wn. by TH. 
501 b, c; (2) wl. io. by Rev. Canon 
Simmons, Dalton Holme (:dAAt'n 
room, :ul). 

*31. Hl2. Hurst (8 w.Richmond) 
dt. pal. by TH. from diet, of a native, 

31. i. Ilkley (5 nne.Keighley) wl. 
pal. by JGG. from dictation of Mrs. 
Best, not used. 

*24. K. Keighley (rkiikjhlt, rkiithlt) 

(1) cs. written ingl. by CCR 367 ; notes 
386 ; (2) fragments of a cs. pal. in 1887 
from a native by TH. 385; (3) wl. 
pal. by JGG. from Mrs. Foster, 387 ; 
(4) wl. io. by Mr. Septimus Brigg, for 
town of Keighley and up the valley of 
the Aire as far as Bradley (6 nnw. 
Keighley), misprinted Bradford, 387. 

*31. Ll. Laithkirk (20 nw.Rich- 
mond) cs. and wl. io. by Rev. W. 
Robinson Bell, vie., interpreted by a 
cwl. by JGG. pal. from diet., this 
applies to the nw. horn of Yo. 624. 

*24. L2. Leeds (1) cs. written in gl. 
by CCR. with notes, 367 ; notes, 396 ; 

(2) refined town form, 396 ; (3) full 
wl. written in glossic, 397. 

*30. L3. Leven (6 wsw.Hornsea) 
wn. by TH. described p. 501 *, c. 

*30. L4. Lofthouses, see Lower 
Nidderdale, 500. 

*30. LO. Lower Nidderdale, contain- 
ing Lofthouses (16 nw.Harrogate), 
Ramsgill (14 nw.H.), Pateley Bridge 
(11 nw.H.), GreenhowHill(10 nw.H.), 

Dacre (8 nw.H.), cs. written in gl. by 
CCR. 500, 502, 516. 

*24. Ml. Manning ham, suburb of 
Bradford, wn. by TH. shewing use of 
( ) 365, which Dr. Wright thinks to 
be a mistake, 389. 

*30. M2. Market Weighton (:wiit'n) 
(9 w.Beverley) (1) cs. io. by Mr. J. 
Kirkpatrick, who also gave specimens ; 

(2) another cs. by Mr. H. Dove ; (3) 
glossic transcription by CCR. ; (4) cs. 
and wl. pal. 1877 by AJE. from read- 
ing of Rev. J. Jackson Wray, cs. 501, 
502, 517; spec. 497, 498; cwl. 529. 

*24. M3. Marsden (7 sw. Huddersfield) 
(1) nwl. by the curate (unnamed), as- 
sisted by Mr. R. Bamford, School 
Terrace ; (2) printed specimen sent by 
Mr. Adshead, then of Pendleton, La. ; 

(3) dt. and wn. by TH. 379, 380. 
Marshland, see Goole at o3. 

*31. M4. Middlesmoor (14 w-by-n. 
Ripon) cs. written in gl. by CCR., a por- 
tion given under Upper Nidderdale, 544. 

*30. M5. Mid Yorkshire, district 
defined, 499, cs. written in gl. by 
CCR. 502, 513 (repeated 557, 563), 
and full wl. also written in gl. by 
CCR. 523. 

*30. M6. Moors, The, meaning 
"Whitby, Malton, Pickering (7 n-by-e. 
Malton), or the east part of North 
Riding, dt. io. by Rev. J. Thornton, 
vie. of Aston Abbot, Aylesbury, 519. 

Muker, see Upper Swaledale, u5, 

*30. N!. New Malton cs. written in 
gl. by CCR. considered a subdistrict of 
his Mid Yo., see above M5, 499 last 
line, 500, 502, 516. 

North Craven, see above, Burlon- 
in-Lonsdale, B4 ; Chapel-le-dale, c4 ; 
Horton-in-Ribblesdale, n8. 

*30. N2. North East Coast, district 
defined, p. 500, No. 8, cs. written ingl. 
by CCR. 502, 517. 

*30. N3. North Mid Yorkshire, 
district defined, 499, No. 3, cs. written 
in gl. by CCR. 502, notes 515 ; this is 
for the ordinary rural speech ; CCR. 
gave also a cs. in refined rural form. 

31. N4. North of Richmond, refined 
phase, cs. written in gl. by CCR., 
apparently as a reminiscence of the 
pron. of an individual mentioned in 
CCR.'s Leeds Glossary, p. xiii; being 
a refined form, it is omitted here, as 
was the refined form in N3 above. 
The peasant speech of which this was 
a refinement was probably the same 
as that of Laithkirk above, Ll. It is 




made remarkable by the frequent use 
of (a) as (aat net ta bi raq av sa'ikmi 
a paant az dhis) ought not to be wrong 
of = on such a point as this, (laa-in 
s^ritit at waal liqth atap- a)t' graa'wnd 
tloos biv)t' uus daar iv iz gaa'wd saanda 
kaat daa'wn at kaanar a jan laan) lying 
stretched at whole length atop of the 
ground close by the house door in his 
good Sunday coat at corner of yon 

*24. o. Osset (4 w.Wakefield) wn. 
by TH 365. 

Pateley Bridge, see Lower Nidder- 

30. P. _P0cM;^frw(12e-by-s.York) 
(1) wl. io. by Miss Lucy Singleton, 
Great Givendale House ; (2) full wl. 
io. by Dr. T. Wilson, more than 60 y. 

Ramsgill, see Lower Nidderdale, L5 

*31. 1. Richmond wl. io. by Mr. 
George Bell, noticed p. 544#. 

30. u2. Ripon to ThirsJc (taking 
parts of CCE.'s Mid and North Mid 
Yo., above n5 and N3), wl. io. by 
Mrs. Lloyd, Hazelcroft, Eipley (7 s. 

24. R3. Ripponden (5 sw.Halifax) 
wn. by TH. from two shepherds. 

24. R4. Rossington (4 se.Doncaster) 
pc. from Eev. J. W. Scarlett, rect. 

*24. R5. Rotherham, es. written in 
gl. by CCR. 367, 404. 

24. R6. Roundhay (3 ne. Leeds) nwl. 
by Mr. F. M. Lupton, 27 y. from birth. 

*24. si. Saddleworth wl. io. by Mr. 
G. H. Adshead, 380. 

*31. s2. Sedberg (31 w.Eichmond) 
cs. pal. 1876 by JGG. from diet. 559, 
563, 598. 

30. s3. Selby (10 nw.Goole) pc. 
from Eev. F. W. Harper, vie. 

*24. s4. Sheffield (1) cs. so. by Prof. 
Farkes, procured through JAHM. and 
friends, 367, 405 ; (2) notes on vowels. 

30. s5. Skeffling (4 se.Patrington, 
near Spurn Head) wl. io. from Eev. 
H. Maister, vie., all his life. 

*30. s6. Skelton-in- Cleveland (16 
wnw. Whitby) dt. io. with long notes 
by Mr. I. Wilkinson, read to me by 
Mr. J. W. Langstaff, of Stanghow 
(3 sse.Skelton), 519, 521. 

*31. s7. Skipton (8 nw.Keighley) 
(1) cs. written in gl. by CCE. extracts, 
544 ; (2) dt. pal. 1887 by TH. 548. 

*24. s8. Slaithwaite (4 sw.Hudders- 
field), see 377, var. i. 

*30. s9. Smith (6 w-by-s.Goole) (1) 

wl. io. by Eev. J. W. Norman, 533 ; (2) 
pc. from Eev. C. E. Stores, vie. 

*30. slO. South Ainsty, denned 499 
No. 2, cs. written in gl. by Mr. E. Stead 
and pal. by AJE. 499, 502, 514 No. 2. 

*30. sll. South Cleveland district 
denned 500, cs. written in gl. by CCE. 
500, 502, 516 No. 7, the n. Cleveland 
has been spoiled dialectally by the iron 

24. s!2. South Owram(l^se. Halifax) 
wn. by TH. has only (M) as noted, 365. 

*30. s!3. Sutton (3nne.Hull) dt. io. 
by Mr. E. French, then of the lead 
works, 167 Church St., Hull, see Ch. p. 

*30. s!4. Swine (5 nne.Hull) wn. 
by TH. from a native of Hull, who 
had resided 20 or 30 years at Swine, 
alluded to, 501 b, c. 

24. il. Thornton (5 n. Halifax) wn. 

24. T2. TicTchill (7 s.Doncaster) pc. 
from Eev. Charles Bury, vie. 

*31. ul. Tipper Craven with Upper 
Nidderdale, es. written in gl. by CCE. 
extracts given, 544. 

*24. u2. Upper Cumberworth (6 
sse.Huddersfield) dt. and wn. pal. 1881 
by TH. from diet. 380. 

*31. u3. Upper Mining Dales, i.e. 
Swaledale and Arkengarthdale, cs. 
written in gl. by CE. extracts given, 

*31. u4. Upper Nidderdale, cs. 
written in gl. by CCE. extracts given, 

*31. uo. Upper Swaledale or Muher 
(16 w-by-s.Eichmond) cs. pal. 1876 
by JGG. from many natives 557 (where 
it is called Upper Swaledale}, 563, 
595 (where it is called Muker), extracts 
544, and cwl. also by JGG. 619 ; JGG. 
likewise gave a translation of Launce 
and Speed, which was transcribed into 
his own gl. by CCE. and re-rendered 
by JGG. 1878, but as the example is a 
bad one it is not given. 

*31. u6. Upper Wensleydale or 
If awes (20 ws w.Eichmond) cs. pal. 
1876 by JGG. from a native, 557, 563, 
596, all No. 3 under Hawes. 

30. wl. Waghen or Wawne (4 se. 
Beverley) wl. io. by Eev. G. Wilkin- 
son, 35 y. 

*24. w2. WaTceJield wn. by TH. 
incorporated with a cwl. deduced from 
Mr. W. S. Banks's printed List of 
Words, 401. 

*30. w3. Washburn River region, 
lying between the Wharfe and the 




Nidd, remarkable for use of (th) for 
def. art., cs. written in gl. by CCR. 
500, 502, 516, all No. 6. 

*30. w4. Whitby (1) dt. and wl. 
both io. by the late Mr. F. K. Robin- 
son, druggist, author of the Whitby 
Glossary, dt. 519, 521, cwl. 527; (2) 
dt. io. for this included in the Moors, 
by Eev. J. Thornton, 519, 521<f. 

*24. w5. Windhill (3 n. Bradford) 

dt. pal. by AJE. from Dr. J. Wright, 
native, 389. 

York Ainsty, see South Ainsty above 

30. Y. York City refined speech, 
used by tradespeople and best class of 
inhabitants of rural market towns ; cs. 
gl. by CC1I. and Mr. Stead, but 
omitted as not being genuine dialect, 
see remarks on Leeds refined form, 396. 

41. Ma. = Isle of Man, 3 places, all in D 23, Var. ii. 

*23. Kl. Kirk Christ Lezayre (2 
w. Ramsey) dt. pal. by TH. from diet, 
of a native, and wn. 361, 363. 

*23. K2. Kirk Christ Riishen (4 w. 
Castletown) dt. pal. by TH. from diet, 
of natives, 361, 363. 

23. K.3. Kirk Patrick (2 s.Peel) 
wn. by TH. from diet, of Mrs. E. 
Corphey, b. 1855, native, wife of in- 
formant for Kirk Christ Lezayre. 

*23. P. Peel dt. and wn. in 1881 by 
TH. from natives, 361, 363. 


36 places in D 2, 3, 13, 14, 28, or in no district. 

Observe "aqCB." means "Answers to Questions respecting the Celtic Border." 
means, not considered in this book, because the peasants do not habitually 
converse in English. 

4 places in D 13. 

13. Bl. Brecon, aqCB. from Eev. 
D. Grifiith, vie. 

*13. B2. Breconshire, eastern or 
English -speaking part, with w.He. wl. 
by Mr. R. Stead, see Folkestone, Ke. 

13. s3. Builth (13 n.Brecon) aqCB. 
from Rev. A. J. Coore, vie. 

13. c. Crickhowel (12 ese. Brecon) 
aqCB. from Rev. B. Somerset, rect. 


1 place in no district. 
0. c. Carmarthen cs. and wl. of 
Welsh-English of 1830 by the late 
Mr. W. Spurrell, author of a Welsh- 
English Grammar and Dictionary. 

4 places, 3 in D 28, 1 in no district. 

28. c. Chirk (9 ssw.Wrexham) 
aqCB. from Rev. T. H. Simpson, vie. 

*28. H. Holt (5 ne. Wrexham) aqCB. 
from Rev. H. Wray, vie., note from 
Mr. E. French (see Sutton, Yo.), and 
wn. by TH. 458. 

0. R. Ruabon (5 sw. Wrexham) 
aqCB. from Rev. M. Edwards, vie. 

*28. w. Wrexham aqCB. by Rev. 
D. Howell, vie., and wn. by TH. 458. 

48. FL.= FLINT. 
8 places, 5 in D 28, 3 in no district. 

*28. Bl. Bettisfield (6 sw.Bangor, de- 
tached) wn. by TH. from a native, 456. 

*28. B2. Bretton (3 sw. Chester, 
main) wn. by TH. 458. 

0. P. Flint, aqCB. from Rev. E. 
Jenkins, vie. 

*28. H!. Hanmer (5 wsw.Bangor, 
detached) wn. 456, and dt. pal. by TH. 
from a native, 452, and dt. io. by Mr. T. 
Bateman, of Arowry, a hamlet in Han- 
mer, and letter from Rev. M. H. Lee. 

*28. n2. Hawarden (6 ese.Flint, 
main), aqCB. from Rev. S. Gladstone, 
rect., dt. io. from Mr. Spencer, school- 
master, and wn. by TH. 458. 

28. n3. Hope (5 se.Mold, main) 
aqCB. by Rev. J. Rowlands, vie. 

0. M. Mold (6 s.Flint) aqCB. by 
Rev. Rowland Ellis, vie. 

0. N. Nor t hop (3 s.Flint, main) 
aqCB. by Rev. T. Williams, vie. 


3 places, 1 in D 3, 2 in no district. 

*3. G. Gowerland, dt. io. and note 
from Rev. J. D. Davies, 13, 35. 

0. L. Llantrissant (10 nw.Cardiff) 
aqCB. from Rev. J. Powell Jones, vie. 

0. M. Merthyr Tydvil, aqCB. from 
Rev. John Grifiith, rect. 



9 places, all in D 14. 

14. Bl. Berriew (3 nw. Montgomery) 
aqCB. from Rev. Joseph Baines, 

14. s2. Buttington (2 ne.Welshpool) 
aqCB. from Rev. J. Lewis, vie., and 
note from Rev: D. Phillips Lewis. 

14. F. Forden (3 n. Montgomery) 
aqCB. from Rev. J. E. Vise, vie. 

14. G. Guilsfield (2 n.AVelshpool) 
aqCB. and note from Rev. D. Phillips 
LeAvis, vie. 

14. K. Kerry (2 ese.Newtown) aqCB. 
from Rev. W. Morgan, vie. 

14. L. Llandrinio (8 nne.Welshpool) 
aqCB. from Rev. E. B. Smith, rect. 

*14. M. Montgomery, aqCB. and 
letter containing much information on 
the CB. from Rev. F. W. Parker, 
rect. Ub, 183c. 

14. s. Snead (5 se.Montgomery) 
aqCB. from Rev. G. 0. Pardoe, 

14. w. WelshpooL aqCB. from Rev. 
J. S. Hill, vie. 


4 places all in D 2. 
*2. R. Ehos and Daugleddy Htmdreds, 
the two sw. peninsulas of Pm. (1) Rev. 
J. Tombs, rect. of Burton (3 n. Pem- 
broke) sent me a dt. 32, printed lecture 
and notes; (2) Mr. F. T. Elworthy 
sent notes, 34 ; (3) notes from Mr. E. 
L. Jones, master of Brooklands School, 
Sale, Manchester, native of Tenby, 34 ; 
(4) dt. from diet, by Mr. W. Spurrell, 
32, with specimens of Narberth Speech, 
34 ; (5) notes from Ven. Archdeacon 
Edmondes, of Warren, 34. 

3 places in D 13. 

*13. B. Boughrood (18 sw.Presteign, 
at the extreme s. of the county) aqCB. 
from Ven. H. de Winton, Arch, of 
Brecon and vie. 179. 

13. L. Llanddewi Tstradenny (11 
wsw.Knighton) aqCB. from Rev. L. 
A. Smith, vie. 

13. N. New Radnor (7 sw.Presteign) 
aqCB. from Rev. J. Gillam, rect. 


39 places in D 33 to D 42. 

3 places in D 39. 

*39. A. Ab. generally (1) numerals 
from Mr. Melville Bell's Visible Speech, 
726 ; (2) sentences from the same, 777. 

*39. B. Buchan district, (1) Ruth, 
chap. i. pal. by Dr. JAHM. from diet. 
698, No. 3 ; (2) nwl. by Dr. Findlater, 
779 ; (3) words selected from J. Alex- 
ander's Johnny Gibb of Gushetneuk, 

*39. c. Cromdr district, MS. phonetic 
account by the late Mr. Samuel Innes, 
died about 1866, given me by Mr. T. 
H. Ridge in 1872, partly read to me 
in 1883 by Jane Morrison, native of 
Tarland, in Cromar, servant of Sir 
Peter Lumsden, and fresh from Tar- 
land, who knew Mr. Innes by name ; 
(1) his account of the pron. 766 to 
768; (2) his examples, The Meeting, 
769 ; Yule-tide, 770 ; The Fight, 773 ; 
Notes, 775. 

56. AY. = AYRSHIRE. 
6 places in D 35 and 36. 
*35. A. Ayr, Ruth, chap. i. pal. by 

240, with 

Dr. Murray in his DSS. p. 5 
cwl. from it, 698 No. 2, 742. 

*36. c. Coylton (6 ese.Ayr) (1) cwl. 
io. representing the district of Kyle, 
742; (2) dt. io. with notes pal. by 
AJE. 731, both by Rev. Neil Living- 
stone, Free Church, Manse. This 
might be put to x2. 

*35. xl. Kilmarnock, phonetic trans- 
cription of Burns' s Tarn o> Shanter 
by Messrs. Thomas Lang (then of 
Kilmarnoch), Carstairs Douglas, R. 
Giffen, and others, pal. with notes by 
AJE. 731-741. This might be put 
to K2. 

*35 and 36. K2. Kyle, (1) W. 
Simson's words (printed) 742; (2) a 
word from Miss C. G. Hamilton. 

*36. N. New Cumnock(l5ese.Ayr.), 
Burns' s song of Duncan Gray, written 
1847 by me in my extended phonotypic 
alphabet of that year, from the diet, of 
John Lowe, and pal. from the original, 

*35. o. Ochiltree (:oo-kh'ltri) (11 e. 
Ayr) nwl. by Mr. D. Patrick, 1877, 
then in Edinburgh, but knowing the 
dialect "all his life," 28 y., 742. 





1 place in D 39. 

*39. K. Keith, by Rev. Walter 
Gregor, native, see 683, No. 6, (1) cs. 
written io. and pal. by Dr. Murray, 
684, 695; (2) cwl. pal. from Mr. 
Gregor 's dictation by AJE. 779 to 
785 ; (3) notes and pbrases dictated at 
the same time as (2), 777 to 779. 


1 place in D 34. 

*34. c. Chirnside (9 wnw.Berwick- 
upon- Tweed) by Rev. George Wilson, 
Free Churcb, Glenluce (15 w.Wigton, 
dt. and nwl. in io. pal. by AJE. from 
indications, both 726. 

60. Cs. = CAITHNESS. 
1 place in D 40. 

*40. w. Wick (1) cs. pal. 1874 by 
AJE. from diet, of Mr. A. Meiklejohn 
and Revs. J. Sinclair and R. Macbeth, 
683, No. 7, 684, 696 ; (2) wd. from 
Miss C. G. Hamilton. 


1 place in D 36. 

*36. T. Tynron (14 nw. Dumfries) 
notes and Iw. in 1868 by Mr. James 
Shaw, 749. 


1 place in D 34. 

*34. E. Edinburgh (1) cs. pal. by 
JAHM. from diet, of Mrs. Ch. Murray, 
native, 683, No. 3, 684, 695, 726^; 
(2) Lothian sentences from Mr. Mel- 
ville Bell's Visible Speech, 724; (3) 
numerals from the same, 726 ; (4) 
Central Scottish from Dr. Murray's 
DSS., pp. 144 to 149, may belong to 
D 34, 35, 36, or any part of Mid 
Lowland, as the words are not dis- 
tinguished, 727. 

67. Fi. =FIFESHIRE. 
2 places in D 34 and D 37. 

*34. F. Fifeshire generally, (1) sen- 
tences from Mr. Melville Bell's Visible 
Speech, 725 ; (2) numerals from the 
same, 726. 

*37. N. Neu;burgh-on-Tay (8 wnw. 
Cupar) dt. io. with notes by Rev. Dr. 
Alex. Laing, 752. 

E.E. Pron. Part V. 


3 places in D 38. 

*38. A. Arbroath cs. written in io. 
by Mr. W. J. Anderson, pal. by Dr. 
J. A. H. Murray, 683, No. 5, 684, 

*38. B. Brechin nwl. by Mr. J. 
Guthrie, Royal Bank of Scotland, 25 y., 

*38. D. Dundee (1) dt. pal. 1881 by 
AJE. from diet, of Miss Begge, then 
of Whitelands, 758, with notes and 
phrases from the same, 759 ; (2) notes 
by Mr. G. Clarke of the West End 
Academy, 760. 


1 place in D 34. 

*34. L. Linton (5 ne.Haddington) cs. 
io. by Mr. J. Teenan, really gen. D 34, 
almost identical with 684, No. 3, 


1 place in D 38. 

*38. G. Glenfarquhar (11 w-by-s. 
Stonehaven) from Mr. J. Ross, M.A., 
Rector of the High School, Arbroath, 
Fo., native, (1) notes, 756; (2) dt. 
so. 758 ; (3) nwl. with aq. and long 
explanations, 760. 


1 place in D 36. 

*36. K. Kirkpatrick- Durham (:kil- 
pee-trik) (5 n.Castle Douglas) nwl. by 
Rev. W. A. 

Stark, 6 y., 749. 


1 place in D 35. 

*35. G. Glasgow and Clydesdale 
generally, (1) Clydesdale sentences from 
Mr. Melville Bell's Visible Speech, 
730, 742; (2) wl. io. by Mr. John 
Alexander, then of Glasgow (rgleskra), 
50 y., 742. 

770. OR. = ORKNEY. 
forming one county with Shetland, 
here separated as 77#, and placed 
after Se. = Selkirk, because they 
have been placed in separate dis- 
tricts ; 1 place in D 41. 
*41. s. Sanda, northern isles, the 
residence of Mr. W. Traill Dennison, 
who in 1880 published his Orcadian 
Sketch Book, out of which has been 

taken Paetij ToraVs Traveltye, with 
the pron. corrected by himself vv. in 
Aug. 1884, p. 791 to 802, and he also 
wrote and dictated to me vv. his trans- 
lation of John Cfilpin into older Orkney 
speech, June, 1888, p. 802 to 811. 

1 place in D 34. 

*34. P. Peebles co. generally, 
numerals from Mr. Melville Bell's 
Visible Speech, 726. 

1 place in D 37. 

*37. P. Perth, or neighbourhood, 

(1) dt. pal. by AJE. from diet, of 
Misses Miles, Pollar and Kidd of 
Whitelands in 1881 ; (2) words from 
Enga pron. by the same, both 753. 


1 place in D 35. 

*35. L. Lochwinnoch (:lokh-emakh) 
(12 sw. Renfrew, misprinted 6 sw. on 
p. 747) words and phrases contrasted 
with Ochiltree, Ay. by Mr. David 
Patrick, 747. 


5 places in D 33. 

*33. H. Hawick (1) pron. abstracted 
from Dr. Murray's DSS. 710 to 713 ; 

(2) cs. written in pal. by Dr. J. A. H. 
Murray, native, 682 No. 2, 684, 694 ; 

(3) Ruth, Chap. i. pal. by Dr. JAHM. 
from his DSS. p. 241, Teviotdale 698, 
No. 1 ; (4) Teviotdale sentences from 
Mr. Melville BeU's Visible Speech, 714 ; 
(5) numerals from the same, 726 ; (6) 
Scotch Hundredth Psalm, from Dr. 
JAHM.'s DSS. 715 ; (7) South Low- 
land cwl. from DSS. increased by 
communications from Dr. JAHM. 716 
to 721 ; as all of these are based on 
Dr. Murray's authority, they are all 
classed under his native place. 

*33. L. LiddesdaleHead, near Thorli- 
shop (12 s-by-e.Hawick), cwl. pal. by 
JGG. from Mr. Jackson, 75y., 721. 

33. R. Roxburgh Town (17 nnw. 
Hawick) cwl. pal. by JGG. from diet. 
of Mr. D. Ross, then of Milburn, but 
25 y. from birth ; not intended for publi- 
cation and not printed. 

33. T. Teviotdale Head (8 se. Hawick) 
cwl. pal. by JGG. from Mr. Linton, 
Lewisburn, Plashetts (24 nw.Hexham, 
Nb. ) , 20 y. , not intended for publication 
and not printed. 

33. Y. Yetholm (.-jaath'm) (8 se. 
Kelso, 1 m. from the Nb. b. on the 
road to Wooler, a great gypsy settle- 
ment) from diet, of Mr. T. Kirkup, 
M.A., native of Wooler, 15y., for 4 
of which he was a pupil teacher in 
Yetholm, (1) a wl. partly corrected in 
pal. by AJE. from his dictation ; (2) 
dt. pal. by the same from the same ; 
neither used, see p. 655 d. 

*33. Selkirk (tsselkrik, rsselkrit) wl. 
pal. by JGG. from diet, of Mr. J. 
Mitchell, of Howgill Castle, Milburn, 
We., native, but 25 y. absent from 
Scotland ; not printed. 

77 b. SD. = SHETLAND. 

4 places in D 42 ; this forms one county 
with 77 a Orkney, which see after 
74 Lk. 

*42. D. Dunrossness, southernmost 
point of mainland Sd. (1) cs. written 
in io. by Mr. David Cogle, fisherman, 
native of Cuningsborough, and pal. 
by AJE. from the diet, of Miss A. B. 
Malcolmson, of Lerwick, 683 No. 8, 
684, 696 ; (2) in print " Shetland 
Fireside Tales by G.S.E." (Mr. G. 
Stewart, of Edinburgh, native of 
Dunrossness), given me by Mr. Cogle, 

42. L. Lerwick, (1) Parable of the 
Prodigal Son in Sd. speech, written 
in io. by Mr. Arthur Laurenson, of 
Lerwick, and pal. by me from diet, of 
Miss Anna B. Malcolmson, 816 ; (2) 
nwl. by Mr. A. L. of which the 
principal words were pal. by me from 
the diet, of Miss A. B. M. 818. 

42. s. Shetland generally, (1) MS. 
Glossary of words collected by Mr. 
A. Grant, and sent to Prince L.-L. 
Bonaparte, who lent it to me ; (2) "A 
Shetland Letter ' ' communicated to me 
in MS. by Prince LLB., and translated 
by Mr. A. Laurenson, but as it has 
not been read to me, I have not used 
it ; part of it is printed in the 'Zetland 
Directory and Guide,' 1860. 

*42. u. Unst (1) MS. Glossary of 
words collected by Dr. L. Edmondstone 
with the ^pronunciation of several 
marked by Walker's symbols, belonging 
to Prince L.-L. Bonaparte, who lent 
it to me ; (2) in print ' The Parable of 
the Sower,' Matth. xiii. 3-9, trans- 
lated in 1858 by Dr. LE. for Prince 

VI., VII.] 


LLB., and communicated by him with 
Annotations to the Philological Society 
of London, 20 June, 1878, p. 817. 

2 places in D 36. 

*36. G. Glenluce (glEnlyy^) (15 w. 
Wigton) nwl. hy Rev. George Wilson, 

Free Church, Glenluce, who went over 
every word with his deacon, James 
McCulloch, 68, native, whose father 
kept up the dialect well, 749. 

*36. s. Stranraer (25 w-by-n. 
Wigton) cs. pal. by AJE. from diet, 
of Messrs. W. Boyd, M. Armstrong, 
and R. Caddow, 683, No. 4, 684, 
695, 749. 


117. Wx. =WEXFORD. co. 

1 place in D 1. 
*1. F. Forth and Bargy baronies, 

letter from E. Hore, and from printed 
matter by Rev. William Barnes, pp. 


This consists of two distinct parts given for convenience in one alphabetical 
arrangement. The first is a reverse index to the Alphabetical County List VI., 
enabling the reader to refer back from the informant's name to his contribution. 
The name in roman letters is followed by the usual two -letter abbreviation of 
the name of the county in italics with M, W, S, I prefixed if it belongs to the 
Isle of Man, Wales, Scotland, or Ireland. This refers at once to the Alpha- 
betical Counties List, VI., which is arranged first in countries, and then in 
counties. Then follows the initial, numbered if necessary, which refers to that 
given under the name of the county in VI., and immediately points out the place, 
whence the information was derived, and whence all the necessary particulars 
can be found. When more than one county is referred to, a is interposed. 

The second part contains those names which are not introduced in VI. because 
they could not be conveniently referred to a specified place in a county. These 
for distinction are printed in italics with generally an indication of the matter 
for which any name is cited, and the page where it will be found. When the 
name also belongs to the first part, only the indication is printed in italics. 

The names of all persons or books mentioned in my treatise from which I 
have directly derived information are thus given errors excepted. The names 
of those from whom my informants derived their knowledge, though occasionally 
given in the text, are generally not inserted in this list, although there are a few 
exceptions, as no rule could be conveniently observed in inserting or omitting them. 

The names of some of the books used are also given, and it may be assumed 
that I have consulted every important book on dialects that has appeared (p. 5b), 
although not specially named. These I did not consider it necessary to specify. 
See the Bibliography published by the English Dialect Society and its own 
publications. The peculiar character of this treatise consists in imprinted and 
hitherto uncollected sources of information on which it is founded, and it is to 
those from whom I procured it that this Alphabetical List mainly relates. 


Adcock, Miss M. A. Le. 

Adshead, G, H. To. M3. 


Agricola's wall, 22. 
Ainger, Rev. Dr. Nb. R. 
Aiton, W. General View 

of Agriculture in the 

Co. of Ayr, 7290. 
Akerman's 'Hornet and 

Beetle,' pal. 51 to 54. 
Alexander, J. SLk. G. 

and see Gibb, SAb. s. 
Alfred King, 2. 
Allen, Ven. Archd. Sh. 


Allen, Grant, ' Are we 
Englishmen ?' 9 note. 

Allen, Miss. Le. *B4. 

Allen, T. Nb. *sl. 

Allen, Rev. T. T. Du. D. 

Allnutt, W. H. Ox. o. 

Auchmaty, Rev. A. C. 
He. L5. 

Anderson, W. J. SFo. A. 



Anonymous, vie. Co. Ll. 

"vie. Du. A2. 
rector. *Es. R. vie. 
He. A. vie. Li. B3. 

servant. Li. *E. 

passenger. Nf. *N5. 

vie. Ox. n2. 
curate. To. M3. 

Anstey, Mary. Dv. *il. 
Arden, Mrs. Douglas. Li. 

Hi. 88. 

Arnold, M., bis pron. of 
'fate,' 33*. 

Armstrong, Eev. E. P. 
Li. s5. 

Armstrong, M. SWg. s. 

Asbby, G. Nf. xl. 

Atkinson, Mrs. C^. cl. 
We. T. Aer assistance 
for Edenside names, 
55od, 603c. 

Atkins, A. H. Bu. c2. 

Atkinson, "W. Cu. P. 
his assistance for Eden- 
side names, 603c. 

Atkinson, Rev. J. La. D. 

Atkinson, Eev. J. C. To. 



Bainbridge, J. Cw. E. 
Ais assistance for Eden- 
side Names, 603c. 

Baines, Rev. J. WMg.vl. 

Baird, If. = Nathan Hogg, 
I56d, l5Sc, U9d. 

Baker, R. S. Nf. N4. 

Baker, Rev. R. S. Np. n4. 

Ballard, H. He. *M. 

Baldwin, Rev. I. N. Nt. 


Bamford, R. mFo. n3. 

Banks, Mrs. L. La. M!. 

Banks, W. S. To. *w2. 

Banting, W. B. J?. * H 1. 

Bantou, Rev. P. Np. 3. 

Barclay, Rev. D. Ht. s4 

Barkas, T. P. JW. * N 1. 

Barlow, Rev. J. M. Sr. s2. 

Barnard, Mrs. J. JT<. s3. 

Barnes, Rev. W. Z>o. 
*w3. IWx. ^.printed 
25, 26, 30onf,v,and 
s, zin S. 38 to 41. 

Bartlett, Rev. W. A. S*. 


Batchelor, T. 2?rf. *B. 
and his ' Orthoepical 
Analysis,' 204-209 (all 

Bateman, T. WFl. Hi. 

Baumann, H. his London- 
isms, 230. 

Beardsell, A. To. *n6. 

Beeby, Miss. Bu. *wl. 

Beesley, T. jun. Ox. *B!. 

Beesley, sen. Ox. *B!. 

Begge, Miss. SFo. D. 

ite&, Dr. on'v,w,' 132. 

Bell, A. M. SAb. A. 
. E. SFi. F. 
. G.SPb. P. 
. H. Ais ' Visible 
Speech' sentences, 714, 
724, 725, 730, 777, and 
Numerals, 726. revises 
Buchan version of Ruth, 

Bell, G. To. *nl. 

Bell, Miss H. Le. w. 

Bell, Rev. H. Cu. R. 

Bell, Jacob, Nb. K. 

Bell, Miss M. A. La. *c8. 

Bell, Rev. W.R. To. *L!. 

BeUows, J. Gl. Bl. 
La. p3. 

Bennett, Rev. Canon, F7. 


Bennett, E. St. E2. 
Benton, Mr. Pb. Es. *sl. 
Berin, Rev. H. Ke. pi. 
Berkeley, Rev. S. H. Dv. 


Bewick, R. Nb. *w2. 
Best, To. n9. 
Best, Mrs. To. i. 
Bewly, E. S. Ha. A. 

Sf. 82. 

Bigge, Rev. J. F. JV5. *s2. 
Biugbam, Rev. Canon, 

Do. si. 

Birch, Rev. G. .5. E. 
Birket, W. his help for 

Edenside names, 603d '. 
Blasson, T. ii. *s4. 
Blenkinsopp, Rev. E. L. 

Li. slO. 

Blythe, Rev. J. Nb. A2. 
Bogg, T. W. Li. *L3. 
Bolingbroke, Mrs. F. H. 

Bd. M. 
Bonaparte, Prince L.-L., 

his help, 5. GL a = 

(ii), 64. on Nb. burr, 

643a, 6440. Be. *nl. 

.Bw. c2, c3, L. Es. 

*sl. Gl. nl. Ha. 

*c\.He. *D2 *E H 

*L4 M R -w2.Ht. Bl 

B3 G2 H4 K Ll L2 *R 

T w2. Z. p3. Mi. 

*E W. MO. *L. JV/*. 

Kl. ^r. L. Wa. s3. 

TTo. *D2. ro. D3. 

SSd. s u. 
Bower, Rev. A. Li. u2. 
Bowness, R. La. c8. 
Boyd, W. /S7F^. s. 
Bradley, Rev. E. Eu. s. 
Bradsbaw, Mrs. jun. Ox. 


Brain, J. Oa;. *D. 
Brandreth, E. L. obtains 

Jane Morrison's help, 


Brigg, S. To. K. 
Breechen, Rev. J. Eu. w. 
Brewer, AY. .&?. *c. 
Brickwell.Rev. E. Bd. n2. 
Broadley, Rev. Canon, Do. 


Brockie, W. Du. s8. 
Brooke, F. C. Sf. u. 
Brooke, T. To. A. 
Brooks, Rev. T. W. D. 

Broughton, Rev. R. Ha. 

Brown, Rev. A. H. Es. 


Brown, J. Bd. A. 
Brown, Jo. We. K.1. 
Brown, Rev. T. #/. H. 
Brown, W. H. Ht. R. 
Browne, Rev. H. Wo. El. 
Brune, Mrs. Prideaux. 

Co. pi. 
' 2?rw y Tyivysogion,' on 

the Flemings in Pm. 24. 
Buck, Rev. G. P. Nf. N5. 
Buckle, Miss. Nf. *M2. 
Buckley, Rev. Jo. Wl. s3. 
Buller, Rev. R. Co. L3. 
Bulman, Rev. G. P. Du. 

Burgiss, G., witb T. and 

J. He. *L4. 
Burne, Mrs. Sh. N!. 
Burnell, Dr. A. C. Ha. 

Burningbam, Rev. T. Nf. 

x5. Sr. cl.Ha. 

example about 1828, p. 

96^. on Sr. and Ss., 

Burns, E.,Tamo' Shanter, 

pal. 732. Duncan 

Gray, pal. 748. 
Burton, Sir F., ow 'de = 

the' in Ke. 132. 
Bury, Rev. T.W. Li. Al. 
Bury, Rev. Cb. To. *i2. 




Butler, Betty, La. cl. 
Butler, T. La. D. 
Butler, Tobias, recites 

Forth speech, 28. 
Buttenshaw, Mrs. Bd. E. 

Caddow, R. SWg. s. 
Cadogan, C. H. Nb. n. 
Calland, Miss. Ke. s4. 
Cameron, Rev. A. A. Be. 


Campbell, Mrs. G. M. E. 

Wl. c5. 

Campbell, Rev. "W. Be. K. 
Campbell, Rev. \V. A. 

Hu. n3. 
Campbell, Ld. his 'Life 

of Judge Sale," 1 64. 
<7#rr, 7F., on theNb. burr, 

father of Mrs. Ferschl, 

Carrol, Rev. T. Hu. n2. 
Carthew, G. A. Nf. *E. 
Cartlege, Rev. C. A. Dul 

* B 2. 
Casartelli, Rev. J. C. La. 


Castle, Rev. E. To. c2. 
Cattell, T. E. Ru. c. 
Chamberlain, J. H. Le. 

Chamberlain, Rev. J. S. F. 

m o3. 

Chamberlain, Mrs. (form- 

erly Miss Sweet) Wo. T. 
Chamberlain, Rev. T. B. 

Nt. N 3. 
Chambers, Rev. W. I. 

Li. N2. 

Chandler, H. Ru. u. 
Chandler, T. H., jun. 

Wl. A. 
Chandler, T. H., sen. 

WL si. 
Chapman, Miss E. Np. 


Charlesworth, Rev. J. R. 

Sr. El. 
Chaucer, his ' Strothir,' 

Cheales, Rev. H. J. Li. 


Cheese, Rev. F. To. nl. 
Christie, Rev. C. M. 8m. 


Clarke, A. Y. 0. Do. *c. 
Clarke, G. /SFo. D. 
Clarke, S. 8s. wl. 
Clarke, Rev. T. We. L. 
Clarke, Mrs., her (E'ipren) 

as compared ivith her 
gran dmo ther' s (eepren) , 
genesis of Eastern (E'*), 

Clay, Rev. E. K. Bu. G. 
Clay -Ker- Seymour, Mrs. 

Do. *C*H. 

Clayton, Rev. C. _Z). s7. 
Cleverley, W. ^. si. 
Close, Rev. R.W. Hu. p. 
Clough, J. C. C%. Al. 
Cockman, Mr. and Miss. 

Li. o3. 
CockshaU, Rev. J. S. Li. 

B 5. 

Cogle, D. SSd. D. 
Coker, Rev. C. Ox. *p2. 
Cole, Miss. /5[. K. 
Coleridge, Miss E. Jfi. 


Collins, Rev. J. 35. 
Collins, Miss. Be. si. 
Coif ox, T. A. Do. s4. 
Conway, Rev. R. Hu. A. 
Cooke, J. H. J. si. 
Cooper, Major C. Bd. T3. 
Cooper, Rev. L. Ru. E. 
Coore, Rev. A. J. WBr. 


Cope, ir W. H., his ( Ha. 

Glossary,' 99. 
Corphey, Mrs. E. Ma. 


Cosbey, Rev. C. Du. s7. 
Cottee, Rev. W. A. Li. 


Couch, T. Q. Co. L2. 
Coulter, Mrs. La. M2. 
Coward, Messrs. Cu. cl. 
Cox, Miss. ^M. n2. 
Crabtree, J. To. n2. 
Crate, Rev. E. H. Es. 

Creighton, Rev. M. Nb. 


Cross, T. H. Co. *c2. 
Grossman, Rev. C. D. 

Sm. H. 
Croucher, Miss. Ke. *cl. 
Cullen, Rev. J. Nt. id. 
Culley, N. T. Nb. *wo. 
Cullingford, J. N. Es. 


Cumberland, T. Ja. F3. 
Cunnington, J. JV/?. o. 
Curgenven, Rev. T. H. 

Np. s4. 
Curteis, Miss Bessie. 


Gust, Hon. and Rev. H. 
C., his destruction of 

dialect at Hatley 
Cockayne, Bd., 209. 
Cusins, Rev.F.T. Li. Nl. 


Dalton. Du. *n2. 
Darby, Miss A. M. Ss. 

*M. her description of 

(K), 131. 
Darlington, T. Ch. *s2 

Ml. his Folkspeech of 

South Ch. 698. 
Daubeny, C. Sm. *c4. 
Daunt, Rev. E. S. T. 

Co. s6. 

Davey, E. C. Be. *wl. 
David, M. H. Nb. Al. 
Davies, J. He. H. 
Davies, Rev. J. D. WGm. 


Davis, C. Sf. *o. 
Davis, Rev. J. B. St. si. 
Davis, J. W. Sh. *L3. 
Davis, Mrs. Dv. s3. 
Dawes, Mrs. Sm. L. 
Dawson, Bernard. Li. s4. 
Dawson,W. H. J^. *N!. 
Day, Miss C. M. JV/. K 3. 
Dayman, Rev. P. D. Co. 


Dennison, W. T. SOr. s. 
DeWinton,Arch. WRd. B. 
Digby, Rev. C. T. Nf. 

Dickens' s London Speech, 

Dickinson, Rev. F. B. 

Mi. *A. 
Dickinson, F. H. Sm. 

B 3. si. 

Dickinson, W. Cu. cl w. 
Dickson J. JR., on theNb. 

burr, 642. 

Dingle, Rev. J. Du. *L!. 
Dixon, W. Nb. *w3. 
Dobson, . .ZW. *n3. 
Dormer, J. M. Wa. *c3. 
D" 1 Orsey on London errors 

of speech, 226. 
Douglas, Carstairs. SAy. 


Dove, H. To. n2. 
Dover, J. ^. c2, o. 

his assistance for Eden- 
side names, 603. 

Downes, Miss. Np. *n2. 

Dowse, J. P. To. *HlO. 

Drake, Rev. R. -ff"^. *s6. 

Drury, Rev. W. on the 
disuse of Manx, 360. 



Dunn, Rev. J. W. Nb. 

Dun-ant, Eev. R. N. Ha. 

Dymond, R. -Dv. E. 


Earle, Rev. J. 8m. s2. 
Ebden, Miss M. E. Hu. 

o5, *s2. 
Ebsworth, Rev. J. Nt. 


Eden, Rev. J. P. Du. s4. 
Edington,J.S. Nb. *N2. 
Edmondes, Ven. Archd. 

WPm. B. 
Edmondstone, Dr. L. 

tftfrf. TT. 
Edwards, Rev. H. P. Jfo. 

Edwards, Rev. M. WDn. 


Eel, Rev. G. To. E2. 
Egglestone, W. M. DM. 
* S 7. <^ s J?0ssy .ZM- 

iw ' for Weardale, 

Du. 617. 

Eley, Rev. W. H. Ss. E3 
Ellis, A. J. Cfc. D. Db. 

Dl. - _D#. H. Li. E 

JVf. *x5. Nb. M 
Ellis, Miss C. Le. B3. 
Ellis, T. J. Sr. H. 
Ellis, Rev. Ro. 7F.FJ. M. 
Ellison, Rev. C. C. Li 


Ellwood, Rev. T. 20. 01 

( at ' and ' to ' forming 

the infinitive, 550. Cu 

*A. La. *c8 D u. 

Elmes, Rev. Y. St. B3 

Elvington, Rev. T. W 

Us. 06. 

Elworthy, ~F. T. Sm. s2 
* W 2. TTPw. B. or 
/", v <M^ 5, z initial ir 
*S. 38 to 4I.versior 
of Ruth, chap. \., 698. 
Emeris, W. R. Li. L3. 
' Enga," 1 author of, 753. 
Evans, Rev. C. J. Nf. o2 
Evans, Rev. J. Sh. w6 
Evans, Dr. A. B., on -en 

Evans, Dr. S., on verb 

in -en, 463. 
Evans, Miss, her 'Moll 

and Richard, 9 34. 
Everard, C. H. Nf. *B3 

Fagan, Rev. H. S. Co. s5. 
Falconer, Rev. W. Ht. 


Farmer, Rev. J. Nt. s2. 

Fair, W. W. Ha. *i. 

ffarington. La. s6 *L3. 

Fauquier, Rev. G. L. W. 
Np. w7. 

Faunthorpe, Rev. J. P., 
Principal of Whitelands 
Training College, who, 
with the students, greatly 
helps me, 4. Dv. il. 
Li. 83. 

Fearon, Ven. Archd. Ss. 

Featherstonehaugh, Rev. 
W. Du. *E'l. 

Ferschl, Mrs. JV*. *Nl, 

Field, W. ^. w5. 
Fielding, T. La. *B! B 

c4 n4 ol si w4. 
Findlater, Dr. SAb. B. 
Findley. Le. L!. 
Firth, Miss M. A. flr. o. 
Fisher, Dr. H. La. s2. 
Fleming, Rev. H. R. Ha. 

Florence of Worcester on 

Flemings in Pm. 24. 
Forby, Rev. R., examina- 

tion of his pr on. of East 

Anglia with Rev. Ph. 

Hoste, 269 to 272. 
Ford, Rev. C. H. Du. 

*B3. on the Nb. burr, 

Foster, G. B. Nb. *B!. 


Foster, Mrs. To. K. 
Fowler, Rev. J. J. Li. w2. 
Fowler, J. K. Bu. A G. 
Fowler, R. R. Bu. *A. 
Foxlee, Miss. Ht. w3. 
Foxley, Rev. J. Nt. N2. 
Frampton, Miss. Gl. T!. 
Francis, Miss. Ss. E2. 
Francis, Mrs. Wa. T. 
Freeman, Rev. J. M. 

Cb. H. 
French, E. Ch. *r. Zo. 

Frere, Rev. H. Nf. D2. 
Froude on Australian 

Speech, 237. 
Furness, Miss E. Np. 

Fynmore on v, w. 1430. 


Galbraith, C. Sm. B!. 

Geraldus Cambrensis on 
Flemings in Pm. 24. 

Gibb, Johnny, J. Alex- 
ander, author of, SAb. 

Gibson, A. C. Cu. p. 

Giffen, R. SAy. xl. 
revised Dr. Murray* s 
Ay. Ruth, 698, and 
AJE:s " Tarn o' 
Shanter," 732. 

GW, ^t^. old Li. Speech, 

Gillam, Rev. J. 

Gladstone, Rev. S. 


Godfrey, Mrs. Be. *n2. 

Goodchild, J. G. a chief 
helper, 4. Line 7, p. 
2Qd. LineS, p. 21. 
Line 10, p. 22a.on 
(u , r) 291rf, 294*. 
Ais paper on ( Tradi- 
tional names of Places in 
Edenside,' 539, 602. 
observes ' stone dyke ' w. 
and s. of Kirk Oswald, 
555. on the Nb. burr, 
643. Ch. Al. Cu. 
*Bl, *B3, *cl, *B, 
*K, *Ll. Du. *s2. 

Jfi. *B. JV*. *F, 
* K . ^ w . W 3 . -ffTg. 

*Cl, *C2, *Kl, *K2, 
*L, *M, *0, S, *T. 

Wl. *c2. To. *B4, 
*c3, *c4, *D2, *n8, 

*H9, I, *K, *Ll, *S2, 

*u5, *u6. SRx. L, B, 

T. SSe. s. 
Goodchild, L. on the Nb. 

burr, 64 3a. 
Goodman, Rev. J. P. Hu. 


Goodenough, Rev. R. W. 
Nb. w3. 

Gostle, Rev. J. Nf. T4. 

Graham, Mrs., for Eden- 
side names, 603c. 

Grainger, Rev. J. Bu. *p. 

Granige" 1 s use oy(th), I9a. 

Grant, A. SSd. s. 

Grant, J. B. Sf. F. 

Gray, Rev. Ch. Nt. s3. 

Gray, Rev. R. H. Du. 

Grece, Dr. C. J. Sr. w. 

Green, Rev. C.E. Nb. *E. 




Green, Rev. J". R. To. 
n5 his Celtic border 
and location of Anglo- 
Saxon tribes, 8 to 12 
his 1 Making of England, 

Gregg, J. C. He. L!. 

Green, Miss. Dv. Ml. 

Green, Miss. Le. N. 

Green, W. H. He. R. 

Green, Rev. J.W. Cb. *M. 

Greenwell, Rev. Canon. 
Du. cl. 

Gregor, Rev. "Walter. 
SBa. K his Banff shire 
Glossary, 683, No. 6. 

Grice, Rev. W. Wa. s2. 

Griffith, Rev. D. JOr. 


Griffith, Rev. J. Ht. s2. 
Griffith, Rev. J. 7Tm. M. 
Griffith, R.D. 7FJ?r. si. 
Griffith, S. Gl. K.2. 
Griffiths, Mrs. S. He. *M. 
Gunn, G. M. Nb. *s2. 

ew A<? JV. burr, 643. 
Gupta on English coronals, 

Guthrie, J. &F0. B. 


Hadley, G. S. Np. *E!. 

Hadrian's watt, 22. 

Hale, Judge, called (ill) iw 
Gloucester, 64c. 

Hall, Rev. G. Rome. Nb. 
*s3.on the Nb. (oej, 

Hall, Dr. S. T. Db. w4. 

Hallam, T., a chief helper. 
4. iw2<?s 1 and 2, pp. 
16, 17. on M. and .". 
V,' 1820, 190*. p*eJ 
wor& m _#., 221. <w 
(e ), 291 c. on verbal 
plural in -en in the 
Fylde, 352d.on (u , u) 
in s. To. 365. on Mid- 
land negatives ivith 
omitted ' not, ' 46 Id, 
470<?'. on the presumed 
(thr-, dhr-) in Holder- 
ness, 501. Bd. *D G si 
s2 T2 u. #<?. w3. 
J5w. *A*B2*cl sl*wl 
Vf2.Cb. cl *c3 E *M P 
*sl s2 wl w2 *w3 *w5. 

Ch. Al *A2 *A3 A4 
*Bl B3 *B4 B5 *C1 C2 *E 
*F *G *Hl *H2 K L Ml 

M2 *M3 M5 *Nl N2 N3 

Co. G.Db. *A! *A2 

*B5 *B6 *B7 B8 *Cl *C2 

*c3 *c4 *c6 *c7 c8 *c9 

Dl *D2 *D3 *D4 *D5 
*El *E2*E3*FlF2*Gl 
*G2 G3 *Hl *H2 *H3 
*H4 *H5 *H6 *ll *l2 L 
*Ml *M2 M3 *M4 *M5 
*0 *P *Q *Rl *B2 Si *S2 

*s3 *s4 *so *T! *T2 T3 
*u *wl *w2 *w3 *w4. 

ES. *B3CGl*G4*G5 

*G7 H N *p2 *s3. Gl. 

Al *B2B3 B5 B6*B7cl 

T2 *w. He. D! *H L2 


Ht. *A2B2B4*B5nl 


Hu. Gl G3 *o5 *n3 n5 
K2 L o si *s2 s4 s5. Ke. 

K.Za. Al *Bl B3 *B4 

* B 5 *cl *c2 *c3 *c5 
*c6 *c8 E pi *p2 Gl *o2 

Hi *H2 *H5 *H6 *H7 
*K *Ll *L3 *L4 *N2 

*ol *o2 *pl p2 *p3 
*p4 p5 Q Rl *R2 *s3 
s4 *s5 *u *wl *w2 *w3 
*wo *w6 *w7. Le. A 

Bl B5 E *G I *Ll *L2 
*Ml M2 T. Li. *B2 B7 


ML **L.Nf. *A Bl 
B2 *B4 *Dl *D3 *E F Gl 
*G2 Hi *H2 H3 *HO 
*H6 *K2 *Ml *M3 *Nl 

N2*N3*x5*ol *sl *s2 
s3 si *s5 *xl *x2 x3 
wl w3 w4 *w5 *w7 
*w8. Np. *A! *A2 

*Bl B2 *B3 *B4 *C1 

*C2 Dl D2 *E2 F *G Hi 
*H3 *H6 1 1 *I2 Ll *L2 
*L3 *Nl *N2 *0 *Pl 

*p2 *R *sl s2 *s4 *s5 
*s6 *T2 *T3 *wl *w2 
*w3 *w4 *w5 *w6 w8 
* W 9 * Y ._ 2ft. *B2 *B4 

*Bl E2 K *Ml *M2 *Nl 

*N4*sl*w2. Ox. *B! 

*B2 *DE*Fl*Hl I*Ll 
L2 M O 82 T*W. Sh. Bl 

B2 B3 *cl c2 c3 c5 c6 

C7 *Bl *E2 Hi *H2 *I L2 
*L4 *Ml *M2 M3 *Nl N2 

opl*sl s2*u*wl*w2 
*w3 w4 *Y. St. *Al 

A2 B4 *B6 *B7 *Cl *C2 
C3 C4 *Dl D2 *El *Fl 


s2 s3 s4 s5 *T! *T2 *T3 
u2 *wl *w2 *w3 *w4 

* W 6 * Y . Sf. *Gl. 

Ss. B! B3 L2. Wa. 

*Al *A2 Bi *B2 *B4 
*B5 *cl *C2 *Kll *L 
*N *Fl *P2 Si *S3 *T 

*w. Wl. K P. Wo. 

*A *Bl *B2 B3 *C *Dl 
D3 *E2 E3 *Gl *G2 Hi 

*w. Yo. *B2 s3 s5*B7 

*Cl C5 *E4 *Gl H2 H4 

*L3 *Ml *M3 *0 R3 *S4 


Ma. *K! *K2 K3 *p. 

WVn. *w. WFL 

*Bl *B2 *Hl *H2. 

Hallward, Rev. J. L. Ht. 


Hamilton, Miss C. G. 

SAy. K2. 

Hamond,Rev. P. F. Mi. s. 
Harden, Rev. H. W. Nf. 


Harkness, Cu. cl. 
Harper, Rev. F. W. To. 

Harris, Rev. A. E. Ke. 


Harris, D. H. Dv. Bl. 
Harris, Miss. Gl. *s. 
Harrison, Miss E. P. Du. 


Harrison, "W". La. *s2, 


Haslam, Rev. G. To. s6. 
Hatton, Rev. T. Hu. s5. 
Havergal, . He. u. 
Haviland, Miss. Wo. n3. 
Hawkins, Miss. Sh. F. 
Hawtrey, Rev. H.C. Ha. 


Haydon, Rev. G. To. n3. 
Hayne, Rev. L. G. Es. 


Healey, T. La. *B5. 
Heightley, R. Du. *x. 
Henderson, Rev. J. Nb. 


Hetherington, J. N. Cu. 

Hibbard, Miss Mercy. To. 


Higden, R. on Flemings 
inPm. 24:d. 



Hill, Miss A. Co. *cl. 
Hill, Rev. E.J. Es. *p2. 
Hill, Rev. J.S. WMg. w. 
Hill, E. Bd. *B. 
Hindson, . We. s. 
Hirst, Miss E. Le. E. 
Hoare, Rev. G. T. r. 

Hobhouse, Ven. Arch. 

Co. s4. 
Hodge, Rev. W. H., his 

b. ofw.Co. 156*. 
Hodges, B. Ke. *M2 
Hodgson, Rev. J. F. Du. 


Holderness, T. To. *n5. 
Holland, R. Ch. M4. 
Holme, Rev. C. We. A o. 
Homfray, C.A. Sm. wl. 
Hooke, Rev. D. Nt. si. 
Hooper, Rev. S. H. To. 

Hope, Rev. R. D. Cfc. 


Hore,E., on Forth and 

Bargy pron. 25, 26. 
Hoste, Rev. Ph. Nf. *s2. 
Hoste, Rev. G. C. Sf. ul. 
How, Rev. AY. A. o w5. 
Howe, Rev. J. JFa. K2. 
Howchin, Rev. W. JW. 


HoweU, Rev. D. WDn. w. 
Hunt, Mrs. A. Dw. *L2. 
Hurst, Rev. Dr. Blythe. 

Du. *A! T2. 
Hussey, Rev. C. J. Ke. D. 
Huth, A. &?. s2. 
Huth, L. s. P. 


Innes, S. SAb. c. 

Jackson, Miss G. Sh. *cl. 


Jackson, . SRx. L. 
Jarman, J. Abbot. Dv. 


Jenkins, Rev. E. WFl. r. 

Jenkins, Rev. J. Li. r2. 

Jenkyns, Rev. J.JVp. Tl. 

Jenner, H., citations re- 
specting the Flemings 
in Pm. 24c. 

Jewan, Rev. J. J. Sr. c3. 

Johnson, Rev. A. Li. r4. 

Johnson, Rev. J. Sm. Nl. 

Johnson, Miss L. H. Wl. 

Johnston, Rev. J. Li. n2. 
Johnston, G. Hu. A. 
Jones, Rev. C.W. Sf. *P. 
Jones, E. L. WPm. B. 
Jones, J. Gl. G. 
Jones, Joseph. He. H, 


Jones, Rev. J.P. WGm. L. 
Jones, Miss Whitmore. 

Ox. c2. 

Kay, Rev. W. S. Du. K. 
Keble, Rev. T. Gl. B4. 
Keith, Mr. Nf. K3. 
KeUy, Rev. E. Ss. E!. 
Kemra, Miss. ^M. o. 
Kendall, Rev. W. io. 


Kent, Mrs. Saraita. ^*. 


Kersley, Rev. Canon. -ZVf.c. 
Kidd, Miss. SPr. p. 
Kinsman, Rev. Preb. Co. 


Kirk, E. Z0. o2, p 2. 
^Tir^, J?w. Dr. R., on the 

Nb. burr, 6440. 
Kirkpatrick, J. To. *M2. 
Kirkup, T. Nb. *w5. 

&&r. Y. 
Kitching, Rev. W. V. 

Sf. o2. 

Kitton, Rev. E. JV/ 1 . u. 
Knatchbull-Hugessen, H. 

JT. *Fl. 

Knight, R. S. Wa. *A2. 
Knowles, Rev. E. H. 

Lackington* s 1817 London 

Errors of Speech, 227. 

Laing, Rev. Dr. A. SFi. 


Lake, . Mi. n2. 

Lang, Thomas. 

Lang, Rev. W. F. Dash- 
wood. Dv. i2. 

Langstaff, J. W. Yo. s6. 

Langston, . La. s6. 

Latham, Dr. R. G., 
on Folkingham Speech. 

Laurenson, A. SSd. L. s. 

Law, Rev. A. on'fv,sz,' 
initial, 3 8 to 4 l. Wl. 

Law, . Yo. c3. 

Lee, Rev. S. Ha. B. 
Lee, Rev. M. H. WFl. 


Lees on the Nb. burr, 


Leigh, P. Ha. *s2 *w3. 
Leonard, B. Be. *s2. 
Leslie, H. Du. *c2. 
Lewes, Rev. J. M. Nt. 


Lewis, Rev. S. S. Es. o2. 
Lewis, Rev. D.Ph. WMg. 

B2 G. 

Lewis, Rev. J. WMg. B2. 
Linton, . SRx. T. 
Little, H. J. Cb. *W3. 
Little, J. W. Nf. *Ml. 
Livingstone, Rev. Neil, 

SAy. c. 

Llano ver, Lady, Mo. *L. 
Llewellin, Rev. J. C. Mo. 

Lloyd, R. R. Ht. *sl. 
Lloyd, Mrs. Yo. B,2. 
Lockton, Rev. Ph. Np. 


Lomb, Dr. JV/. * N 5. 
Long, Rev. R. J)w. Bl, 


Love, J. /S'^y. N. 
Lowe, Rev. R. L. St. BO. 
Lower, M. A. 108^. 
Lowman, Miss. Ke. s3. 
Lowther, Rev. G. P. Wl. 

Lumsden, Sir P., for Jane 

Morrison, 7640: 
Lupton, F. M. To. n6. 
Luscombe, Mrs. Nf. *K3. 


Lyall, W. Nb. *N!. 
Lyon,Rev.S.E. Ifa. *B. 


Macbeth, Rev. R., collects 
speakers for Wick and 
Stranraer, 683, No. 7. 
SC&. w. 

MacBurney on Austra- 
lian speech, 237-248. 

MacCartie, Rev. J. Du. G. 

MacKean, Rev. W. S. Li. 

Macray, Rev. W. D. Or. 

Maister, Rev. H. Yo. s5. 

Maitland, T. F. Be. *w2. 

Malcolmson, Miss A. B. 
reads Shetland to me, 
.~SSd. L. 




Maldon, Eev. M. D. Bu. 


Malet, Rev. C. Ht. A2. 
Malleson, W. T. Sr. c4. 
Mallett, Miss C. M. /. 

Mangin, Eev. E. N. Nb. 

Margesson, Eev. E. W. 

J)v. w2. 
Markham, Eev. C. W. 

Zi. si. 
Marshall, Eev F. C. 0#. 


Marsland, J. Z#. *s5. 
Martel, A. W. F. Sr. L. 
Martin, Eev. H. A. Nt. L. 
Martin, Eev. E. M. r. c2. 
Martin, Miss. Gl. *c2. 
Martin, W. Co. s7. 
Mason, W. #. P s3. 
Manle, Eev. G. Li. il. 
J/ earns, Jas., on the Nb. 

burr, 643a. 

Meiklejohn, A. -5(7*. w. 
Mello, Eev. J. M. Db. 


Mercier, Eev. J. I. Gl. 


Meredith, . Mo. L. 
Merivale, his b. of wCo. 


Metcalfe, W. Fo. c5. 
Meyers, J. H. Jfi. E. 
Michel, Dan, on ( fv, s z ' 

initial, 38 to 41. Aas 

wo ' <&' for 'the' in 

Ke. 131 d. 

Michel, Gen. Do. *c. 
Middleton, Eev. H. Db. 


Middlemas, E. Nb. *A2. 
Miles, F. Nt. *s2. 
Miles, Miss. Dv. si. 
Miles, Miss. SPr. P. 
Miles, Mrs. Nt. *B2. 
Milford, Eev. E. N. JF7. 


Miller, Eev. E. Wa. *B6. 
Milner, G. La. n3. 
Milner, Eev. J. Z>w. *nl. 
Mitchell, G. 8m. *M3. 
Mitchell, J. SSe. s. 
Mitcheson, T. Nb. *N!. 
Molyneux, Eev. W. #. T. 
Moor, E., f Suffolk Words,' 

cwl. from, 286. 
Moore, Eev. E. M. Np. 

Moore, Eev. J. AY. Sh. 

Moore and Moore, Messrs. 

Ha. R. 

Morgan, Eev. H. GL c4. 
Morgan, Eev. W. 

Morrison, Jane. SAb. c. 

Mouatt, P., on the Nb. 
burr, 642^. 

Mulgrave, Ld., in Forth 
and Bargy, 25c. 

Munn, Eev. J. E. Ss. A. 

Murray, Dr. J. A. H., 
helps with my cs. Id. 
draws Celtic border in 
Scotland, 8c, 14. 
names of his helpers 
for CB., Uc. partly 
anticipates Line 7, p. 20. 
his b. of England and 
Scotland not Line 10, 
p. 21 . on the Nb. burr, 
643.hisDSS. 681. 
his Scotch Hundredth 
Psalm, pal. 715. Cu. 
cl. Yo. s4. SAb. 
B. SAy. A. SEd. E. 
SFo. &.SRx. H. 

Murray, Mrs. Ch. S.Ed. 


Mylins, F. J. Wa. *E. 

Napier, Eev. J. W. St. 

Nicholson, Eev. H. J. 

Hu. o4. 
Norman, Eev. M. 0. Le. 

Norwood, Eev. J. W. To. 


Noye, W. Co. *p2. 
Nutt, Eev. C. H. Sm. E. 

Ormsley, Eev. E. E. Du. 


Owen, Eev. T. Es. B!. 
Owen, Eev. W. Wl D. 

Paige, . Do. s3. 
Paige, J. Dv. H. 
Paley, Eev. F. Np. u. 
Pardoe, Eev. G. 0. 

WMg. s. 
Parish, Eev. W. D. Ss. s. 

Parisian uvular r, 6425. 
Parker, Mrs. A. Be. c 
si s2.Db. TiZ.Ox. 

B2 E Hi H3 I L2 O W. 

Parker, Eev. F. W. 

7Wy. * M . 
Parker, G. .Bw. M!. 
Parkes, Prof. To. s4. 
Patrick, D. &4v. o. 

SRf. L. 

Paul, C. Kegan. Do. s2. 
Payne, . Cu. cl. 
Peacock, E. Li. *B7 s4. 
Peacock, E. B., Song of 

Solomon, Chap. ii. in 

Lonsdale s. of the Sands, 


Pearce, Eev. T. Do. E2. 
Pearson, . La. u. 
Pearson, Rev. H. H. 

Db. N. 
Peck, Eev. E. A. Hu. 


Peckham, Eev. H. Ss. 


Peckham, Miss. Ke. s2. 
Peniston, Miss A. B. Co. 


Perkins, J. Cb. *c2. 
Pertwee, Eev. A. Es. 


Philip, Eev. H. B. Es. 


Philip and Son's maps, 7. 
Picfow, Sir J.A., on forth 

and Bargy, 27. La. 


Pinder, Eev. N. Ox. *G. 
Piper, Miss A. M. F. He. 


Pitmen 1 s pit talk, 6500'. 
Pocklington, Eev. E. Nt. 


Pollar, Miss. &ZV. P. 
Poofo, /., 25, 29. 
Pope, Eev. G. JV7. R2. 
Postlethwaite, W. Cfr. K. 
Pott, Ven. Arch. Be. E. 
'Potter,' a misprint for 

'Trotter" 1 on p. 66, /i^s 

Potts, Eev. C. Y. He. 
*ii\.Du. *s6. 

Potts, Taylor. Du. *s8. 

Powell, . St. n2. 

Powley, Miss Mary. <7. 
L 1 . her assistance for 
Edenside names, 603. 

Powley, J. Yo. B4. 

Pratten, Eev. W. S. Cu. 

Preston, R., Ms Bradford 
poems, 391^. his re- 
marks on dialectal ortho- 
graphy, 388^. 

Price, S. Ke. c2.Sm.. 


Price, Rev. N. E. Sh. Ll. 
Prior, Dr. R. C. A. Sm. 

M 2._ WL c4. 
Procter, Rev. F. Nf. w6. 
Proctor on the Nb. burr, 


Pryor, M. R. 17*. w4. 
Pulman, G. P. R. Dv. 

A.Sm. A c6 *Ml. 
Purley, Rev. E. C. Eu. 

Purton, Major. WL p. 
Pyke, T. Du. *s6. 


Ragg, Rev. F. W. Bu. 
rtl.Ke. -w.^Sh. c4. 
Randolph, H. Sm. M2. 
Raven, Rev. Dr. J. J. 

^. *G3. 

Rawlings, "W. J. Co. 

*M! p2. his b. of w. 

Co. 156*. 

Rea, J. F. Nb. D. 
Keade, H. St. John. Np. 


Reeve, W. N. Jk. Ll. 
Richardson, Dr. F. 22. 

JVft. *H2. 
Richings, Rev. A. C. Ht. 


Ridge, Anne. _D0. *cl. 
Ridge, T. H. SAb. c. 
Ridgway, M. Yo. o3. 
Ridley, Rev. W. H. Bu. 


Ridley, T. D. Nb. *wl. 

Roberts, Rev. A. C. Ht. 

Roberts, Sm. w3. 

Robinson, C. Clough, a 
chief helper, 4b, on 
(th) for ' the,' 19. on 
(u) in sYo. 365*. ow 
To. dialectal ortho- 
graphy, 403. Yo. *B5 

*D3 *H2 HlO *K *L2 
*L5 M2 *M4 *M5 *Nl 

*w2 *N3 N 4 *R5 *s7 
*sll *ul *u3 *u4 u5 

*W3 Y. 

Robinson, Rev. C. J. He. 

Robinson, F. K. Yo. *w4. 

Robinson, J., his assist- 
ance for Edenside names, 

Robson. Du. *cl. 
Robson, J. Ph. on the Nb. 

burr, 642a. 

Robson, E. C. Du. s8. 
Rock, W. F. Dv. Bl. 
Roderick, J. W. Ht. F 


Rogers, Rev. S. Co. G. 
Rogers, T. Co. *s2. 
Rogers, W. H. H. Dv. 


Rolf, Rev. C.T. Ke. *sl. 
Roscoe, Mrs., for Manx, 

Rose, Rev. W. F. Sm. 


Ross, . Sm. *cl. 
Ross, D. &&c. B. 
Ross, F. Yo. *H5. 
Ross, J. SKc. G. 
Rossiter, J. Sm. c7. 
RothweU, Ch. La. *s3. 
Rowlands, Rev. J. WFl. 

H 3. 
Royds, Rev. C. T. La. 


Rumny, Rev. J. W. JT<9. 


Rundell, J. B. Co. *M2. 

Dv. B2, D. 
Rust, Rev. J. C. Cb. s3. 
Russell, very Rev. C. W., 

on Flemings in Pm. 24. 


Sadler, Miss. Wo. *s2. 
Sala, G.A., on Australian 

Speech, 237. 

Sale, Rev. T. T. Ht. Al. 
Sayers, Miss A. Ss. *c2. 
Sayers, Miss J. Sr. o. 
Scarlett, Rev. W. To. R4. 
Scoones, Rev. W. D. 

.Bw. L. 

Scott, A. Nb. *R. 
Scott, Rev. G. H. Nt. G. 
Scott, Rev. W. A. Dtf. 

Seaman, Rev. C. E. Ha. 

Seward, Wm., his dialogue 

for Burton-in-Lonsdale, 

Yo., pal. byJGG. 608. 
Sewell, Rev. H. -S/. Y. 
Septimius Severus's wall, 

Sharley, Rev. G. Nf. i. 

Sharpe, J. W. Sr. ol. 
Shaw, James. &Z>/. T. 
Shelly, J. Dv. *p2.a. 


Shroer, Prof. Ha. *A. 
Simmons, Rev. Canon. 

To. nil. 
Simpson, Rev. R. Z>?^. 


Simpson, Rev. T. H. 

WDn. c. 
Simson, W., jsrow. o/ 

^yfe, ^y. 729, 742. 

SAy. K2. 

Sinclair, Rev. J. SCs. \v. 
Singleton, Miss L. To. p. 
Skeat, Rev. W. W. CT. 

c2 p. Es. T.Ht. s3. 

OiP. E. 

Skudamore, Rev. W. ^V/. 

D 2. 

Slade, Miss. Ox. *sl. 
Slatter, Rev. J. ^. s3. 
Slow, E. Wl. w. 
Slyfield, Miss J. Sr. s. 
Smart on London errors 

of speech, 2'27. 
Smith, Rev. A. C. Wl. Y. 
Smith, Cecil. Sm. T. 
Smith, C. R. Ha. w2. 
Smith, Rev. E. B. WMg. 


Smith, H. Li. n4. 
Smith, Rev. J. Do. u2. 
Smith, Rev. L. A. 7FJ2rf. 

Smith, Rev. S. A. Cb. c3. 
Smith, Sir T. on Li. speech, 

Smith, W. C. obtains Dun- 

rossness cs, 683. 
Smith, W. H. and Son's 

maps, 7. 

Somerset, Rev.B. WBr. c. 
Sowell, Rev. C. R. Co. s3. 

his b. ofwCo. 156. 
Spencer. WFl. n2. 
Spicer, R.H. S. Dv. N!. 
Spurrell, W. WCm. c. 

?T.Pm. R. 

Standring, . Li. A3. 
Stanford's maps, 7. 
Stanning, Rev. J. H. La. 


Stan way, L. St. si. 
Stark, Rev. W. A. 8Kb. 


Stead, R. Ke. r2. To. 

*E3 *H5 *SlO Y. 

?F^r. *B2. on (u) in 
Yo. 365. 



Steel, Rev. J. Bd. Hi. 
Steel, Jo. We. K2. 
Stewart, G., ' Shetland 

Fireside Tales, 1 814. 
Stockdale, J. La. Nl. 
Stockdale, /., Song of 

Solomon chap. ii. in 

Lonsdale n. of the 

Sands, 550. 

Stone, W. G. Do. wl. 
Stores, Rev. C. E. To. s9. 
Streatfield, . Ke. *M!. 
Stuttard, H. Z. *c7. 
MV, Dr. If. 2. his 

'RomicS 99 J. 
Sweet, Miss (now Mrs. 

Chamberlain). Wo. T. 
Swift, Rev. G. JV*. M5. 
Swinburne, A.., on the 

Nb. burr, 642c. 
Sykes, Dr. J. To. *i>4. 

Tancock, Rev. 0. W. 

Do. si. 

Tarver, Rev. J. Bu. *T. 
Taunton, Rev. T. B. Dv. 


Taylor, Rev. Hugh. Nb. 


Taylor, J. Dv. w2. 
Taylor, Rev. R. Du. n2. 
Taylor, Tom. Du. s8. 
Teeuan, J. SHd. B. 
Tenney. Dv. *D. 
Tennyson, Lord. Li. s8. 
Thackeray 's, W.M. London 

Footman's Speech, 229. 
Thomas, Rev. D. G-. Hu. 


Thompson, G. .ZV^. *A2. 

AlmvickVowels, 668. 
Thompson, Rev. H. Sm. 

Thompson, Rev. Dr. W. 

H. To. o3. 

Thornton, Rev. J. To. M6. 
Thorold, Mrs. W. Dv. 

Thynne, Rev. A. B. 7FJ. 


Till, G. St. A3. 
Timmins, S. Wa. B3. 
Titley, Rev. R. Z*. B 2. 
Titmouse, J. Ha. si. 
Tollemache, Hon. and Rev. 

H. F. and Miss. Np. 


Toilet, Miss E. St. B2. 
Tombs, Rev. J. WPm. R. 

Tomline G. H. Wa. s3. 

Tomlinson, Rev. C. H. 

Be. *D. 

Tomlinson, G. W. Fo. 


Trapp, Rev. B. Bd. xl. 

Tregellas on Cornish in- 
tonation, 171. 

Trotter, Miss (misprinted 
Potter on p. 66). Ol. 


Trotter, R. D. (misprinted 
Potter on p. 66). Gl. 

Tuer's ' Cockney Almanac,' 

Turner, Miss. Wo. n2. 

Tyler, Rev. 0. B. Sm. 



Underwood, Rev. W. D. 
Ss. w2. 

Vallancey, Dr., 25 to 27. 
Viles, E. St. *c4. 
Vise, Rev. J.E. TFJfy. p. 


Wakefield, Miss. Dv. pi. 
Walker on London errors 

of Speech, 227. 
Walker, Rev. J. JVJ. 


Walker, Rev. J. Sf. B2. 
Walker, J. W. P. 0^. i. 
Walker, Miss. Cb. *w4. 
Walker, Rev. Percy C. 

Ou. B2. 
Wallis,Rev.W.M. ^. B. 

Ward, Rev. H. To. *n5. 
Ware, Rev. W. W. To. 


Warleigh, Rev. H. S. Gl. 


Warner, Rev. R. E. Zt. 

Watkins, Rev. M. G. Li. 


Watson, Rev. J. S. Z. c. 
Watt, Rev. R. St. c3. 
Wayte, Rev. G. H. Wl. 


Wayte, Rev. W. 7F?. cl. 
Wetter, Sam, his 'we,' 


West, Rev. C. F. OP. cl. 
Westmacott, Miss. Sm. 

B3 Sl. 

Wharton, Rev. J. C. Mi. 

Whateley, Rev. J. JEs. E. 

Wheck, MissS. 2?rf. *R. 

Whitelands Training Col- 
lege, great assistance 
from the Principal, Rev. 
J. P. Faunthorpe, 4 
Teachers, Misses Adcock, 
Kemm, Mallett and 
Martin,and 28 Students, 
Misses Beeby, Begge, H. 
Bell, Buckle, Calland, 
Chapman, Cockman, Cox, 
Croucher, Firth, Foxlee, 
Francis, Furness, Harris, 
Sill, Hirst, Kidd, Low- 
man, Miles, Peckham, 
Pollar, Sadler, A. 
Sayers, J. Sayers, Sly- 
field, Turner, Wheck, 
and Wing, see these 

Whitaker, Jo. Mi. E. 

White, Rev. . W. Li. 

White, Rev. G. H. Dv. 

White, Ned, a yarn, 666. 

Wigram, Rev. W. Ht. F. 

Wilcocks, Rev. H. S. 
Dv. s2. 

Wilding, Rev. J. St. ul. 

William of Malmesbury 
on Flemings in Pm. 24. 

Williams, Rev. T. WFl. 


Williams, Mrs. Li. A2 

B8 cl a4 o5 n3 HO K! 

x2 L! L3 s2 s9 sll i2 

ul wl. 
Williams, Rev. Wadham. 

Sm. B2. 
"Williams, Rev. W. J. 

Li. ol. 
Wilkinson, Rev. G. To. 


Wilkinson, I. To. s6. 
Wilshere, C. W. Ht. n7 

Wilson, Rev. G. SBw. 

c . SWg. G. 
Wilson, T. Ht. *n2. 
Wilson, T. D. To. P. 
Wilson, Rev. W. Du. R. 
Wing, Miss. Es. *M. 
Winter, G. Sm. c3. 
Wiseman, J.F.T. Es. *pl. 

Wolf, Lady. Ha. *cl. 
"Wood, Mrs. Willoughby, 

St. *Bl. 

Woodfall, G. Us. o3. 
Woodhouse, Eev. G. H. 

JV7. r. 

Woodhouse, R. He. *o2. 
Woof, R. 7F0. *D2. 
Worfold, Rev. J. N. To. 


Wray, Rev. H. WDn. 

Wray, Rev. J. Jackson. 

To. M2. 
Wright, Rev. Canon. Zi. 


Wright, J. m. *H3. 
Wright, Rev. J. Wo. 

Wright, Dr. J. To. Ml 

*w5. <w (u) in South 

To. 365e. 
Wright, Rev. J. P. St. 


Wyatt, J. 3d. *B J?. 


Wyer, N". W. Do. *w2. 

Dv. E. Es. i. 
Wykes, C. H. JV 7 ^. L2. 
Wyld, J. .Zte. *Bl. 

Yarranton, Rev. A. Sm. 

Yeats, Dr. J. Mo. *c2. 


The palaeotype laid down in Part I. pp. 1 to 12, even when extended as in 
Part IV. pp. xii to xiv, proved insufficient for the differentiation of the 
minute shades of sound heard in dialectal speech. Hence it became necessary 
to construct an entirely new table. 

All sounds are represented by "old letters," whence the name palaeotype 
ira.Xa.idi TVTTOI, but in order to obtain signs enough these ancient types embrace 
1) direct small or "lowercase" roman as (e), 2) the same "turned" as (a), 
3) the direct italic and small capital (e E), and 4) their inversions (9 a), and 
sometimes even black letter as (f. 3) A few "digraphs" are also admitted, 
especially with (h), as (th sh), a hyphen preceding the (h) when it is not initial, 
but has to have its usual sense. ' Modifiers ' are extensively employed as in 
(e 1 , 6j, u 4 , u 5 , A, kj, tj tj), etc. These alter the value of the preceding letter 
in a definite direction, and are explained hereafter separately, and also in con- 
junction with the modified letters. All these letters, digraphs, and modified 
forms are then arranged in alphabetical order by the ordinary large capital letters 
which are not otherwise phonetically employed. The letter A, for example, 
refers to all modifications of the type a and its diphthongal combinations as 
(a, a 1 , a x , a<, a R ah, aA, a'i, a'u, a'y, a, ah, A, A 1 , B, 'euu). 

No attempt is here made to give any phonetic theory, for which see much of 
Part IV., and also my article on SPEECH SOUNDS in the Encyclopedia Britannica, 
1888, vol. 22, pp. 381-390, which uses palaeotype, and my Speech in Song 
(Novello), or Pronunciation for Singers (Curwen), both of which use glossic. 
But as a matter of convenience I prefix the table of Mr. Melville Bell's vowel 
system reduced to pal. and numbered. 

MR. MELVILLE BELL'S Visible Speech Towel Table. 
n narrow, w wide, nr narrow round, wr wide round. 






n w nr wr 
\OB 2v 3u 4w 
5 a: 6a 70 80 

9 05 100 llA 120 

n w nr wr 
13 Y 14 y 15 u 16 wh 
17 a 18ah 19 oh 20 oh 
21 ah 22 go 23 ah 24 oh 

n w nr wr 
25i 26i 27i 28 y 
29e 30e 31 9 32 ce 
33E 34se 35<?h 36seh 

These will be spoken of as Bell's No. 1, 2, 3, etc., though the numbers are 
mine, and merely annexed for convenience of reference, and to shew in the briefest 
manner the position of the tongue and lips assigned by Mr. Bell. 


Quantity. (1) Vowels. Six grades of length are recognised. Very short as 
(a 9), ordinarily short as (a a), medial length, lying between short and long, 
as (a a 1 ), long as (aa aa), drawled as (aa aa 1 ), extremely long as (aaa aaa). 
Ordinarily only two lengths are written, short and long, as (a aa). To indicate 
a succession of two shorts of the same kind introduce the break as (aja). TH. 
has always recognised the medial length as (a), and in all his numerous con- 
tributions to this book medial vowels abound, greatly to the exclusion of long 
(p. 316). Hence to him, and those who agree with him, the long vowel (aa) 
represents a much longer sound than it does to me. In s. Lowland the vowels 
are generally medial, and when lengthened are very long, thus thief thieves are 
(thif thiivz), which might be written (thiif thiiivz), but for convenience are 
usually written (thif, thiivz). Similarly in Italian and Spanish, the vowels 
are ordinarily of medial length, and may be emphatically shortened or lengthened 
according to the feeling of the moment, without disturbing signification. 

(2) Consonants. Some consonants, as (s, f, z, v), can be continued indefinitely, 
and in point of fact are generally lengthened in the pause. As a rule this is 
not noticed in writing. But TH. constantly marks it, see p. 316, and all the 
examples in D 21, D 26, (pp. 317-329, 426-447). See also Dr. Sweet's 
observations, IV. 1145. In this case, if the final consonant is voiced, as (hiz), 
the buzz is often not continued very long, but is followed by an indefinitely long 
hiss, thus (1ms 1 ) as (h/z 1 ) would be uncomfortable to the speaker. If the final 
consonant be a mute, it cannot be lengthened, but is only suspended, that is, the 
organs of speech are retained in their positions, and a silence ensues until the 
position is ordinarily released on flatus, or another vowel, thus (stop') properly 
means a silence after (p), but would ordinarily imply the release on flatus as 
(stop'p'). Sometimes, however, even when final the mute is neither suspended 
nor audibly released, and would then be marked thus (stop!). Between two vowels 
the mute is thus usually split up, thus stopping is pron. as (stopfq), with no pause 
between the end of the first or beginning of the second syllable, really (stopiptq), 
or a suspension may be inserted as (stop'piq), which is not usual in English 
except in compound words as hoppole (hop 1 pool), but not (hop 1 p 'pool). When 

Irst glide < 

a different consonant follows, only the first glide on to the (p) is heard, as 
(apishot). In all these cases, except in special phonetic discussions, I avoid the 
use of the mark of suspension. But the suspended (t 1 ) for the is always marked, 
p. 3175. 

In the following list only the short vowels and the short consonants are given 
as headings, but examples to both short and long vowels are often annexed. 

Diphthongs. Two or more different vowels written in juxtaposition are to be 
pronounced in separate syllables, as (k^os) chaos, but they are usually separated 
in some way, as (k^jos, k<?ros). When however they glide on to one another, 
one of them bears an acute accent, as (ai), and the two form a 'diphthong,' 
and similarly three vowels form a triphthong, as (e&u). The combination in 
each case consists of a single syllable. The vowel bearing the acute accent 
has then the principal stress. Occasionally each element may have equal stress, 
and then two acute accents are used, as (ia), distinct from (i;a, ia, ia), but even 
in this case there is felt to be only one syllable. When the vowel with the stress 
is long, the acute is placed on the first of the two representative letters, as (aai), 
and when it is medial, the medial grave accent fuses with the diphthongal acute 
accent into a circumflex, thus (a'i) becomes (ai), which type will be constantly 
found in TH.'s contributions below. As English printers have usually only 
(a e i 6 u d e i 6 u) with acute accents, the acute accent for other vowels is 
placed after the vowel, as (a'i, aa'i), and the grave is printed after it separately, 
as (A', A n i). It is sometimes convenient to indicate the class of a diphthong 
without completely analysing it. Thus we may not know whether (a'i, ai, di] 
were the diphthong really uttered, but may be sure that it was something like 
one of them, then (a'i) is used, the acute accent being separated, and the second 
element indefinite. Similarly (a'u, o'i, i'u, a'y, a't?, eX i'u, i'e, O'B, u'e) are 
employed for unanalysed diphthongs, the (') being separate from (a, e, i, o, u) ; 
but this meaning of the separate acute accent is confined to the case when it 
follows (aj e, i, o, u). Hence (ai, a'i) must be strictly distinguished, the first 
diphthong being thoroughly analysed and definite, the second entirely unanalysed 


and indefinite, but forming a class ; (a'i) however is also an analysed form, the 
accent being separate through a typographical necessity. As a rule only un- 
analysed diphthongs are given in the following list, though the principal analysed 
forms will be found in their proper places. 

The length of the first element of a diphthong is generally very material. It 
is usually short, as (ai), but occasionally lengthened, as (ai, aai), generally with 
an appreciable difference in pron. or meaning. But the length of the second 
element does not alter the character of the diphthong, any more than the length 
of the final consonant alters the value of the syllable. TH., however, generally 
marked the quantity of the second element as medial when, he observed it to be 
lengthened, as (ai). I have usually not retained this lengthening, considering it 
quite inessential, and arbitrary, being in fact constantly admissible in the pause, 
without any intention to alter the sound, see p. 316. 

Elocutionary alterations and intonation are mostly left unmarked, but an 
inverted period before a word indicates emphasis corresponding to the usual 
italics ; thus, he told me, he told me, became (hi toold -mii, 'hii toold mi) . In 
monosyllables emphasis generally conditions some alteration of sound. 

%* The long phonetic discussion on received pron. in Part IV. pp. 1090 to 
1167 will be regularly cited, and pp. 1265 to 1357 should also be consulted. 

"VVhen the numbers of pages referred to are above 1000 they are in Part IV., 
when under 1000 they are in this volume, unless the number of the part is 
specially added. The italic letters a, b, c, d annexed here and elsewhere indicate 
that the passage referred to is in the first, second, third, or fourth quarter of the 
page ; and if the page is in double columns, unaccented letters refer to the first, 
and accented to the second column. The reader will find it convenient to mark 
the quarters of pages on a separate piece of paper cut the length of the printed 
matter, excluding the head-line, and after folding in half, and then again in half, 
and lettering it, apply it to the book ; it will be found to save much time in 
finding a passage in pages so crowded with matter as those of this book. 

The mode I have adopted, and found to work well in writing is as follows : 
The small ronian letters are written as usual. The small italic letters are once 
underlined as usual. The small capitals, instead of being doubly underlined as 
usual, are written as ordinary letters with an acute accent below, as ?=a, 
except when they have tails, and then a stroke is written above as / y = J Y. 
Black letters are doubly dotted below. The turned letters are thus represented 

Turned a c e E t 
Printed V o a a 3 
"Written e o 9 9 9 

A. (a a 1 a! a v a t a R ah aA a'i a'u 
a'y a ah A A 1 13 i3uu). 

f j r 

I f I 


A 90 

(a) Bell's No. 6 short (a) in German 
mann, and perhaps in English chaff, 
lass, ask, bath, dance, 1148 ; medial 
(a) common in Midland that ; long 
(aa) in ah, father, mamma, part (the 
r not sounded), 539c. 

(a 1 ) a higher form of (a) approaching 
(SB) . This is generally used in place 
of (ah) as more suggestive, but it 
has not the certain position of the 
latter, 695a. 

(aj) between (a, a), used especially 
by JGG., see 539c, generally con- 
fused with (a), but JGG. considers 
that it differs in quality from the 
short of a in father. 

( t a) or (a) with an advanced tongue, 
1.1470', between (a, a?), and not 

materially different in effect from 
(ah, a 1 ), 601*. 

(a J semi -nasal form of (a), mild nasality, 
often heard in American long I, as / 
find (a ; i fa^nd). 

(a R ) the simultaneous pron. of (a) and 
(R), 425. 

(ah) Bell's No. 18, not materially dif- 
ferent in sound from (a 1 , 4 a), used 
principally for an affected thinness, 
1148c. Sweet makes it the sound 
in ^ye, better, but the last is not 
usual in educated speech. 

(aA) a conventional form for French 
chant, but (a) is altered in quality 
by the altered position of the uvula 
in nasalisation, see (A) p. 86* below, 
and 1123/. 

(a'i) unanalysed diphthong used where 
the first element has not been de- 
termined ; when analysed it may take 




the forms in (ai, ai, &. 1 *, E'i, se'i, 
s'i, a'i, ao'i, a'i), and the first element 
is sometimes lengthened, 1100, col. 2. 
It may even be nasalised as (a t i). 
Five forms are heard in D 38, 
757c, a", see also D 25, var. iv. 
p. 410. 

(a'u) unanalysed diphthong, used where 
the second element approaches (u) 
and the first element has not heen 
determined; it may take the forms 
in (au, aw, 'o>u, B'W, se'u, e'u, z'u, 
go'w, o'w, a'w, A'W, o'w), 1153, col. 2. 

(a'y) unanalysed diphthong where the 
second element approaches (y) or 
French u. The first elementmay 
vary, as in (a'i, a'u). "We find (a'y), 

(a) Bell's No. 10 between (a, A), 
11160, 1152^. 

(ah) Bell's No. 23, is to him the Irish 
sir, and first element of the Irish /, 
and the oral element of French en ; 
Sweet gives no example. 

(A) Bell's No. 11, all, bawl, an (a) 
approaching to (o), 1116 col. 1, 1122 
col. 1, and 539a\ 

(A 1 ) or (A) with a raised tongue, not 
unlike (o), 353a, b. 

(B) Bell's No. 2, as a in parental, 
China, the commonest form of un- 
accented indistinct vowel, frequently 
serving as the second element of a 
diphthong, 1122*', 540a*. Bell's 
examples are dungeon, motion, con- 
sctoits, abandon, cupboard, avoir- 
dupoise, honowr, bellows, sb. Sweet 
gives no example, but uses Bell's 
No. 17, my (9), in this sense finally. 

(t?uu) a form of (uu) heard perhaps in 
the north, 636^, No. 640. 

M. (ae 8eh). 

(03) Bell's No. 34, the rec. English 
short vowel in bat, which approaches 
closely to (E) ; and is generally re- 
placed by (a 1 , a, a) in dialects ; long 
in the local pron. of Bath (:bgea3th). 

(aeh) Bell's No. 36, which he hears in 
the first element of Cockney out and 
L. J'll ; and Sweet in open German 
Gotter. I can give no example. 

B. (bb,bh). 

(b) bee *ay bow, gleeb, babe ba*y, a 

voiced (p), 1113. 
(b,) a kind of defective (m) said to 

exist in We. UlSo", 560, No. 13. 
(bh) German w, Hungarian v t modern 

Greek , (v) uttered without touching 
the upper teeth with the lower lip. 
1101 to 1103. 

C. (o, oh, o'i). 

(o) Bell's No. 12, common English 
short o in a closed syllable, hop hob 
hot hod hock hog, unused in most of 
Europe, where it is replaced by (o) ; 
very like (A), which is also peculiarly 
English, but verging towards (o), 
1116, 540c. The symbol (o) is used 
because the small cap. (o), which 
would naturally have been used, is 
too like the lower case (o). 

(oh) Bell's No. 24, which Bell conceives 
as Cockney ask and Irish not. 
Sweet gives no example. AJE. does 
not know the sound. 

(o'i) educated form of \)oy toy joy, 
occasionally (A'i, AA'i), 

D. (d k d d dj dh at, dw D 
DJ Dh). 

(d) in 0*0 roa" plowing pleading, the 
tip of the tongue at a sensible 
distance behind the gums, English 
'coronal' (d), voiced form of (t), 
1095, 1113. 

( v d) French and general continental d 
with the tip of the tongue advanced 
to the gums, alveolar d, 1095, heard 
in some English dialects, but almost 
only before (r, r), which then become 
( v r, V r ), 542*. 

(d,) retracted (d), the tip of the tongue 

brought as far back as 


without reversion, so that its 
(not underside) touches the palate, 
and the tongue forms a spoon-shaped 
hollow at the back part, a mild form 
of reversion, 41o\ 

(dj) contraction for ( k d v zh, d v zh) or 
(djzhj), heard in judge, 1154*, 542, 
usually analysed as (dzh), as it was 
in the three first Parts of E.E.P. 

(dh) the tongue brought fully against 
the teeth in English, the th in tfAey 
breathe, typing, 1098a, 1122a'. 

(dh,) the (dh) with the tongue some- 
what retracted, Spanish d in Maa'ria". 

(dw;) labialised (d), an attempt to utter 
(d) and (w) simultaneously, 1115, col. 
2, frequent English dwell, generally 
confused with (dw). 

(D) reverted (d), that is, (d) spoken with 
the underside of the tongue against 
the palate, 1095, 1096, 42, see (d,). 

(DJ) =(Dzh) or reverted (di), 41. 




(oh) the under part of the tip of the 
tongue brought against the teeth, 
theoretically assumed to exist in D 4, 
see 41. 

E. (e e 1 e l e era eera eii ei GA 
eim eu e e 1 e l ee* eei ee 1 ] 
P&! &i l E E! E' E'W a a 1 
oh 9 l 9 l 0h a a 1 a R a' 
a'o aV). 

(e) Bell's No. 30, as I hear it from 
educated southern Englishmen in bet, 
bed, pen, 1106, col. 1, 539o*, generally 
replaced by (E) provincially. Bell 
considers that it is used only in un- 
accented syllables, and that (E) is 
the sound in accented syllables. 
Sweet agrees with me. The long 
form (ee) as in fair, care, pmr, but 
only before r in received English, 
sounding (feee, keee, pee^). 

(e 1 ) the tongue of (e) being raised, 
hence approaching closely to (e), 
1107, col. 2 


(e) an indistinct form of (e) approach- 
ing OB), but reminding the hearer of 
(e), 721 &, e. 

(ee) common provincial fracture, differ- 
ing only in length from the next. 

(eera) real sound of air without the trill, 
(613) is also common provincially, 
see (e). 

(eii) the (e) very short and the (ii) 
long, 5380, 595*', considered by the 
natives as (ii) parallel to (?'ji) . 

(ei) common diphthongising form of 

(CA) French \in, see (A), p. 86*. 

(euu) the (e) very short and the (uu) 
long, 538, 1. 3 from bottom, a 
substitute for (uu), see also 5560, 
parallel to (eii) . 

(e?<) a mincing form of (a'u) common 
in D 9, p. 137<2, and London. 

(e} Bell's No. 29, when lengthened, is 
the sound in name without any 
vanish, Fr. fee long, eie short, 1107. 
Murray considers it opener than Fr. 
fee, 710, No. 4. The long sound 
must be distinguished from (ee 1 ]} 
with the vanish. 

(e 1 ) the tongue of (e) raised, and hence 
approaching closely to (i), 1107, 
683*, 756e, and scarcely distinguish- 
able from (tj), 595*. 

) the tongue of (e) lowered, ap- 
proaching closely to (e), 1107, 683*, 

0<?E) a low form of (ee) or (ee} tending 
towards (E), usually written (ee-^, 
682, last line. 

eei} more distinctly ending with (i) 
than London (ee'j), 110&T, 1109. 

the London (educated) long (ee} 
with the 'vanish,' the diphthong 
ending in an indefinite approach to 
(i), which is not of constant value, 
1111, col. 1. 

(0 ;i a,) this diphthong is here usually 
written (t'^j), 542#. 

(e l i l ) a diphthong scarcely distinguish- 
able from (i | i), which is here generally 
written, 5410. 

(E) Bell's No. 33, the Fr. bete short, 
Italian open e, common short 
English e in closed accented syllables 
in provincial, and as some hold in 
rec. sp., see (e) above, and 11060. 

(EJ), a still deeper form than (E), but 
not yet quite (SB), 11080, 711, No. 6. 

(E') a variation of (E) in the direction 
of (e) for which fa), or lowered (e), 
is used, 683*, No. 3, 1. 

(E'U) a very common form of (a'u) 
heard in D 10 and D 19, pp. 146, 
277*, 2780, 279d, 287^. 

(a) Bell's No. 17, the fine u of an 
educated Londoner in closed accented 
syllables as cut wp, replaced pro- 
vincially by (a), 1094, col. 2. Bell 
conceives it to be French que, which 
I take as (9). Sweet has German 
Gabe, which I conceive as (e). 
Murray cannot distinguish open 
unstressed (e, a), 68 3a. I do not 
really distinguish unstressed (e, 9) . 
9 1 ) an (a) raised towards (i), 146*. 
ah) Bell's No. 21, he puts down as 
"provincial s/r," and Sweet simply 
as sir ; I do not know it as different 
from (a). 

(9) Bell's No. 31, Fr. eu in ipeu as 
distinct from eu in people, which 
is (ce) ; it does not seem to occur 
precisely in English, but only in 
some variant written fa), 1460, 
541a. Bell conceives (9) as Fr. ne, 
which I take as (y) and Sweet as (i). 

(s> 1 ) a higher form of (9), 711, No. 12, 
721*, 0. 

(e?]) a deeper variant of (9), but not 
quite (oe), 146, 541 under (99), 

(sh) Bell's No. 35, which he gives to 
French bmrre (but this seems rather 
(ce) to me), and Sweet to Swedish for. 




(a) Bell's No. 5, the ordinary deep 
provincial form of the natural vowel 
in accented close syllables, as cut, 
b*d, 1094, col. 2, but Bell and 
Sweet consider it to be the received 
form, which I take as (a). 

(a 1 ) a higher form of (a), supposed to 
be the Scotch, 711, No. 8. 

(a R ) the simultaneous pron. of (a) and 
(R), 42. 

(a't) a very common provincial form of 
the diphthong (a'i). 

(a'o) a diphthong beginning with open 
lips for (a), closing gradually to the 
position for (o), 735. par. 9. 

(a.'u] one of the commonest provincial 
forms of (a'u), not very distinguish- 
able from (6u). 

F. (f fh j). 

(f) a hiss with the lower lip against 
the upper teeth, sometimes replaced 
by (ph), in which the teeth are not 
touched, 10995. 

(fh) lips and teeth as for (f), back of 
tongue as for (u), Bell's theoretical 
form of NL./used for wh, 758. 

(j) a modifier used in (tj di)=(t l sh, 
d t zh), to indicate an approach to (tj 
dj), and also somewhat laxly in 
(kj gi) to represent the Sanscrit 
explodent form of (tj di), supposed 
to occur in English, 1119<?, d. 

(g gj gh gj 


(g) as in gag, gig, facing, 1113, 1 154. 

(gi) the sonant form of (dj) existing 
in Sanscrit, and by Godwin re- 
cognised in English, 1119, col. 1. 

(gh) guttural buzz, the back of the 
tongue coming close to the soft 
palate, as in German Taye ; not 

(gj) an attempt to pronounce (g) and 
(i) simultaneously, palatalised (g), 
at one time very common in received 
sp., now almost disused, except in 
the word girl (gjaal). 

(gjh) palatal buzz, German kom>e, 
distinct from (gh), often confused 
with (j), but not an English sound, 
and not even used in L. where (kjh) 
is common. 

(grh), the uvula is napped during the 
pron. of (gh), Ar. , often heard in j 
Holland, but repudiated by better 
speakers, very like the Nb. burr, 
see (r). 

E.E. Pron. Part V. 

(gt) an attempt to pron. (g) and (u) 
simultaneously, labialised (g) heard 
in^wano, 1115, col. 1. 

(gwh) labialised guttural buzz, tongue 
for (gh) and lips for (u), German 
Buye, not an English sound, though 
(kwh) occurs in L. 

(G) retracted (g), that is with the 
contact between the back of the 
tongue and soft palate as near the 
throat as possible ; as JGG. considers 
that (K), the mute form of (G), is used 
in D 4, p. 52, v. 23, 24, 25, and 
p. 57, No. 773, he should have 
admitted (G) in p. 51, v. 4 (bse's^Nei) 
bayonet ; but the use of (K, G) in 
English seems very questionable ; (K) 
is common in Arabic j, but (G) is 

H. (h 'h 'h. H Hh H^li). 

(h), (1) when not initial and not pre- 
ceded by a hyphen or turned period, 
as in (thin, dire, shii, vizlren) etc., 
thin, the, she, vision, is a modifier, 
so that it must be considered as 
forming part of the same letter as the 
preceding sign ; (2) when initial or 
preceded by a hyphen or turned 
period, as (hii, pot'ha'us, mis-harp) 
he, potAouse, misAap, it is a new 
letter representing the unanalysed 
aspirate of which (H nh Hjh) are 
analysed forms, 11305'. 

('h) voice, is contracted to (') when 
sufficiently unambiguous, and then 
represents any obscure, indefinite, 
and short voice sound, 1128c'. 

('h) flatus, audible but unvoiced breath, 
11285', contracted to (') when 
following another letter, as (top') 

(H) jerked utterance of following vowel 
or flatus, 11305' ; before a vowel the 
singer's aspirate, or entirely voiced 
Indian aspirate, 1134, 1138^. 

(nh) contraction for (n'h) or jerked 
flatus, not necessarily prominent, the 
usual theoretical aspirate, 5425, c. 

(njh) a smartly jerked emission of 
flatus or strong aspirate, 1130c'. 

I. (i i i'a i i, i 1 i" 1 zi yi h *V 
$& i& iii *u i). 

(i) Bell's No. 25, the long (ii) is com- 
mon on the continent, and is supposed 
to occur in eat, tea, mating, but 
here is frequently simply (ii) ; the 

short (i) in closed accented syllables 
is not recognised as English, and is 
replaced hy (i) ; even in open short 
syllables (i) is rare, 1098c', 540. It 
occurs however in L. 710c. 

(i) very short sound of (i), the vocal 
form of (j), 5'3b', par. 3, diph- 
thongising with the following vowel, 
regular Welsh form. 

(i'a) unanalysed form of a common 
dialectal diphthong, varying as (ifa, 
t'a, ZB, UTS), the last being the rec. 
sound of ear when the r is, as usual, 
not trilled, 1099c. 

(i) Bell's No. 26, in : it, bib, pin, silly, 
the regular sound of English short i, 
540, but TH. uses (i,) when it occurs 
in open unaccented syllables, con- 
sidering the tongue to be somewhat 
retracted, 3160 ; Eell makes no such 
distinction ; Sweet considers pity to 
have (ii). 

(,) a sign used by TH. explained 316c 
not distinguished by me from un- 
stressed open (i), which see. 

(i 1 ) a high form of (i), which I cannot 
distinguish from (i). 

(i') SL. close form of (B), 710, 
No. 3. 

(*i) inchoant diphthong, (i) commenced 
too deep as (i) and gradually raised 
to (i) during speech, 293 ; this is the 
Midland form and seems to be what 
Sweet writes ij, which he analyses as 
(n 1 ) for received English. 

(t'yj) a diphthong arising from begin- 
ning (y,) with the mouth too open, 
heard in D 19, p. 26 la. 

(i x ) a lowered form of (i) lying between 
(i, e}, which Sweet hears in pity 
and is common dialectally. 

(i,') L. close (f) as written on 682<Z, 
No. 3, usually written (i'). 

(t'^i) a peculiar northern fracture, in 
which both elements are distinct, 

(,e) JGG.'sformof (i'), 721i, e. 

(t'ji) here the first element is deeper 
than (i) and approaches (e), so that 
JGG. often wrote (e j i l ), which see, 
54 \c\ it differs from (a) in being 
nearer (e'i). 

(in) doubly lowered (i), representing 
the sounds generally written i in 
Ab. which sound to me among (i, 
e, a, a, B), fully discussed in 767, 
see also 695^ and 756d. 

(i) Bell's No. 27, which he assigns to 
German w'ber and Sweet to French 
Iwne, both of which I take to be 


j. (j 'j-j jh-r). 

(j) a modifier, indicating that the 
preceding consonant is palatalised, 
or that an attempt is made to 
pronounce (i) simultaneously with it, 
as in (kj, gj, Ij, nj), 1115. Sweet 
calls this palatalisation "front 
modification," because he terms (i) 
a "front vowel." 

('j) indefinite palatalised voice, heard 
in the ' vanish ' of (ee 1 j) for long a 
in the pause, 1111, Sweet writes ei 
and analyses (ei,). 

(j) the true consonantal sound in ye 
yield yet yacht, German j, the true 
consonantal form of (i), 1149^, 542c. 

(jh) the palatal hiss of (j) heard, at 
least occ., in Aew Aue hughes Mge 
1/ume, but often replaced by simple 
(j), not unlike (gjh, kjh), 1149, 
col. 2. 

(r ) the Midland gentle r described in 
2936? and 294, not materially different 
from (r , r) and other imperfect, 
because unflapped or untrilled, forms 
of (r), see under E. 

K. (k kj kh kj kjh *kw kwh K). 

(k) common guttural mute in cake, 
sack, picking ; there is a habit some- 
times of jerking out the following 
vowel as (knam) come, heard in 
Ireland and Germany, 1140^, and 
some insist on slight flatus inter- 
vening as (kjham), which regularly 
occurs in the pause as (saekjh) = (seek'-) 
sack, neither practice is generally 
heard from educated speakers. 

(kj) explodent form of (tj) as con- 
ceived by Mr. Godwin and found in 
India, 1119c. 

(kh) the German ch in ach, still heard 
in Lowland Scotch and occ. in 
Northern English. 

(kj) palatalised (k), or an attempt to 
pronounce (k) and (i) simultaneously, 

(kjh) palatalised hiss, an attempt to 
pronounce (kh) and (i) simultane- 
ously ; German ich, recAt, heard in 
Lowland, 542c, 7 lid, not to be 
confounded with (jh) or with (sh, 

(kw) labialised (k) or an attempt to 
pronounce (k) and (u) simultaneously, 
usual qu in ^wality, quantity, equalise, 
^westion, 1103, col. 2, 1115. 

(k^-h) an attempt to pronounce (kh) and 
(u) simultaneously, final in German 




auch, bucA, and initial in Lowland 
Scotch, written as initial quh, 

(K) retracted (k), see (G), p. 81*. 

L. (1 '1 } Ih, Ihh, Ij / Ih 

(1) common English low, lie, owl, aisle, 
dwelling, 11460, 5420, the tip of the 
tongue resting on the hard palate 
some way from the gums, coronal (1), 
and the sides of the tongue slightly 

('!) syllabic (1), the voice being sus- 
tained during position, this notation 
is adopted as clearer than Bell's (11) 
or my equivalent (1* ) . Compare (lit'l, 

( v l) alveolar (1), the tip of the tongue 
resting on the gums, common conti- 
nental I, 5420. 

(Ih) flated (1), that is, with flatus sub- 
stituted for voice, generated in some 
dialects, and supposed by Bell to 
occur regularly before (p t k), as 
(helhp) or (hellhp, mellht, millhk) 
help, melt, milk, 542^. 

(Ihh) unilateral (Ih), the breath being 
ejected from the right side of the 
tongue only, as in Welsh lla.ll. 

(Ij) palatalised I, an attempt to pro- 
nounce (1) and (i) at the same time. 
Italian gl may be generated in 
English million as (rml-lj-jen), 

(I) the Polish gutturalised barred L 

(tti) the flated (t). 

(i) the gradual glottid, the edges of 
the glottis being open when begin- 
ning to speak and gradually closing, 

(L) reverted I, the under part of the 
tongue being turned to the palate 
generated by action of preceding 
(R), 42d, and sometimes used inde- 
pendently, 1430. 

(T.) glottal r peculiar to Danish, but 
held to have been heard in the 
Cockney speech by Bonders, 10990'. 

M. (m 'm mh H). 

(m) an orinasal resonance of voice 
while the mouth is in the position 
for (p), 1148, col. 2 ; the tongue 
should obstruct the cavity of the 
mouth as little as possible, or (n, q) 
may be generated, for which the 
opening of the lips is not necessary. 

('m) syllabic (m) in schism chasm 

(siz'm kaez'm) ; this symbol preferred 
as more distinct than Bell's (mm) or 
my (m ( ), 114&T and 1108^. 

(mh) flatus passed through the nose 
while the mouth is in the position 
for (p), thought by Bell to occur 
before mutes, but not heard by me, 
1141a, 11480'. 

(M) turned small capital M, a lip trill 
with compressed lips, a defective 
utterance of (r) usually taken for 
(w), 665, line 1, formerly written 
(ra) or turned m. 

IS", (n 'n ii nh nj N). 

(n) orinasal resonance of voice while 
the mouth is in the position for (t), 
as in no, own, manner, 1095, the 
mouth is generally open, but it is 
not necessary that it should be so, 
see (m). 

('n) syllabic (n) so written in prefer- 
ence to Bell's (nn) and my (n') for 
lengthened (n), in open, sunken 
(oop'n, saqk'n), UQ8d. 

( v n) the alveolar continental n with the 
tip of the tongue quite on the gums, 

(nh) flatus through the nose and in 
the mouth in the position for (t) ; 
this was once used initially for kn- 
throughout England, and is still so 
used occ. in Cu. 542c?. 

(nj) palatalised (n), an attempt to pro- 
nounce (n) and (i) at the same time, 
Italian and French gn, Spanish n, 
Portuguese nh ; may be generated 
in English (an-nj-j^n) onion, 1151, 
col. 2, see (qj). 

(N) reverted (n), the mouth being in 
the position for (T) during the ori- 
nasal resonance, generated by a pre- 
ceding (R) in D 4 and D 11, see 42. 

0. (o o u oh 6013 OA ow o o u 
o 1 oh oo'w). 

(o) Bell's No. 8 Italian open (o), dif- 
ferent from, but often confused with 
(o), and common in our dialects, 

(o u ) may indicate an endeavour to pro- 
nounce (o) with the lip aperture of a 
(u), see 11166', and may occur in 
dialects ; it might also be written 
(ow) on Sweet's principle of 'over- 

(oh) Bell's No. 20, conceived by Sweet 
as French homme, which I hear as 
(o), conceived by Bell as American 



stone, which I hear as (o), and Low- 
land note, which I also hear as (o). 
Bell considers it to be unaccented o 
in history, victory, which seems to 
me pedantic. 

(6oB) a compound dialectal fracture, 
the rec. pron. of oar, with vocalised 
r, now usually called (AA'B), and 
formerly quite (O'OB), 1099#'. 

(OA) conventional sign for Fr. on, 
see (A). 

(ou>) see (o u ) above, and (w], p. 86*. 

(0) Bell's No. 7, as long in owe, no, go 
without the 'vanish,' see (oo'w), it 
is not found short in accented closed 
syllables in English, it resembles 
the Italian close o, and may certainly 
be used for it, 1152, 540. 

(o u ) the tongue as for (o) with the lip 
rounding as for u, 682^, No. 2, 
generally written (u^. 

(0 1 ) an (o) with a raised tongue and 
rather more closed lips, and hence 
closely resembling (), so that (u^ 
is generally written in diphthongs, 
541rf, 6830, No. 3, 1. 

(oh) Bell's No. 19, conceived by him 
as Fr. homme, see (oh) and when 
nasalised as (ohA), French on. Sweet 
gives no example. 

(oo'w) or (oo) with the vanish, that is, 
with a tendency as it is lengthened 
towards (u, u), 1152, col. 1, con- 
ceived as (dou) and often written 
(O'M) which to me altogether perverts 
the sound. Sweet writes ou and 
analyses (6ot0) = (6o u ) . 

CE. (oe (% (BA oe ce'u ao CE 


(oe) Bell's No. 32, intermediate to (o, 
e), Fr. eu in \eui pewple, German 
short o in bo'cke, distinct from (<?) or 
eu in pen, and German long o in 
Goethe ; thought to occur in English, 
541#, but this is doubtful. 

(ce^ a variant of (oe) greatly resembling 
(u ), and similarly used as a trans- 
ition from () to (a) in Nb. 638c, 
see also 72 le. 

(CCA) the Fr. orinasal un, but the 
analysis cannot be properly made on 
account of the modification of the 
oral cavity by releasing the uvula ; 
to an Englishman it sounds rather 
as (HA), that is, (a) withFr. nasality. 

(oe) Bell's No. 1, the sound heard on 
opening the mouth wide while pro- 
nouncing (u), 292c. 

(cc'u) results from commencing (u) with 

too wide an opening of the lips, see 
292c. TH. writes ( V M O U) for this sound. 

a>) Bell's No. 22, in first *rst third, 
when r is entirely lost, not materially 
different from "(aa), but with a 
somewhat more provincial effect, 
1156, most noticeable in diphthongs. 
(so'i, so'w) the forms of (a'i, a'u) in 
D 4, p. 65a, (ao'yi) the form of (a'u) 
in D 11, p. 156^, I58c. 

((E) Bell's No. 9, which he hears in 
L. up, and Sweet in Cockney park ; 
I once imagined it was the D 4 
sound in first, which I afterwards 
wrote (f'R st) and now write (fanst), 
42c. I do not know the sound. 
I take the L. wp to be (up), see the 
words on 718 under U:. 

(a>) a form of (a) with the sound of 
(AA) running through it, continually 
spelled aw by dialect writers, 43c, 
under 0'. 


a recoil, see 1111, col. 2. 
(ph) the flated form of (bh), the breath 
as it is usually emitted for cooling hot 
liquids, used for (f) in Hungarian, 
and possibly =mod. Gr. (/>. 

Q- (q qj qj)- 

(q) nasal resonance of voice in the 
position of the tongue for (k) which 
excludes oral resonance, 1123c ; 
the lips are usually open, but this 
is not necessary, as oral resonance 
is entirely prevented. 

(qj) the probable Sanscrit form which is 
confused generally with (nj), 1124^, 
corresponding to (ki, qj) . 

(qj) palatalised (q) is by some con- 
ceived as the proper French pron. 
of gn, which I take to be (nj) as it 
certainly is in Italian. 

ft. (r .r r r, r f r V r rh 
rh. rh, r r rw n R O 
'R O Eh r j). 

(r) a sharp beat produced by allowing 
emitted voice to flap the tip of the 
tongue, and this is the true ' trill ' 
as heard in Italy, in Scotland, in 
"Wales, and in Sh. ; the strength 
and length of the beat vary much, 
but when there is no beat, there is 



some substitute, as (r ), now common. 
Enumerated kinds, '294. Simple (r) 
is constantly written for any kind, 
and the particular kind is often 
specified in a note, but is not always 
known ; but real (r) is the exception 
in English. 

(.r) strongly flapped L. -Scotch (r). 

( v r) the tip of the tongue advanced 
quite to the gums, during the flap, 
used after ( ( t) in dialects. 

(r,) with retracted instead of reverted 
tip of the tongue, which approaches 
the hard palate ; the tongue however 
retains the spoon-shaped hollowness 
of (R) towards the throat, 4 la"; (R) 
has usually been printed instead of 


(r) the Northern buzzed r, described 
542, last line but one. 

(^r ) the same as (r), but with the tip 
of the tongue advanced towards the 
gums, used after ( t t) in Northern 

(r ) the buzzed r of the East of 
England, the tip of the tongue 
almost in the (d) position, but not 
touching the palate, a mere im- 
perfect (d) ; a degradation of (R, R O ), 
at times very difficult to distinguish 
from(u), 1098*, 1890, 222a. 

(,r ) advanced alveolar (r ) used after 
( k t) in dialects. 

(rh) flated (r), flatus instead of voice 
being used to produce the trill; it 
probably does not occur in English. 

(,rh) flated ( v r). 

(rhj flated (r,) a milder form of (Rh), 
which is usually written, 42. 

(r) uvular r, .the beat or interruption 
of sound being produced by the 
flapping of the uvula, which is 
brought to lie over the top surface 
of the tongue ; it is possible to make 
this trill very hard, and even metallic 
as in Paris, 6426; its usual effect is 
like (gh). 

(r ) the uvular rise, a stiffened uvula 
which does not flap as in (r), 6420. 

(rw] the (r} labialised, by bringing the 
lips nearly into the position for (o), 
the full Nb. burr, of which there 
may be several kinds, 64 Id. 

(R) reverted (r), the under surface of 
the tip of the tongue turned to the 
hard palate, and the flap indistinct 
and less sharp than for (r) ; some 
deny that it is ever trilled, 235, 41, 
apparently - combined with vowels 
(a, a, A), etc. 426. 

(R O ) untrilled (R), this form is chiefly 

recognised by natives who consider 
that (R) is never trilled, because the 
effect of the trill is so different from 
that in (r), 236, 53a. 

('R O ) the syllabic (a n ) for which (a) is 
usually written, 42. 

(Rh) flated (R), the common initial r in 
D 4, p. 420. 

; f) Irish r written ( n r) on 12320. 

j) permissive (r}, that is, where r is 
written, either (B) or (rar) may be 
pron., but the first is more usual, 
10990, 1153a, 189c. 

S. (s v s sh shj t sh srh sh). 

(s) common s in see, 0ease, missing, 
11040', a pure hiss, with no voice. 

( k s) the tongue for (s) is advanced close 
to the gum in making the hiss in 
cat*, HOoa, line 3; LLB. hears 
this, and not ( v t k s) in the Italian z. 

(sh) 'concave swish,' hiss with the 
tongue retracted and hollowed, in 
she, leash, wisAing, 1117 to 1121. 

(shj) * convex swish,' the upper surface 
of the tongue is convex to the palate ; 
this seems to be the High German 
s in st, sp initial, where ' concave ' 
(sh) with a hollow upper surface of 
the tongue is not admissible ; (tj) 
may be taken as (tjshj) as well as 

( 4 sh) an advanced (sh), which may be 

heard in catch (kae^sh), written 

(ksetj), where LLB. hears only (^sh), 

1117 to 1121. 
(srh) voiceless Polish rz, tongue in the 

position for (sh) and the tip slightly 

trilled, 2950, line 4. 
(sh) 'reverted swish,' made with re- 

verted tongue, that is, (sh) as affected 

by a preceding (R), 410. 

T. (t t' t t tj th th, tj iw T 
-4 Th). 

(t) as in taught, taking, with the 
tendency in some speakers to (tn, 
i\, tjh) when initial, 1095, and (f) 
final in the pause, 1111, col. 2. 

(t') suspended (t) used for the definite 
article in the North, 186, 206, 
especially considered, 3176. 

( v t) alveolar t, with the tip of the 
tongue against the gums, used before 
r, then pron. (jr), in many English 
dialects, 5426, see ( v d). 

(t,) retracted (t), see (d,), Ud. 

(tj) as in 0Aeese, catch, having, a 
contraction for (^sh, t v sh) or (tjshj), 
see (dj), 11546', 5426. 




(th) dental hiss, as in ^in brea^A yith 

noting, the tongue fully against (not 

between) the teeth, 1097f . 
(th y ) alveolar hiss, the tongue on the 

gum, Spanish z, scarcely distinguish- 
able from (th). 
(tj) palatalised (t), an attempt to utter 

(t, i) at the same time, 1115. 
(tu>) labialised (t) as in *dne, an 

attempt to utter (t, u) at the same 

time, 1115. 
(T) reverted t, with the under surface 

of the tongue against the palate, 420. 
(TI) reverted (ti) formed of (Tsh), 41^. 
(Th) an attempt to say (th) with the 

under surface of the tongue against 

the teeth, 410. 

U. (u u u v? u 1 u u 
wh. un u\ u ufi) 


(u) Bell's No. 3 ; when long as (uu) in 
too food pool ; it does not occur short 
in an accented closed syllable in 
English, but often occurs short in an 
open unaccented syllable as influence 
to-day to-night, 1097^, 540d; found 
medial in L. (buk) book, see (wu). 

(ii) very short diphthongising initial 
(u) used where (w) is now employed, 
1103, 543* under (w). 

(u) Bell's No. 4, the common short oo 
in an accented syllable, fwll good, 
distinctly different from (u), 11140', 
where read (%) for (w ). 

(M') the form in which (w/) is usually 
written, 711, No. 10. 

(u 1 ) a higher form of (ii) almost (u), 
53, par. 8, 5540. 

( ) peculiar Midland transition sound 
from (9) to (u), described, 2910, and 
compare, 2920, 365, 554. 

(^ ) the sound of (u ) with the tongue 
more advanced. 

(,ii u) TH.'s sign for my ('u), 2920, 
used on 327, under 0'. 

(wh) Bell's No. 16, which he assigns 
to unaccented -uxe and American 
do, but Sweet to valw0. 

(wu) Midland inchoant diphthong com- 
mencing with (u) and passing on to 
(u), probably Sweet's uw, which he 
analyses as (uuw), that is (u) passing 
into an ' overrounded ' (&), see (M^U). 

(MI) a low form of (u), scarcely distinct 
from (o 1 ) the high form of (o), which 
see, 2910, 389*, 540^. For a long time 
I confounded this with ( ) under 
one sign and hence some errors in 

Part IV., thus ( ) on p. 1107<f, 

1114c', should be (,). 

i) a peculiar fracture heard in D 33, 

so written on 682d, but written (u) 

on 711, No. 10. 

fa a Northern fracture similar to 

(6WL9) JGG.'s form of (w'), 7210. 

(ju) Northern inchoant diphthong 
commencing with (u^, almost (o 1 ), 
and ending with (u), 4940, 541^, 

(u) Bell's No. 15, Bell and Sweet both 
consider it to be Swedish u ; it may 
be conceived as (y) with more flavour 
of (u) in it. 

V. (YA). 

(v) the voiced form of (f), a buzz, with 
the lower lip firmly placed against 
the teeth, the despair of Germans 
who use (bh), 1101, col. 2. 

(A) written like Greek 77, the sign of 
French nasality ; the four French 
nasals in an win un on are conven- 
tionally represented by (aA CA CBA 
OA), but the relaxation of the uvula 
necessary for nasalisation prevents 
any exact reference of oral to ori- 
nasal vowels, 1123, col. 2. 

"W. (w wh wr w J w w]). 

(w) a peculiarly English buzzed con- 
sonant with nearly closed lips, which 
are compressed in the middle but 
inflated on each side by the emitted 
voice, the back of the tongue raised 
as for (u) ; the side inflations dis- 
tinguish (w) from (bh), and the buzz 
from (ii), 1091 to 1094 ; used for (v) 
in some dialects, 132*, 143a. 

(wh) flated (w), that is, with unvoiced 
breath through the same position, 
which makes next to no hiss, only 
a blow, see the long discussion, 1125 
to 1145, 543c. 

(wr) initial wr still heard among old 
people in the North, 5430, the oldest 
form was perhaps (r%>) or labialised (r) . 

(w) mark of labialisation, that is, of 
closing the lips more or less during 
the sound, or holding the position of 
the previous letter, as in (kw, gw, 
tw, dw], that is, an attempt to pro- 
nounce (w) at the same time with 
(k g, t d) respectively ; it may also 
be used with vowels to indicate 
greater labialisation, or more than 
the normal closure of the lips, thus 
(ow) = (o u ), which see. 




(*w) the indefinite voice sound ('h) 
labialised, which therefore ap- 
proaches to (u) and forms the 
'vanish' of (06), see (oo'w}, and 
1152, col. 1. 

(wj) palatalised labialisation, or an at- 
tempt to pronounce (u, i) or (y) with 
the preceding letter, as (nivji) or 
(nyi), French nuit, 11150'. 

Y. (yyi yyi *). 

(y) Bell's No. 28, the sound of French 
u, German , which are perhaps not 
quite the same, lying intermediate 
between (i) and (u). The presumed 
transitional sound from (u) to (y) is 
(ce'u). Perhaps pure (y) does not 
occur in our dialects. 

(yi) a modification of Fr. u in a di- 
rection not precisely ascertained, 
admitted in D 10, p. 146, D 11, 
p. 1560", and D 19, p. 2610. 

(y) Bell's No. 14, said by Melville 
Bell to be heard in the last syllable 
of houses and -shire, a peculiar sound 
used in 540&, and stated to lie be- 
tween (i, B), compare (i n ) ; it is 
commonly transcribed (i^ by me, see 
75Qd and 767c. 

(2/1) a variant of (y), the value not 
precisely ascertained, 5600. 

(Y) Bell's No. 13, Russian H (Jery) 
according to Bell, and Welsh u 
according to Sweet. 

Z. (z z zh zh zhj zrh. zh). 

(z) the buzz of (s) produced by laying 
on the voice in the (s) position, as in 
zany hi* whizzing ; often preceded 
when initial by an (s) in German as 
(szii) sie, and followed by an (s) in 
the pause in English as (hizs) his, 
1122c' 11040*. 

( l z) the voiced form of ( t s), which see, 
according to LLB. the voiced Italian 
z generally taken as (^z). 

(zh) the buzz of sh, initial in Fr. je 
(zh;?), in English occurs only between 
two vowels as in division, measure, 
and where it has been recently 
developed except in S. dialects, 400", 

( ( zh) advanced (zh), this may be 
the second element of (dj) usually 
assumed to be (dzh), 1154'. 

(zhj) voiced (shj), convex tongued (zh), 
this also may be the second element 
of (dj). 

(zrh) voiced Polish rz, the tongue as 
for (zh) and the tip trilled, 2950. 

(zh) reverted (zh) with the under 
surface of the tip of the tongue 
against the palate, occurs in (DJ= 
Dzh), 41c. 


n 8 


(*) with a higher tongue, or appre- 

ciated as a higher sound, 1107. 
d) with a lower tongue, or appreciated 

as a deeper sound, 1107, often used 

as a mere diacritic. 
( u ) doubly lowered, see (t n ) p. 82*. 
(g) is used for the Arabic ^ or bleat 

which it greatly resembles in shape ; 

it is produced in the glottis, and may 

be considered as an exaggerated 

catch or (;). 

( 4 ) rounding by palatal arches, as in 
a parrot's (p 4 w's) puss, 11140". 

( 5 ) with pursed and protruded lips, 
158c, 3220*. 

(l) unilateral palatal click used to start 
a horse with in England, usually 
spelled cVck ; there are several other 
clicks represented by turned numerals, 
or by aid of % below, 725, No. 17. 

Points (, ; i : . ' < t .. 

) preceding a vowel, the clear glottid, 

; ) the check glottid or Arabic hamza, 
regularly used when a word begins 
with a vowel in German, not usual 
in English, 1130, 7250", 7300*, used 
instead of musical accent in Danish. 

i) indicates the absence of glide or 
recoil after a mute, see p. 77* on 
length of consonants. 
) after a vowel or syllable, denotes 
secondary stress ; before a word 
indicates that it would begin with a 
capital letter in received spelling. 
) period, before any letter, indicates 
that it receives a peculiarly vigorous 
utterance ; it is only used in phonetic 
discussions as (.r) Lowland r. 

) after a vowel or syllable, denotes 
primary stress, and before a word 
emphasis, as (te prize -nt B pre-z'nt) 
or (te prizen't B prez-'nt) to present 
a present. 

) after or before another consonant, 
= ('h), that is, voice in its simplest 
form independent of the position of 
the organs ; in former Parts much 
used where (B) is now written by 
preference, see ('1, 'm, *n). 

') after another consonant =('h), 




flatus in its simplest form, recoil 
after mutes, as (hop'), not usually 
written but left to be inferred. 
( t ) slight nasality, not so marked as 
in French, often found with (a) as 


Marks of intonation rarefy used. 

.) low level tone, Chinese low (pniq). 

) high level tone, Ch. high (pniq). 

) rising tone, Ch. high (shaq). 

.) falling tone, Ch. high (kncece, 

kniu, km). 

.) rising from low level tone, Ch. 

low (shaq). 

..) falling to low level tone, Ch. low 

(kHcece) . 
(.) fall and rise, used in Norwegian 

and Swedish. 

(.-.) rise and fall, Ch. (fu-kjen shaq). 
(;) stop voice suddenly at high pitch, 

Ch. high (shui% zhii', njipi'). 
(f.) stop voice suddenly at low pitch, 

Ch. low (shu.'. zhii. njipi.). See end 

of last entry. 

As a rule intonation is not marked, 
but it may be roughly indicated by the 
above signs, which may immediately 
follow the vowel, or be printed in a 
line over the words. Or the ordinary 
level of speech being represented by 
5, and four degrees of lower pitch by 
1234, and four degrees of higher 
pitch by 6 7 8 9, without the assump- 
tion of any definite intervals, a line 
of figures over the words would give 
a tolerable notion of intonation. But 
there are obvious difficulties, first in 
hearing the intonation naturally from 
native dialect speakers, and next in 
appreciating it when heard, and hence 
it is not attempted in this treatise. 
See Mr. Melville Bell's Visible Speech, 
p. 82, and his Principles of Elocution, 
5th ed. (Werner, New York). For 
the attempts of Steele and Merkel, 
see my paper on Accent and Emphasis, 
in the Trans, of the Philological Society 
for 1873-4, pp. 129-135. 

Accents (' " , \ H J. 

('} marking the short glide and the 
stress syllable in ordinary diphthongs, 
p. 77*. 

(") marking the slur or long glide 
of the Italian diphthongs as (i"o, 
miE"i) written with ', an incon- 
venient sign, on 1131Z*. 

(,) after a letter only, mark of retrac- 
tion of the tongue from the lips 
towards the throat, see (r /5 th,) . 

( ' ) over or after a vowel marks medial 
length as (a, 9'), after a continuous 
consonant marks lengthening as (s'), 
after an explodent marks suspension 
of the organs of speech for a sensible 
time, as (t') for the definite article, 
317 b; see also p. 77*. 

(J before a letter only, mark of 
advanced tongue, see ( ( t, ( r), the 
tongue in this case coming close to 
the gums, 1120, col. 2. 

( u ) before a letter only, very advanced 
tongue quite up to the teeth, 1120, 
col. 2. 

(m) tip of tongue between teeth, but 
not protruded, written (t) on 

( ) ; L t + i i). 

( ) ) ' divider ' marks the end of a word 
and the beginning of the next, when 
the two words run on together as 
one ; it is a guide to the eye in 

()) 'break,' shewing that there is no 
glide between the letters between 
which it occurs, 1131, see both ) ; 
used on 149, line 1. 

( L ) preceding a letter indicates that 
that letter is very faintly uttered, 
see Part II. p. 419 note. 

( J ) following a consonant, as (t J) = 
English tut, or (Jh) independently, 
1128', indicates a click made by 
smacking the interior parts of the 
mouth in the air already there with- 
out either inspiration or expiration. 

(+) glide of any sort, ^> from a wide 
to a narrow, <^ from a narrow to a 
wide, opening of the mouth, 1130eT. 

(;) with inspired breath, 1128', (';) 
inspired flatus, and (;f, ;r hf) in- 
spired flatus through the lip position 
for (f) varied in the second case by 
raising the tongue for (r ), the lazy 
negative of Dundee school-boys, 

(j) trilled, when transcribing Bell's 
orthography, who writes the equiva- 
lent of (r^Jfor (r). 





THE object of this treatise is to determine with considerable 
accuracy the different forms now, or within the last hundred years, 
assumed by the descendants of the same original word in passing 
through the mouths of uneducated people, speaking an inherited 
language, in all parts of Great Britain where English is the 
ordinary medium of communication between peasant and peasant. 
This limitation excludes those parts of Wales and Scotland where 
Celtic is habitually spoken by the natives. Ireland has also been 
excluded, except in the south-east of Co. Wexford an old English 
colony because it has otherwise a comparatively recently imported 
speech. The exact limits are marked on the Map by the CB or 
Celtic border, and traced in words below. Of course the oldest 
form of English existent within these limits was itself imported 
from North Germany, modified by Old Norse and subsequently 
Old Norman, which was a form of Old French modified by Old 
Norse. And equally of course the immigrants aboriginally spoke 
differently, so that there was not really one original form for any 
word within the whole limits thus described. 

To solve this problem perfectly every word used by native 
peasants in every part of the country should have its pron. 1 observed 
and written phonetically. But this was obviously impossible. 
Hence a selection of typical words had to be made. Before in- 
vestigating it was naturally impossible to make a proper selection, 
but without some sort of selection no investigation could have been 
commenced. At first I tried any collections of words I could 
obtain. Then finding how vague, defective and redundant these 
were, with the help of Dr. J. A. H. Murray, author of DSS; and 
editor of the new English Dictionary, I constructed in 1873 a 
Comparative Specimen (referred' to as cs. and given in the Pre- 
liminary Matter No. III.), containing at least many typical words 
and constructions, run into sentences. This then I endeavoured to 
get "translated" into the idiom and pronunciation of the place. 

1 See list of abbreviations in frequent use, pp. 4* and 6*. 
E.E. Pron. Part V. [ 1433 ] 92 


Constantly complaints came to me from correspondents in different 
parts of the country that " our people don't speak so." Of course 
they did not. That was inevitable, and indeed intentional. But 
the intention was also to have the idiom corrected, at the same 
time that the pron. was assigned, and this was seldom attempted. 
Notice of my attempt was given in the Athenceum and Academy, 
and numerous ladies and gentlemen who were familiar with 
dialectal speech gave me their assistance. But there was great 
difficulty in expressing their meaning through lack of phonetic 
knowledge. Fortunately many were able to give vivd voce readings, 
and most kindly laboured hard to make me understand the sounds, 
while I wrote them in palaeotype. Their names and work are 
recorded in the Alphabetical County List in the Preliminary 
Matter No. YI. In other cases I endeavoured by written questions 
to obtain a clue to the sounds. But this was heavy and laborious, 
and the result was not satisfactory on the whole, although the 
versions of my cs. thus obtained were the nucleus of my work. 

Finding that the words I wanted particularly were often in- 
geniously avoided in the translations given, and that the idiom 
presented great difficulties, in Sep. 1877 I got out Word Lists 
(referred to as wl.), following the order and etymology in Dr. 
Sweet's History of British Sounds. This step indicated a further 
advance in the conception of the problem. The Wessex, or literary 
Saxon form of King Alfred's time, was now, where possible, 
adopted as the language of comparison, even for those Midland and 
Northern regions, where different forms of Low German were 
originally spoken. In some instances of course this comparison 
could not be made, and the word had to be referred to a Norse or 
French form, or classed as of unknown origin. We had now a 
standard of comparison. The problem then assumed this form, 
given the Wessex vowels (or consonants, but the vowels were most 
important) of certain words, to find their dialectal equivalents in 
different parts of the country, and this is the form under which its 
solution is attempted in this treatise. The order and classification 
used by Dr. Sweet, proving inconvenient for rapid reference, I 
subsequently modified this list, and it finally assumed the form of 
the Classified Word List (referred to as cwl. as distinct from the 
preceding wl.) given in the Preliminary Matter No. Y. 

With this wl. I gave a list of the principal sounds to be 
observed, with their glossic representation and a number attached. 
I regret to say that these proved useless and confusing. I could 
seldom rely upon the figures given. Some unfortunate misprints, 
arising from extending the list of sounds, increased the perplexity 
of many correspondents, and the result was that where I was 
unable to obtain viva voce or palaeotypic information, I had the 
same difficulty as before in interpreting the informants' orthography 
(here referred to as io.), and occasionally the still greater difficulty 
arising from the wrong use of numbers. Still I managed to obtain 
a very considerable amount of local information from all parts of 
the country by means of these wl., over which many of my 

[ 1434 ] 


informants gave themselves an immense amount of trouble, for 
which I cannot be sufficiently grateful. About 1700 of these lists 
were sent out, chiefly to the clergy in those parts of the country 
from which information was most needed, and of these about 500 
were returned with some though often very little information. 

In 1879 I tried the use of a much shorter specimen called the 
Dialect Test (referred to henceforth as dt.), containing only 76 
independent words, which exemplified all the principal classes, or 
rather would have done so if my informants had not constantly 
avoided or changed some of the important words. This dt. with 
the words numbered and the original notes designed to draw my 
informants' attention to the points of the investigation and to 
record the pron. to a considerable extent without having to acquire 
the use of a systematic orthography, is given in the Preliminary 
Matter No. IV., and has been of much service. 

These three modes of obtaining information were necessarily 
addressed to educated people who did not speak dialect naturally, 
and hence had only more or less observed what was said, and 
imitated it as well as they could. They all spoke " received 
speech" (abbreviated to rs.) in " received pronunciation" (abbrevi- 
ated to rp.), and endeavoured more or less successfully to impart 
their impressions of dialectal pron. (abbreviated to dp.) by means of 
"received orthography" (abbreviated to ro.). Here were many 
possible sources of error. 1 ) The sounds may have been wrongly 
appreciated. 2) The sounds may have been wrongly imitated. 
3) The rp. adopted by my informants may have been different 
from my own, for there is no such thing as a uniform educated 
pron. of English, and rp. or rs. is a variable quantity differing from 
individual to individual, although all its varieties are " received," 
understood and mainly unnoticed. 4) There are many dialectal 
sounds which are not recognised at all in rs. and which hence 
required more than ro. to represent, so that my informants fre- 
quently used combinations of letters which are not in ro., and 
these they generally did not attempt to explain or frankly declared 
to be inexplicable. 5) There was my own conjectural interpre- 
tation of my informants' orthography, which was at first very 
venturesome and unsatisfactory to myself. The hours, days, and 
sometimes months and years which I have spent over endeavouring 
to avoid these sources of error would be in themselves sufficient to 
account for the delay in completing this treatise. 

But why not go to the peasantry at once ? Why not learn from 
word of mouth, so that the errors would be limited to the writer's 
own appreciation ? "Where possible, this mode of obtaining in- 
formation has been followed. But I have myself been able to do 
so in very few cases. There are many difficulties in the way. 
First the peasantry throughout the country have usually two 
different pron., one which they use to one another, and this is that 
which is required ; the other which they use to the educated, and 
this which is their own conception of rp., though often remarkably 
different from it, is absolutely worthless for the present purpose. 

[ 1435 ] 


If I, having no kind of dialectal speech, were to go among the 
peasantry, they would of course use their "refined" speech to me. 
I have therefore not attempted it. But I have occasionally been 
able successfully to obtain information from domestic servants, 
from railway porters, and principally, through the kind cooperation 
of the Principal, from the students at Whitelands Training College 
in Chelsea. These last were young women generally about twenty 
years old, fresh from the country, who, though they now spoke 
rs. very well, had been from earliest childhood accustomed to the 
speech of their own districts, or had learned that of other districts 
by long teaching of natural dialect speakers in national schools. 
To the interest taken by the Rev. J. P. Faunthorpe, the Principal, 
in my work, the help from the teachers themselves, and the willing 
assistance of the students, I am indebted for information which has 
cleared up many difficulties and helped me to fill up many gaps. 

But my chief aid in this way has come from three important 
sources. 1) Mr. C. Clough Eobinson (henceforth referred to as 
CCR.), author of a Leeds Glossary, and subsequently of the Mid 
Yorkshire Glossary (the latter published by the English Dialect 
Society), a natural dialect speaker, acquired my glossic in personal 
interviews with me, and was of the utmost assistance in phonetically 
rendering the pron. of South and Mid Yo. 

2) Mr. J". G. Goodchild (henceforth referred to as JGG.) a 
Londoner, who had been many years employed on the Government 
Geological Survey, and had thus been constantly in the society of 
dialect speakers, having acquired a knowledge of my palaeotype 
(verified by many personal interviews between us), was able to 
furnish me with wonderful phonographs, so to speak, of the pron. 
in Cu. We. and nw. Yo., which he had again and again verified by 
the speakers themselves. 

3) Mr. Thomas Hallam (henceforth referred to as TH.), a native 
of n. Db., a natural dialect speaker, for many years a book-keeper in 
the Canal Department of the Manchester, Sheffield and Lincolnshire 
Railway Offices at Manchester, having acquired the use of my palaeo- 
type in great perfection, as verified by many personal interviews 
between us, has rendered me the most important services in the 
Midland Counties, La. Ch. Db. St. in especial, and in various other 
counties of England, as will be seen in the lists Nos. VI. and VII. 
given in the Preliminary Matter. His position in connection with 
the Railway Offices gave him facilities for travelling over these 
regions, and as he has been helping me for fully twenty years, 
there has been time for collecting and imparting great stores of 
information. His method of proceeding was this. On arriving at a 
station he would inquire where he could find old and if possible 
illiterate peasants, whom he would " interview," gaining their con- 
fidence, and then noting their peculiarities of pron. in his note books 
(now more than Ixx. in number, a goodly Septuagint), using palaeo- 
type, which he wrote most accurately. In the same books he entered 
all passing pron. which he heard, forming the " words noted " 
(abbreviated to wn.), which are so frequently referred to hereafter, 

[ 1436 ] 


reduced to the form of my cwl. Also, making acquaintance with 
native dialect speakers, he obtained numerous cs. and dt., most of 
which are given below, and thus enabled me to illustrate dialectal 
pron. in a most unexpectedly accurate manner over about 22 
counties ; for the exact enumeration see the Alphabetical County 
List, and Informants' List in the Preliminary Matter, Nos VI 
and VII. 

A large number of the names there recorded recall to me long 
correspondence or lengthy personal interviews, and I beg to return 
to all my informants grateful thanks for their help, which has 
made my work possible. 

Finally I wish to record my obligations to H.I.H. Prince Louis- 
Lucien Bonaparte (henceforth referred to as LLB.), who, though he 
was able only on one occasion to take down a portion of a cs. in 
pal. himself, yet procured me many versions of the cs. from others, 
and a large amount of incidental dialectal information. To him I 
owe especially my first conceptions of a classification of the English 
Dialects, and he has been throughout a warm sympathiser and a 
ready helper. Possessing a large collection of English dialect 
books, consisting of various specimens, besides those versions of the 
Song of Solomon made for himself, and all the best glossaries, with 
many of his own notes in travelling, he allowed me to examine 
them all, and abstract what was needed, so that I was made 
thoroughly acquainted with all that had been done before, and saw 
how necessary it was to treat of the pron. separately. 

To clothe all these sources of information in a proper garment, 
which would admit of accurate comparison, a sufficiently copious 
phonetic alphabet was necessary. The palaeotype used in Parts I. 
to IV. of EEP. was of course adopted. But the direct investiga- 
tion of living speech has rendered numerous additions or modifi- 
cations necessary. Hence I have considered it advisable to prefix 
to this treatise a new table of Dialectal Palaeotype (in the Pre- 
liminary Matter No. VIII.), containing all the signs employed in 
this treatise in an order which can be readily referred to, so that 
no reader can have any difficulty in ascertaining the value of any 
symbol he meets with. Great peculiarities will generally be 
specially explained where they occur, and in the Table of Dialectal 
Palaeotype (which for that purpose has been printed last) references 
will be given to these explanations. The use of pal. of course re- 
quires much careful study to understand it thoroughly and read it 
easily, but I must assume that this work will be used by readers 
who are prepared to study. There is no help for it. If the sounds 
were -merely uttered to them without being fixed by signs, they 
would forget or confuse them immediately. I do not add a general 
treatise on phonetics. Much can be gathered from the discussions 
in Part IV. of EEP., and a condensed account of the theory of 
phonetics, with a long list of my palaeotype symbols, drawn up by 
myself, will be found in the Encyclopaedia Britannica, vol. 22, or 
part 86, pp. 381-390, published 1887. 

There is so much difficulty in limiting the conception of a 

[ H37 ] 



dialect, so as to distinguish, it from a language, that I have thought 
it best not to attempt distributing the English language into pre- 
cisely defined dialects, but to take the range of country where 
English is acknowledged to be spoken by peasants to one another 
in some one or other of its forms, and then to divide it into districts 
where the form of speech can be tolerably well defined. Hence 
the first thing is to lay down the limits assumed for English as 
against Celtic. This is a division of entirely unrelated languages, 
differing in sound, vocabulary, grammar and history. But this is 
the only case in which all these four points will have to be con- 
sidered. This is a treatise on the existing phonology of the 
English dialects, meaning simply peasant speech. Hence, when 
the area of English is once determined, the geographical divisions 
must depend mainly, if not always, entirely on pron., with the 
least possible admixture of considerations founded on vocabulary 
and grammar (indicated in the note appended to the cwl. in 
Preliminary Matter No. Y. p. 25*), and none at all on history. 

The first broad points in the phonology of English which struck 
me were the treatment of Wessex U and IT' (capital letters will 
always be used, as in the headings of the cwl. in the Preliminary 
Matter No. Y.), of the letter R, and of the definite article. To my 
surprise I found that the lines separating these different treatments 
could be traced completely across the country from sea to sea, and 
hence I obtained TEN TRANSVERSE LINES, which form the first 
broad phonetic distribution of English speech. I had hoped indeed 
that they would form the basis of the ultimate districts. But I 
gradually found that this was not the case, so far as the treatment 
of TJ, IT' was concerned, for reasons which will be best explained 
hereafter ; but in other respects the transverse lines do really limit 
divisions and districts. 

Then by tabulating and comparing, especially by means of the 
cwl., I obtained Six DIVISIONS, with sufficiently distinct differences 
and characters, to which I give the geographical names of Southern, 
"Western, Eastern, Midland, Northern, and Lowland, the last being 
almost entirely in Scotland. The characters by which these are 
distinguished will be given in detail hereafter. 

Then commenced the more difficult task of separating these 
Divisions into such DISTRICTS as had a considerable claim to be 
considered uniform in the pron. they used, and were sufficiently 
distinct from their neighbours. The difficulty was to make these 
districts wide enough, by resolutely refusing to be led away by 
small differences. Properly speaking there is no uniformity. Not 
only will a practised ear tell the village in a district from which a 
speaker hails, but a more accurate examination will shew that 
families in the same village do not speak exactly alike, nay, that 
the individual members of the same family will have generally 
some differentiating peculiarity. My information, however, seldom 
went into such fine details, although that obtained from Messrs. 
Goodchild and Hallam often reaches the stage of individualism. 
My first attempts almost always erred in making the districts too 

[ 1438 ] 


small, but finally I left very few small districts, because, among 
other reasons, of the difficulty in determining their boundaries with 
the information at my command, and contented myself with mostly 
large districts, in which I recognised YAEIETIES only roughly 
located, and not always accurately or completely characterised. 

The result of this has been to divide the whole country into 42 
numbered districts, of which 21 contain 89 varieties. In eight of 
these varieties I have even distinguished 19 sub varieties. Thus 
stated, the distribution appears rather complex, but the complexity 
will disappear on examination. The whole of these 10 Transverse 
Lines, 6 Divisions, and 42 districts, with the Celtic Border, are 
clearly shewn in the little maps of England and Scotland, drawn 
from my instructions by Messrs. George Philip and Son, and given 
with this treatise, and the Key to these maps in the Preliminary 
Matter No. II. indicates the position of the varieties and sub- 
varieties. In the subsequent pages each District and Variety will 
be considered in the order of their numbers, and their numbers will 
be placed at the head of the pages. Hence the reader, after 
having consulted the map which gives him the number of the 
district, and the key which shews the number of the Variety, can 
immediately turn to the page containing the information. 

In the course of tracing the boundaries, or of giving the infor- 
mation, I shall have frequently to refer to places whose names are 
not on the maps here given, and indeed are often difficult to find 
on any but the large maps of the Ordnance Survey. But it is 
necessary that the reader should have a good conception of their 
situation on the little maps which have the districts marked on 
them. This is effected thus. Take the village of Harrold referred 
to as " Harrold, Bd. (8 nw.Bedford)," that is, Harrold (not on the 
map) is in Bedfordshire, 8 miles to the north-west of the town of 
Bedford (which is on the map). Any series of county maps will 
then enable the reader either to find the name or the exact locality. 
I have found G. Philip and Son's penny county maps of England 
and Scotland very useful, but they are not on a uniform scale. 
"W. H. Smith and Co.'s maps (on the uniform scale of 4 miles to 
the inch) will enable the reader to follow all the boundaries of 
districts here given. Stanford's Railway map of three miles to 
the inch, and the Ordnance maps, may be further referred to if 
necessary, but Philip's and Smith's are the most convenient, as I 
have -found by extensive use. 

This geographical distribution, which was not possible until 
information had been obtained from all parts of the country, and 
the limitation of the investigation to phonology now existing 
either in absolute use of living people or in their memories, form 
the two distinctive characters of this treatise. It was necessary 
for this purpose to localise information, and hence to reject almost 
all printed books, which generally refer to very vaguely defined 
or, more accurately speaking, undefined areas. This localisation, 
except when I could secure the assistance of my three chief 
informants, was very difficult to procure. No doubt many local 

[ 1439 ] 



readers will object to some of my lines of demarcation, or to the 
sounds themselves attributed to certain classes of words. This is 
really inevitable. I have not swept the country, and most of my 
brooms so far as I went were not of perfect construction. I can 
only say that I have done my best, and at my advanced age, after 
twenty years' work on the subject, the main point was to secure 
what had been gained, and leave corrections to future workers. 

The present plan of this enlarged treatise, as distinguished from 

that in Chap. XI. 2, No. 3, which has been cancelled, is as follows. 

At the commencement is placed a quantity of Preliminary 

Matter, paged with a star, as 1*, 2*, etc., to which the reader 

will have constantly to refer. 

The contents already sufficiently indicated consist chiefly of the 
means for procuring information, the geographical representation of 
the dialectal districts by maps, with their key, the lists of my 
informants, and the table of Dialectal Palaeotype. 

In the work itself, after this Introduction, I proceed direct to 
the CELTIC BOEDER, which I give in two forms : first, as the late 
Mr. Green conceived it to be in A.D. 580, after the Low Germans 
had been in England about 130 years, with his supposed distri- 
bution of the different tribes; second, as results from inquiries 
made by myself in Wales, and Dr. J. A. H. Murray in Scotland. 
Ireland I consider for present purposes as entirely Celtic, ^ with 
the exception of the little peninsula containing the baronies of 
Forth and Bargy in Co. Wexford. This Celtic Border, which is 
boldly drawn on the maps, will be immediately very carefully 
described in words, so that it can be readily followed on any maps 
of Great Britain. It limits to the west and north the country 
considered in these pages. 

After this follows an account of the TEN TRANSVERSE LINES, with 
a verbal description of the route taken by each, shewing the belts 
of different pronunciation into which they divide the country. 

Then I consider the S. div., giving its boundaries and general 
character, followed by the districts or D. 1 to 12 which it contains. 
Each district is treated thus. 

It is first numbered and then named. The exact BOUNDARY, as 
well as it can be ascertained, is next given, followed by the AREA 
it occupies, expressed in terms of counties or parts of counties. 
Then come the AUTHORITIES or list of places from which information 
has been received, with a rough indication of its nature. These 
names refer to the Alphabetical County Lists in the Preliminary 
Matter No. VI., which contain detailed information. Then is 
given the general character of the whole district and an account of 
each variety. Pin ally come the ILLUSTRATIONS, consisting generally 
of cs., dt. and cwl., but occasionally others, where fortune favoured 
The main scientific interest, however, centres in the cs., dt. 


and cwl., because the different pron. of the same words are thus so 
easily compared. Occasionally I give many cs. or dt. belonging to 
one district, and even to different districts, in an interlinear form, 
which furnishes a remarkably easy method of comparison. 

[ 1440 ] 


The other divisions and districts are treated in the same way 

Although this has a very complete and systematic appearance, I 
do not disguise from myself the real incompleteness of the whole 
exposition and the great desirability of using it merely as a nucleus 
round which the results of other investigations may be grouped. 

Finally there will be a Section on RESULTS, shewing how modern 
dialectal phonology is related to the ancient Wessex form in par- 
ticular. This section especially shews the bearing of the present 
investigation on my complete work. It will necessarily involve 
the philological question of the alteration of pronunciation in the 
descent of various languages from one source, for the divisions of 
English pronunciation are in fact only the illustrations on a small 
scale which can be observed in actual process of growth, of the 
changes which in a large scale have been going on within dif- 
ferent families of languages throughout the world. 


This is considered under two aspects, ancient and modern. The 
Ancient is that which divided the immigrant Low Germans from 
the resident Celts after the first period of conquest had subsided 
and settlement proper began. The Modern is that now existent. 

Ancient. About A D. 408 the last Roman forces were withdrawn 
from Great Britain, and probably in the same year the Low German 
invaders, who will here be collectively termed Saxons, though 
they consisted of many different tribes, began to appear. They are 
however generally credited with having first landed in A.D. 449. 
These different tribes were constantly fighting with the Celts, but 
after the battle of Deorham (a village near Bath, Sin., overlooking 
the valley of the R. Severn, A.D. 577), when half the country had 
been conquered, there was more settlement than conquest, and the 
different invading tribes rather contended with each other for 
supremacy, than fought against the ''Brut" or Celts. At this 
time Mr. J. R. Green (Making of England, p. 203) apportions the 
country roughly between Saxons and Celts as follows, by a line 
running nearly n. to s. from the Firth of Forth to the English 
Channel. The details of this line are mainly conjectural, and in 
default of precise information, Mr. Green follows co. b. in a great 
measure. But as the division corresponds to an existing contrast 
of dialects on the e. side older Saxon with subsequent Danish 
influence, on the w. side later Saxon with Celtic influence it is 
convenient to describe it, in such a way that it can easily be followed 
on the maps. This opportunity is also used for localising the 
various invading tribes to the e. according to Mr. Green, 1 and of 
giving two groupings of a much later date. 

1 Mr. Green considers that the British in an article headed " Are we English- 
were entirely exterminated or driven to men?" (Fortnightly Eeview, 1880, 
the w., so that the population to the e. vol. 28, new series, pp. 472-487), says 
was purely Saxon. Mr. Grant Allen, (p. 485), " A small body of Teutoi 

f 1441 ] 



This ancient Celtic border which, to prevent confusion, is not 
laid down in the maps, begins on the Firth of Forth on the w. b. 
of Ed., and passes w. of Pb. and Ex. to w. of Nb. and Du. Along 
s. of Du. Mr. Green places the s. b. of the Berenicians that ex- 
tended on the e. side n. to the Firth of Forth. On the w. side 
were Strathclyde in Scotland and the Cumbrians in England. 

The old Celtic border then continues first w. of n.Yo., and then 
through Yo. to the e. of the great forest of Elmete, which extended 
down to Sherwood in Nt. and Db. It then turns w. and n., and 
afterwards s. again, in order to run on the n. and w. side of Db., 
and then to the w. of St., till it had to go suddenly e. in order to 
skirt the great forest of Arden in "Wa. 1 Having done so, it resumes 
its n. to s. direction, passing through "Wo. until it strikes the II. 

immigrants descended some time about 
vth century and onward, to the Eastern 
shore of South Britain. They occupied 
the whole coast from the Forth to the 
Isle of Wight, and spread over the 
country westward, as far as the central 
dividing ridge. Though not quite free 
from admixture with the aborigines, even 
in this limited tract, they stiil remained 
relatively pure in their strongholds, and 
they afterwards received a fresh Teutonic 
reinforcement by the Danish invasion. 
"Westward of the central line they con- 
quered and assimilated the aborigines 
upon whom they imposed their language 
and laws, but whom they did not ex- 
terminate. In the extreme west and 
in Ireland, the Celts long retained their 
language and nationality undisturbed. 
During the middle ages the English 
people formed by far the most powerful 
body in the island, and even now they 
have imposed upon all of it their name 
and language. But since the rise of the 
industrial system the Celts have peace- 
fully recovered the numerical superiority. 
They have crowded into the towns and 
seaports, so that at the present day only 
the rural districts of Eastern England 
can claim to be thoroughly Teutonic. 
The urban population consists for the 
most part of a mixed race. Moreover, 
since intermarriage is now so very 
frequent, it seems probable that almost 
all English families, except those of the 
stationary agricultural class in the East, 
have some small proportion of Celtic 
blood. In the upper classes, where 
numerous intermarriages are universal, 
this proportion is doubtless everywhere 
very great. Out of Britain the Celts 
have it all their own way." And again 
(p. 487) : " We may sum up the result 
here indicated, in a single sentence : 

though the British nation of the present 
day is wholly Teutonic in form, it is 
largely and even preponderantly Celtic 
in matter." It seemed proper to give 
these results ; but they do not affect 
this investigation. On the e. people 
do not speak a language shewing Celtic 
influence in either grammar or pron. 
On the w. pron., but not grammar, 
betrays Celtic influence. This is not 
an ethnologic treatise. Difference or 
similarity of language are no guarantees 
of difference or similarity of race. 

1 Rosalind. Well, this is the forest 
of Arden. Touchstone. Ay, now am 
I in Arden ; the more fool I : when I 
was at home I was in a better place ; 
but travellers must be content. As 
you like it, Act 2, Sc. 4, speeches 
6 and 7. Lord Byron, speaking of the 
soldiers at Waterloo, says: "And 
Ardennes waves above them her green 
leaves, Dewy with nature's tear drops, 
as they pass," Childe Harold, Canto iii. 
st. 27, and the commentator in Moore's 
ed. 1833, vol. 8, p. 144, says: "The 
wood of Soignies is supposed to be a 
remnant of the forest of Ardennes, 
famous in Boiardo's Orlando, and im- 
mortal in Shakspere's As you like it." 
Probably many schoolboys have thought 
the same, as I did fifty years ago also. 
But Arden, joined as a parish with 
Temple Grafton, is only 5 w. Stratford- 
on-Avon, Wa., and Henley-in- Arden 
only 7 nnw. Stratford, and I certainly 
agree with Sharpe's Gazetteer that 
this Arden " probably is the true 
original of Shakspere's Forest of 
Arden." It was a forest he was 
thoroughly well acquainted with, and 

geography was a trifle to him. Besides, 
where did " the Duke " of As you like 
it abide ? 

[ 1442 ] 


Severn near Gloucester. It reappears on s. of Gl. opposite the end 
of the Forest of Dean, and going e. to avoid the great Forest of 
Selwood, passed on southwards through w.Wl. and e.Do. to the sea 
near Portland. 

The Saxon settlements on the e. of this b. were according to Mr. 
Green as follows : 

Beremciansin s Scotland, Nb. and Du. with capital Bamborough(12ne.Wooler),Nb. 

Deirians in Yo. with capital York. The large marsh at the junction of the 
Ouse with the Humber, and the great forest of Elmete to the w., were uninhabited. 

Lindiswaran in Li. , except the great marshes near the Wash. The n. of Li. is 
still known as " the parts of Lindsey. " 

Snotingas, a tribe of Angles settled on the edge of Sherwood, Nt., and extended 
to the valley of the R. Soar (say to Loughborough, Le.) 

Pecscettan or Peak-settlers, a tribe of West Angles, inhabited Db. and were 
separated both from Yo. and Nt. by Sherwood and Elmete forests. 

West Angles, excepting those last mentioned, settled in St. 

Gyrwas, or marsh-dwellers, settled w. of the Wash. 

South Angles were in s.Np. 

East Angles were in Nf. and Sf . 

Middle Angles were in Le. 

Hwiccas, a West Saxon tribe, settled in Gl. along the R. Severn. 

Wilscetan, also a West Saxon tribe, were in Wl. 

Gewissas, another West Saxon tribe, settled in the Isle of Wi. and Ha. 

Middle Saxons occupied Mi. 

East Saxons were in Es. and Ht. 

South Saxons in Ss. 

Jutes, who are recognised by Mr. Green, although their existence is doubtful, 
are placed in Ke. The Weald of Ke. and Ss. co. was occupied by the great forest 
of Andreda, which separated the Kentmen from the South Saxons. 

At a later period the Berenicians and Deirians were united as Northumbrians, 
and one of their kings, Ethelfrith, wrested Ch. and s.La. from the Celts, by the 
victory of Chester A.D. 613. For lack of information Mr. Green leaves these 
countries under Northymbria, for 62 years (from 613 to 675), till the revolt of 
Wulfhere king of the Mercians (that is, dwellers on the Marc, or border, of Wales 
answering to our Midlanders) brought them under Midland influence, which their 
language still shews most strongly, having nothing Northumbrian in it. 

In Mr. Green's posthumous work, The Conquest of England, 1883, 
p, 112, there is a rough sketch, entirely unrevised, of the state of 
England at the treaty of Wedmore (7 w. Wells, Sin.) between 
King Alfred and Guthrum the Dane, after the battle of Edington 
(7 sw.Wells) in 878. The Danes then withdrew from Sm. and 
the sketch-map gives the following divisions : 

1. Bernicia extends on the e. from the Forth to s. of Du. 

2. Danish Northumbria covers Lonsdale s. of the Sands m.La. and all Yo. 

3. Danish Mercia takes in Db. Nt. Li. Ru. Np. forming the districts of the 
Five Boroughs, Derby, Leicester, Lincoln, Stamford in s.w.Li. and Nottingham. 

4. Kingdom of Guthrum comprises Nf., Sf., Es., Mi., Ht., Bu., Bd., Cb., Hu., 
in fact all my E.div. 

5. English Mercia takes all the co. w. of the Danish Mercia and e. of Wales, 
as far s. as the Avon and Thames, and hence includes Gl. 

6. Kingdom of Kent occupies all my D 9 = ES. 

7. Wessex occupies all my D 4 and 5, with the exception of Gl. 

8. West Welsh is my D 10 and 11. 

The second, third, and fourth of these divisions constitute the Danelaw or portion 
of England then ruled by the Danes. 

Finally Mr. Green left another unfinished sketch of a map of the 

[ 1443 ] 



"great ealdormanries " or lord-lieutenancies (Conquest of England, 
p. 316) which were created from 955 to 988. This map, then, forms 
a later grouping which must necessarily have had an effect on the 
dialects and which is therefore reproduced. 

1. Northumbrian Ealdorm comprising the former Bernicia and Danish North- 

2. Ciimbria containing Cu. 

3. West-Moringa Land containing "We. 

4. The Ealdormanry of Mercia from the Ribble La. e. of the Severn through 
Ch., St., Sh., Wa., Wo., He., and Gl. to the Thames. 

5. The Five Boroughs (as above explained) replace Danish Mercia. 

6. The Ealdormanry of East Anglia comprises Nf., Sf., Cb., Hu., Bd., Ht. 

7. The Ealdormanry of Essex comprises Es , Mi., Ox. 

8. The Ealdormanry of the Eastern Provinces comprises Ke., Sr., Ss. 

9. The Ealdormanry of the Central Provinces contains Wl., Ha., and Isle of Wi. 

10. The Ealdormanry of the Western Provinces contains Sm., Dv., Co. 

11. The Ealdormanry of Mercia contains s.La., Ch., St., Sh., Wa., Wo., He., 
and Gl. 

These original settlements of the tribes and the various settlements 
that followed, to which have to be added those resulting from the 
Danish and Norman conquests, sufficiently account for the existence 
of great diversities of local speech, and at the same time point to the 
gradual formation of the divisions S, W, E, M, N here adopted from 
an actual examination of existing local habits of speech. But it is 
no part of the work of this book to check the above statements in 
any way. Whatever their errors may be, they were made con- 
scientiously to illustrate the best general conception that Mr. Green 
could form, with the aid of the imperfect materials he possessed. 

Modern. The modern Celtic Border in Great Britain, drawn on 
the map and marked CB., divides those who speak English from 
those who speak Celtic. But it has here been extended to Ireland 
so as to include the old colony of Forth and Bargy, which, like sw. 
Pm. and Gowerland in Wales, was an English settlement from 
which the Celts were excluded. 

The modern CB. therefore begins in Co. Wx., Ireland, and then 
on the map passes by sea to Pm., Wales, and then by sea to Gm., 
Wales, then again by sea to Mo., whence through Wales to Fl. 
Afterwards it passes by sea w. of Ma., but east of the Isle of Arran, 
to Bute in Scotland, which country it traverses in a ne. direction to 
Cr., whence it passes again by sea to ne. of Cs., and by sea to the 
w. of the Or. and Sd. This gives the general run of the line which 
will now be particularised. The Welsh line was determined by 
AJE., the Scotch by JAHM. 

An English-speaking place is one in which the uneducated, or 
only elementarily educated people speak with each other habitually 
in English. The line through Wales, with the exception of the out- 
lying districts in Pm. and Gm., about which there is no trouble, 
was drawn from the answers of clergymen of the parishes along or 
near the supposed route in answer to the following questions : 

" 1. Is Welsh or English 
addressed] to one another ? 

generally spoken by the peasantry about [th 
2. If Welsh, where is the nearest English-sj 

e place 

[ 1444 ] 


place to the east? 3. If English, does it resemble in pronunciation the 
English of [the neighbouring English co.] ? Or is it simply book - English ?" 
To which for s. Wales I added, "4. If mixed, how often have you Welsh services 
or sermons?" 

The complete answers which I received are given in my paper 
" On the Delimitation of the English and Welsh Languages," 
originally published in Y Cymmrodor, vol. v. pp. 173-208, and 
reprinted in the Transactions of the Philological Society for 1882-3-4, 
Part II. App. II. The names of the clergymen who so kindly 
assisted me will be found in the Alphabetic County List under the 
Welsh counties considered. Other particulars will be given when 
treating of D 13 and 14. Here I simply give the line as accurately 
as I was able to draw it, beginning with the detached districts, 
including the Irish portion. 

Ireland. The line which separated English from Irish in the xn th and sub- 
sequent centuries, till, in the xviuth, it was merged into the Cromwellian English 
spoken in the surrounding district where Irish had became disused, begins on the 
s. coast of Wx., Ireland, at the head of Bannow Bay (13 sw.Wexford), and passes 
nearly in a straight line to Wexford, following the borders of the baronies (or co. 
divisions, corresponding to English hundreds) of Bargy in the w. and Forth in 
the e. This line cuts off a peninsula at the se. angle of Ireland. It then passes 
by sea across St. George's Channel. 

2. South TPales, Pm. The CB. cuts off the two sw. peninsulas of Pm., con- 
taining the hundreds of Rhos and Daugleddy (rhoos, daygledh-y), Pm. I take 
the line assigned by my informant, Rev. J. Tombs, rector of Burton (3 n. Pembroke), 
as the probable boundary of the original or very early Saxon colony. It begins at 
Newgate Bridge (6 ese. St. Davids), the ne. corner of St. Bride's Bay, and proceeds 
in ne. direction to Ambleston (7 nne.Haverford West, and 1^ ne.Trefgarn), and then 
turns se. to pass by Lawhaden and Narberth (9 e.Haverford West) going in nearly 
a straight line just e. of Ludchurch (10 ese. Haverford West), to fall into 
Carmarthen Bay near Amroth (anrroth), 5 ne.Tenby, at the se. extremity of the 
co. Mr. Tombs says that he thinks no line can now be drawn between Anglicised 
Welsh and the border of the early colonists, though it was perhaps possible 100 years 
ago. It will be observed that this line cuts off two peninsulas separated by 
Milford Haven and the R. Cleddau (kledh-av). The CB. then proceeds by 
sea to 

3. The Peninsula of Gowerland, in sw.Gm. My informant, Rev. J. D. Davies, 
of Llanmadoc Rectory (H w. Swansea), says that the following 17 parishes have 
spoken English for centuries (I merely give the distances from Swansea, direction 
fromw. to sw.): 1, Cheriton 13; 2, Llanmadoc 14; 3, Llangenydd 15; 4, Rhos-sili 
16^; 5, Llandewi 14 ; 6, Knelston 13 ; 7, Reynoldston 12 ; 8, Port Eynon 13 ; 9, 
Penrice 11 ; 10, Oxwich 11 ; 11, Nicholaston 10; 12, Penmaen 9 ; 13, Lower 
Llanrhidiau 11 (Upper Llanrhidiau 8 does not speak English) ; 14, Ilston 7; 
15, Penard 7 ; 16, Bishopston 6 ; and 17, Oystermouth 4. These parishes all lie 
on the peninsula and their inland boundary is therefore part of the modern 
CB. It starts from the mouth of a streamlet which runs into the Burry River 
estuary in Carmarthen Bay, 2 s.Penclawdd (penklau'dh) railway-station, which is 
8 wnw. Swansea. The boundary runs up this streamlet over Welsh Moor and 
Pengwern Moor nearly in a straight ese. direction to Myer's Green, 1 s. Mumbles 
Station (3 sw. Swansea) on Swansea Bay. The CB. again passes by sea through 
the Bristol Channel to the estuary of the Usk, Mo. 

4. Here the Welsh and English part of the CB. begins. 

Mo. Start from the confluence of the Ebbw (EVu) and Usk, about 2 s. Newport 

on the Bristol Channel. Keep on the e. bank of the Ebbw, w. of Newport, e. of 

Risca (6 nw.Newport), and w. of Pontypool, (10 sw.Tredegar), to the junction 

of the greater and lesser Ebbw, or Ebbwy-fawr, and Ebbwy-fach (Eb'UY vaur, 

[ 1445 ] 



eb'UY vakh), and take the e. bank of the lesser Ebbw, leaving Mo. near Brynmawr 
(branmaur) Br., meaning a ' big hill.' 

Br. Proceed nearly n. to just w. of Llangattock and Crickho well = Welsh 
Crughywel (kryg-ha'u-el). Then go e. of Tretower, on the high ground to the 
e. of the River Bryn, turning slightly to nw. up to Talgarth (12 sw.Builth), and 
then probably still on the high ground on the w. of the Wye pass e. of Gwendwr 
(gwsnduT) and Llangynog (Ihhanga nog), but w. of Builth (byalhht) to the Wye 
about 3 ne. of Builth. 

Ed. Cross the Wye and proceed nearly directly n. through Rd., which is almost 
entirely English, just e. of the railway, leaving Rhayader-Gwy and St. Harmon's 
(both about 18 w.Knighton) on the w. 

Mg. Continue to go nearly n., leaving Llanidloes (lhhanid'16es) (1 1 sw.Newtown) , 
on w., but Mochtre and Penstrowel (3 and 5 w. and sw. Newtown) on e. Then 
tly ne. by Manafon (8 nw. Montgomery), and Castell Caer Einion (4 wsw. 

r elshpool), w. of Guilsfield, 2 n.Welshpool, and e. of Llansantffraid (Ihhan- 
santfrai-d) (8 n.Welshpool), but w. of Llandysilio (Ihhandasiiio) (7 n.Welshpool), 
turning n. to enter Sh. 

Sh. The line seems to pass directly n. to Llanymynecb (IhhauamanEkh) (5 
s.Oswestry), and thence to Oswestry, and on to just w. of Chirk (5 n.Oswestry). 

Dn. The line then makes a gentle sweep to the e. and passes e. of Ruabon 
(rhiuaVon) to Wrexham, through which, it passes and deflects to the ne., but turns 
more n. as it enters Fl. 

Fl. The line passes nearly n. through FL, leaving Hope (8 se. Flint), on the e., 
and both Mold (6 s. Flint), and Nor thop (3s. Flint), on the w., reaching the R. Dee, 
at 2 se. Flint, halfway between Flint and Connah's Quay. 

The line again passes through the sea w. of I. of Man and e. 
of the I. of Arran to Bt., and the Gaelic and English b. commences. 

Scotland. The line now traverses Scotland, dividing the existing 
Gaelic speakers and existing Lowland speakers, that is, speakers of 
English in Scotland. This was determined by Dr. Murray for his 
work on " The Dialect of the Southern Counties of Scotland " 
(pp. 231-6), with the assistance of the gentlemen named below. 1 
This line gives "the outside limits of the Gaelic, that is, every 
district is included in which Gaelic is still spoken by any natives, 
regardless of the fact that English may be spoken by the majority 
of the people." The following account of this Scotch portion of 
the CB. was revised by Dr. Murray. The line is traced from s. to n. 

JBt. After passing through the sea from Fl., w. of I. of Man, and e. of Arran 
and Cantire, the CB. commences on land in Bt. and traverses the middle of the 
I. of Bt. and the adjacent channel. 

1 Rev. Wm. Ross, of Chapelhill 
Manse, Rothesay, Bt., but a native 
of Cs., for Cs., and co. n. of Moray 
Firth and islands and coast of the 

Rev. Colin Mackenzie, of Ardclach 
(8 se. Nairn, Na.), and Rev. John Whyte, 
Moyness(12 se.Inverness, In.), forNa. 
and El. 

Rev. Walter Gregor, of Pitsligo 
(rpz'tslii'go), 5 wsw.Fraserburgh, Ab., 
and James Skinner, Esq., factor to 
the Duke of Richmond, for El. 
and Ba. 

Rev. Robt. Neil, of Glengairn, 11 
ne.Braemar, Ab. (through Rev. Dr. 

Taylor, of Crathie, 9 ene.Braemar, 
Ab.), for Ab. 

Rev. Neil McBride, of Glenisla, 17 
nw.Forfar, Fo., for nw. Fo. and ad- 
jacent parts of Ab. and Pr. 

Rev. Samuel Cameron, of Logierait 
of Comrie (20 w. Perth), Rev. Hugh 
McDiarmid, of Callander, Pr., for the 
adjoining part of Pr. 

Rev. \V. Mackintosh, of Buchanan 
(23 wsw.Stirling, for w. Sg.). 

Rev. Duncan Campbell, of Luss 
(12 nnw. Dumbarton, Dm.), on w. coast 
of Loch Lomond, for the dist. between 
Loch Lomond and Loch Long. 

[ 1446 ] 


Ar. The CB. then continues in ane. direction by the se. coast of Ar., just w. of 
Dunoon (9 sse Inverary), skirting the Firth of Clyde to Loch Long, through the 
middle of which it passes. 

Dm. The CB. turns e. and enters Dm. just n. of Gorton (17 nw. Dumbarton), 
and passes e. through Glen Douglas to the w. shore of Loch Lomond at a point 
9 nn W.Dumbarton, where it crosses Loch Lomond. 

Sg. The CB. enters Sg. just n. of the Rowardennan Inn (19 n.Dumbarton and 
22 w. Stirling), and crosses Sg. in an ene. direction. 

Pr. The CB. passes se. of the Trossachs to Aberfoyl (7 sw.Callander), and 
thence to Callander, whence it passes through Glen Artney to Comrie (14 ne. 
Callander), and crossing Glen Almond, goes just s. of Amulrie (9 nne.Criefr), after 
which it follows Strath Braan through Birnam Wood to Dunkeld. The line then 
passes in a nne. direction over Mt. Blair, where the b. of Ab. intersects the b. of Fo. 

Ab. Entering Ab. by Mt. Blair the CB. goes in a n. direction to meet the Dee 
about 4 e.Braemar, and follows the Dee to 2 e.Crathie and Balmoral, and then 
suddenly turns nnw. to go to Strathdon, also called Invernochtie (7n.Crathie), when 
it turns a little nw. 

Ba. The CB. enters Ba. about 6 ne.Tomantoul and skirts the R. Livet on the 
w. to b. of El. 

EL The CB. crosses the Spey nearly at right angles (2 s.Inveraven), Ba., which 
is 12 nne. Tomantoul, and passes through El. in a wnw. direction crossing the 
Knock of Brae Moray (15 sw.Rothes, EL), and proceeding nw. to Na. 

Na. The CB., continuing its nw. dir., crosses the Findhorn R. at right angles, 
and goes on to Ardclach (8 sse.Nairn),andreaches the Moray Firth about 3 w.Nairn. 

Cr. The CB. crossing the Moray Firth cuts off the extreme ne. of Cr. containing 
the town of Cromarty, and then the line again takes the sea past the e. coast of 
Ross and Sutherland and part of Cs. 

Cs. The CB. reappears on land at Clyth Ness, Cs., 10 ssw.Wick. It proceeds 
in an undulating line to the n. of Harpsdale (15 wnw.Wick), and through Hallkirk 
(16 nw.Wick) to the River Forss, which it follows to the sea 5 w.Thurso. 

The line then takes to the sea again, leaving the Or. and SI. groups to the e., 
and after passing them, ceases to exist. 


These are marked by broken lines on the map, except when they 
coincide with any border marked by a continuous line on the map, 
and then the broken parts are drawn through this line and at right 
angles to it in order to shew the coincidence of the two lines. Most 
of the Transverse Lines during part or all of their course so coincide 
with other boundaries. They are numbered on the map by numbers 
in ( ), corresponding to those used in this description. 

LINE 1. The n. sum line or northern limit of the pron. of the 
word some, "Ws. sum, as (sam) or (sam) in s. England. The pron. 
(sam) reappears n. of line 8. 

Proceed from n., follow the CB. to Chirk on b. of Sh., which enter between 
Ellesmere soom, that is, which says (sum) (7ne.0swestry),and Oswestry sum, that is, 
which says (sam) or (sam). Thence it passes se. running w. of Hordley soom (6 ene. 
Oswestry) ande. of Whittingtonsum (2 ne. Oswestry), s. of Wemsoom ( 1 3 e. Oswestry) 
and Yorton soom (2 sw.Wem) and just w. of Hadnall soom (4 nne. Shrewsbury), 
going s. between Shrewsbury sum and Upton Magna soom (4 e. Shrewsbury) to 
the Severn at Atcham. Then it follows the Severn to the b. of the co. 

Wo. On entering Wo. pass just e. of Bewdley (3 wsw. Kidderminster), mixed 
soom and sum but chiefly soom, and Dunley (5 ssw. Kidderminster) mixed, and 
proceed in a se. direction to 

Wa. Stratford-on-Avon. Continuing se. to pass just n. of Kineton (8 ese.Strat- 
ford) mixed, much, soom, through P'enny Compton (probably) to the b. of the co. 

[ 1447 ] 



[LINES 1, 2. 

Np. Enter Np. just n. of Byfield (16 wsw. Northampton) mixed, and turn n. to 
coincide with Line 3 for a little way passing e. of Weedon (8 w. Northampton) 
toom, and e. of Daventry soom and going through Long Buckley to "Watford 
(18 w.Wellingborough) sSom to w. of East Haddon (14 w.Wellingborough) sum. 
Then quitting Line 3, turn ene. passing by Brixworth (6 n. Northampton) and 
Hannington (5 nw.Wellingborough) both mixed, when turn ne. and go between 
Islip (8 e.Kettering) mixed and Thrapston (9 e.Kettering) mixed to the b. of the 
co. about 2 s.Hemington (11 sw. Peterborough) probably sum. 

Hu. Enter Hu. just n. of Great Gidding (10 nw. Huntingdon) sum and go just 
s.of Sawtry(9 nnw. Huntingdon) soom. Then, crossingthe Great Northern Railway, 
probably turn ne., passing just n. of Ramsey (9 nne. Huntingdon) and enter 

Cb. Pass just n. of Chatteris (10 nw. Ely) mixed and turning ne. go e. of March 
and w. of Wisbech mixed to the edge of the co., and then proceed by nw. b. of Nf . 
to the sea. 

For the line as far as Sawtry I am almost entirely indebted to 
TEL, who with great pains took a phonetic survey of this part 
of the country. The rest of the route to March and Wisbech and 
nw.Nf. I owe to other informants, checked, however, by TH., as 
shewn in the next Line 2. 

The use of (a, a) for U is of course a modernism and an encroach- 
ment, hence we may expect to find that it is not a sufficient mark 
of a difference of district, because all other characters may remain 
and the modern (a) may have only partially prevailed. Also inter- 
mediate forms may prevail arising from the encroachment being still 
incomplete. It will be found that both anticipations are fulfilled. 

LINE 2. The s. sdtim line or southern limit of the pronunciation 
of the word some as sdtim (sum) in England; for the n. limit see 
Line 9. 

Sh. As far as the se. b. of Sh. lines 1 and 2 coincide. 

Wo. Directly that the n. sum line enters Wo. there is a mixed district s. of it, 
where soom is more or less frequently heard, and the intermediate som (som) is 
also found. It occupies the whole of s.Wo., GL, and even n.Wl. Proceed 
direct s. from Bewdley. w. of Stourport, to the Malvern Hills, and continue by 
Redhill or Redmarley d'Abitot to the s. b. of Wo. 

GL Enter about 8 wsw. Tewkesbury, pass more or less to the w. in order to 
leave Newent (8 nw. Gloucester) to the e., and go s. to Dursley (14 ssw. Gloucester) . 

Wl. Take a sweep s. of Tetbury (16 s.-by-e. Gloucester) and proceed e. and ne., 
going s. of Malmesbury (14 w.Swindon) and Purton (4 nw. Swindon). 

Ox. Thence go ne. through a corner of Be. to Witney (10 wnw. Oxford) and 
Bicester (11 nne. Oxford). 

u. Thence pass through Buckingham and w. of Stony Stratford (7 ne. 
Buckingham) to b. of Np. 

Np. Going mostly just w. of the border, sweep just s. of Thrapston, and join 
the n. sum line again at the b. of Hu. 

Hu. and Cb. Through Hu. to past Sawtry (9 nnw. Huntingdon) the s. soom 
coincides again with the n. sum line, and both pass between Great Gidding 
(10 n W.Huntingdon) sum and Sawtry soom. But then the s. soom line runs 
eastwards, s. of Ramsey (9 nne. Huntingdon). 

Cb. It enters s. of Chatteris (9 nw. Ely) and runs ne. to b. of co. 

Nf. The line enters Nf. just s. of the new Bedford Rivers, at the s. of the 
Bedford Level, about 24 s.King's Lynn, and pursues rather a winding course 
through w. Nf., s. of Downham (10 s.King's Lynn) and Swaffham (13 se. King's 
Lynn), and e. of East Dereham (23 ese. King's Lynn), where it turns n. for about 
6 m., and then, after running s. of Fakenham (8 s. Wells- on- Sea), turns nw., and 
falls into the sea between Hunstanton (13 nne.King's Lynn) and Braucaster. 

[ 1448 ] 


For this line I am wholly indebted to the "phonetic survey" of 
the adjacent parts made by TH., who has visited expressly 
numerous villages along the route here laid down (30 places in 
Norfolk only), and has himself heard the not unfrequent use of 
soom and similar words between the n. sum and s. sotim, lines, and, 
especially in Nf., has observed the use of the intermediate som. It 
would be probably quite impossible to determine the line more 

Here we have examples of the incomplete assertion of (a, a). It 
will be observed that Line 2 runs in general much further south 
than line 1. It is only to the n. of line 1 that the old state of 
things remains, and to the s. of line 2 that the new state has fully 
asserted itself. The intermediate country between Lines 1 and 2 
is mixed, with one or the other form of U fully asserted, or 
transitional, a new form, as (som), which indicates the influence of 
(a, a) upon (u) being heard. What it is particularly necessary to 
guard against is the supposition that (a, a) is the "correct" form 
because " received" ; it is only a modern form. Even in rp. the (a) 
has not fully asserted itself, full (f wl) is itself an example ; and we 
find in the () regions an apparently perverse habit to say (fal). 
The pron. of full, and of similar words, is merely a mark of the 
conflict, which has been left standing. 

LINE 3. The Reverted ur (R) line or n. limit of the pron. of r as 
(E) or (r y ) in England. Sporadically and through natural defects of 
pron., reverted ur (E) may be heard still more northerly, and even to 
the w. in D 13. But it ceases to be the regular pron. at this limit, 
and even in D 9 the ur (E O ) frequently sinks into the common received 
vocal er (r ) ; while in I) 6, 7, the tongue is often merely retracted 
(r,) or even Midland (r), instead of reverted (E). It is probable that 
originally the line really commenced at the mouth of Bannow Bay 
in Ireland, proceeding along CB. to Wexford, and then to Pm. and 
Gm. But in none of these places can reverted ur (R) now be traced 
with certainty. Hence the line must be taken to begin in England. 
The map however by the serrated line shews that the reverted ur line 
is supposed to have begun in Wexford. 

Gl. Start in England from the mouth of the Wye on the Severn R. and proceed 
n. by the w. b. of Gl. till you meet the b. of He. just e. of Monmouth. 

He. Then run in a nne. direction so as to leave Ross, Ledbury (13 e.Hereford), 
and Much Cowarne (8 ne.Hereford), on the e. At Much Cowarne turn more to 
ne., leaving on the w. Stoke Lacy (9 ne.Hereford), Pencombe (lOnne.Heref.)and 
Bromyard (13 ne.Heref.), which are in D 13, and then turning still more to the 
e. pass near Whitbourne (7 w.-by-n. "Worcester) to the b. of the co. 

Wo. Afterwards proceed more n. to Bewdley, then turn e. and pass n. of 
Kidderminster and s. of Stourbridge, Hagley, Cradley and Selly Oak (3 s.Bir- 
mingham), and probably n. of King's Norton to the border of 

Wa. Where turn se. and pass n. of Packwood, going e. of Henley-in-Arden and 
Claverdon, but s. of Warwick and s. of Southam to the h. of 

Np. opposite Braunston (13 wnw. Northampton), and pursue that b. to the n. 
as far as Watling St. by Crick. Then go se. joining the n. sum line 1 between 
Watford and East H addon, but leaving it at the angle se. of Weedon and passing 

E.E. Pron. Part V. [ 1449 ] 93 



just s. of Ellsworth to the b. of the co. by Hartwell. Pursue this b. to the s. 
and w. till just e. of Brackley (17 s W.Northampton) it reaches the b. of 

Ox. The line is now so ill known or indistinct that I have been obliged to 
assume the b. of Ox. as its limit to the Thames at Henley, whence it follows the 
w. and s. banks of the Thames to the sea. Of course through the metropolitan 
area this line is a mere fiction and shews only what it once may have been. In 
the part adjoining the Thames the reverted ur (B) sinks to the vocal r (rj. 

The great difficulty of obtaining information renders much of the 
course of this line rather doubtful. Through Wa. and JS"p. it has 
been taken as coinciding with the b. of D 6, which at any rate 
cannot be far wrong. 

LINE 4. The s. teeth line, or s. limit of the use for the definite 
article of a suspended (t"), commonly written P in dialect books, or 
of the hiss (th) as heard at the end of teeth. It is possible that 
cases of tee (t x ) occur sporadically just s. of this line by assimilation, 
as they more frequently occur between lines 4 and 5, but in 
D 24 = e.NM. tee (tf) is the rule. The word teeth is chosen because 
it contains both (t) and (th). 

Ch. Line 4 begins on the Dee, about 2 sw. Chester, and passes just within the 
s. b. of Ch., e. of Farndon (7 s. Chester) and w. of Malpas (12 ese.Chester), 
reaching the co. b. at "Wirswall (2 n.Whitchurch, Sh.) ; it pursues the b. for a few 
miles, but at Burley Dam, 1 s.Combermere Abbey, it passes e. round to the n, of 
Audlem, then goes s., traversing the ne. horn of 

Sh. just w. of Norton in Hales, and turning se. at 12 ene. Stone, enters 

St., through which it passes to the e. to Stone, and then sweeps round to 
Eocester (14 ene. Stoke), on the w. b. of Db., along which it runs to the se. 

Db. Just s. of Kepton (8 sse. Derby) the line cuts across the tail of Db., which 
projects between St. and Le., and then runs again along the s. b. of Db. 

Nt. and To. The line seems to pursue the w., s., and then the e. b. of Nt. to its 
n. extremity, after which it pursues the b. of Yo. and Li. to the Humber, and 
then runs along the s. b. of Yo. to the sea. In Nt. (dip) is the rule, yet not only 
do (t\ th) occur, though not frequently, but there is a frequent assimilation, 
probably of (th) to (s) before (s). See D 27. 

LINE 5. The n. theeth (dhiith) line, or n. limit of the use of the 
(dhi3, dhi) and the hiss (th) in conjunction with suspended te (t") as 
the def. article, till the returns to the north of line 7. 

Ma. The line begins at n. of the Isle of Man and proceeds by sea to 

La. which it enters at Cockerham 6 S.Lancaster, and passes in an ese. dir. just 

n. of Over Wyersdale (6 se. Lancaster) and then follows the b. of La. to about 

9 nne. Burnley. 

To. ^ It then enters Yo. and runs e. apparently to about Burley (8 n. Bradford), 

where it joins the s. hoose line 6 (to be described presently), and follows that line 

to the w. b. of Li. Then it runs along the w. b. of Li. to the Humber, following 

line 4 already described. 

The whole line from the b. of La. and across to Burley is 
necessarily very uncertain. But it seems to pass between Skipton 
on the n. and Keighley on the s., a distance of 8 m., which this 
line bisects, and hence it is probably not far wrong. 

This line is here assumed to be the n. limit proper of the use of 

[ 1450 ] 


the hiss (th) for the definite article. But n. of this line CCR. says 
that in former years he has traced this form (th) through the whole of 
Craven in rare occasional use, which has not influenced any printed 
account of the dialect. He has also heard of the (th) as being in 
use east of Skipton, To., straggling nearly to Harrogate, although 
s. of this line it is quite unknown, and he thinks that it exists 
also a little w. of Eipon. This (th) is by far the most heard 
about "Washbourn River (D 30, 10 cs., No. 6, intro.) between 
Skipton and Harrogate. In all these places except the last, the 
usage is so slight that it has not crept into print, but in the last 
it has been printed in a newspaper contribution by Mr. Granige, of 
Harrogate, a local historian. 

LINE 6. The s. hoose line, or s. limit of the pron. of the word 
house as hoose (huus), which is also the n. limit of the pron. of 
house as any variety of (ha'us), of which those in the M. div. are 
numerous and singular. 

Ma. The line begins on the west at sea at the n. of I. of Man, in which the 
English uses house. 

Cu. On the mainland, the line begins at the mouth of the Esk R. by Ravenglass 
(17 sse.Whitehaven), and proceeds s. of that river on the watershed up to the 
Wry Nose Fell, on the b. of Cu. and We. So close is the division here, that, 
as I am informed, at G-osforth (5 nnw. Ravenglass) they say coo (kuu) and at 
Bootle (5 sse. Ravenglass) they say cow (kou). But the real Gosforth pron., as 
we find mostly to the n. of it, may be (^u). 

La. The line then follows the Brathay R. on the n. b. of La. to the head of 
Windermere, and descends down its w. shore to Newby Bridge (7 ne.Ulverston), 
at its extreme s. It then sweeps round, in a way which has not been accurately, 
traced, but is certainly some distance n. of Cartmell (5 e. Ulverston) house and 
crosses the Winster R., which forms the e. b. of La., probably opposite Wither - 
slack (7 ssw.Kendal). 

We. The line probably passes just s. of Witherslack, n. of Milnthorpe 
(6 s.Kendal) hoose, and n. of Kirkby Lonsdale (10 se.Kendal) house, going in a 
ne. direction and crossing the Lune R. about Middleton (8 ese.Kendal). 

Yo. The line enters Yo. just s. of Sedberg (8 e.Kendal) hoose, and n. of Dent, 
(13 ese.Kendal and 4 sse. Sedberg) house, which is a very close and sharp div. The 
line then runs through Garsdale along the Clough R. to the w. b. of the North 
Riding of Yo., which it probably pursues to the Wharfe R. The line probably 
pursues the Wharfe R. to Burley (7 ne.Keighley), and then passes just s. of that 
river, s. of Otley (9 nw.Leeds) hoose, and n. of Leeds and Harewood (6 n.Leeds) 
house (haus), and then bending se., passes e. of Aberford (9 ene. Leeds) 
house (haas), and passes w. of Selby hoose. Then taking a more s. direction it 
passes w. of Snaith (6 s. Selby) hoose. After this it seems to go nearly s., and 
passes e of Doncaster and Rossington (5 se. Doncaster), both house, and turning 
at once to the e. passes probably along the b. of Nt. to the b. of Li. at the s. of 
the I. of Asholme in the nw. of Li. between the Old Don and the Trent Rivers, in 
which both hoose and house (huus hous) are heard. 

Li. The line probably enters Li. about 3 n. Gainsborough, where the b. of Li. 
turns suddenly to the s. The passage from about Selby, Yo., up to this point has 
been difficult to trace, but the information is very precise through Li. The 
line going e. passes n. of Blyton (4 ne. Gainsborough) house, and s. of Scotter 
(7 ne. Gainsborough) hoose, and then passes s. of Redbourne (11 ne. Gainsborough) 
hoose, and n. of Waddingham (11 ene. Gainsborough) house, the last two being 
adjoining parishes. Then it turns suddenly ne. and passes to the n of North 
Kelsey (15 ene. Gainsborough) house, and to the s. of Howsham (16 ne. Gains- 
borough) hoose, the last two being also adjoining parishes. Moreover, the North 

[ 1451 ] 



[LINES 6, 7. 

Kelsey folk look down on the Howsham folk for saying a coo (kuu) for a cow 
(kou), and probably conversely. After this the line proceeds in a ne. direction 
s. of Ulceby (10 nw.Great Grimsby), and s. of Killingholrae (9 nw.Great Grimsby), 
both hoose ; but n. of Brocklesby (8 wnw. Great Grimsby) and of Stallingborough, 
(5 wnw. Great Grimsby), both house, to the sea, 6 nw. Great Grimsby. 

I am indebted for the Li. information to a large number of persons, especially 
clergymen, whose livings were in the neighbourhood. It is remarkable how little 
aware those who live only a very few miles off this line are of this great difference 
of pronunciation. Most Li. people hardly believe that in any part of Li. hoose is 
now said, while Mr. Peacock of Brigg, author of the Manley and Corringham 
Glossary, did not seem to know that any other pron. but hoose was current in Li. 
And in the neighbourhood of the n. of Nt. I have several times been altogether 
perplexed by being told that hoose was said, when subsequent visits to the place by 
TH. shewed that this was not the case. 

Of course (huus) is the older form, and all the forms of (ha'us) 
are very modern. Hence the treatment of TJ' is not sufficient to 
mark dialects. The transitional form between (uu, a'u) is (w^), 
which will be discussed in D 31. 

LINE 7. The n. tee line, or northern limit of the use of suspended 
(f) or t', which may be conveniently called tee, for the def. art. 

Cu. The line commences on the w. in Morecambe Bay, Solway Frith, at 
13 w.Carlisle, passes just s. of Kirk Bampton (7 w. Carlisle), then turns in a s. 
dir. as far as about 2 s. of Sebergham (9 ssw. Carlisle), after which it turns ne. 
and passes e. of Southwaite (7 sse. Carlisle) and Coathill (5 sw.Carlisle) to just s. 
of Fort, where it reaches the Eden R. by Hornsby, up which it proceeds in a se. 
direction to Kirk Oswald, 14 se.Carlisle, and immediately turns nne., forming an 
acute angle with its former course, passes over Croglin Fell, when it again bends 
through sw.Nb.,and passing s. of Alston (20 ese. Carlisle), it re-enters Cu., where, 
after going s. for a little way, it turns e. at Bother Fell (4 s. Alston) to the b. of Nb. 

Du. The line enters Du. by the heights on the n. side of Weardale, and passing 
n. of Stanhope (18 wsw.Durham) and Walsingham (over Skaylock Hill), runs 
probably to the se. yet n. of Witton le Wear and Bishop Auckland to Merrington 
(6 s.Durham), and then sweeps to the e. and afterwards ne. past Bishop Middleham 
(7 sse. Durham) and Trimdon (8 se.Durham), but n. of Sedgefield (10 sse. Durham), 
passing along the Skern R. to the railway, when it turns suddenly n. and passes w. 
of Hart and Easington (9 nnw. Hartlepool), and w. of Seaham (5 sse.Sunderland), 
to fall into the sea about Ryhope (3 sse.Sunderland). 

For the commencement of this line through Cu. to Sebergham 
I am indebted to the Rev. T. Ellwood, for the part from Sebergham 
to s. of Alston I am indebted to the observations made by JGG., 
and for the part which passes through Du. to the answers kindly 
given by many clergymen along the route, and a visit made by 
myself to one of them at Bishop Middleham. Dr. Murray had 
first drawn attention to the importance of this line as the separation 
of the Danified from the non-Danined N. (DSS. p. 86 note); but he 
commenced it at Allonby, avoiding the sinuosities by Kirk Oswald, 
and lost it at Stanhope (18 w-by-s.Durham). It was to try and recover 
the lost line that I sent out a series of questions to the clergymen 
of the neighbourhood. But it should be observed that the custom 
of speech is very mixed at Wigton and Silloth (10 sw. and 18 
wsw. Carlisle, Cu.) and that neighbourhood, although prevailingly 
(t'). So it is also about Dalston and Wreay (:rze) s. of Carlisle, but 

[ 1452 ] 


there (dire) prevails. But from Port and Kirk Oswald onwards the 
line is sharper. 

LINE 8. The s. sum line in n. England or the s. limit of the pron. 
of some as any variety of (sam, sum), on travelling from Scotland 
into England. 

Cu. The line begins on the w. by the Solway Firth, probably at the mouth of 
the Esk (6 nw.Carlisle), and proceeds in a ne. direction over Beacon Hill (14 
ne.Carlisle) and s. of Bewcastle (16 nne.Carlisle) to the w. b. of Nb. 

Nb. The line then turns suddenly s. and passes w. of Haltwhistle ( 14 w .Hexham) , 
and e. of Knaresdale, Nb. (17 sw.Hexham). 

Cu. The line re-enters Cu. just w. of Alstone (20 ese. Carlisle) , and then striking 
the n. tee line 7, coincides with it throughout the rest of Cu. and throughout Du. 

For the Cu. part of this line I am indebted to JGG., the remainder 
results from many communications, together with some personal 

LINE 9. The n. stitim line, or the n. limit of the pron. of some as 
any variety of (sum) or even mixed with varieties of (sani) on 
proceeding from the M. co. to Scotland. 

Cu. Through Cu. this line coincides with Line 8. 

Nb. But on reaching Nb. it sweeps in a direction, at first e. and at last n. round the 
base of the slopes of the Cheviot Hills, passing 4 w. of Bellingham (:beHndpm) 
(13 nnw. Hexham), 4 w. of Otterbarn on the Rede R. (18 nnw.Hexham), and 2 w. of 
Harbottle (which is 17 wsw.Alnwick), and goes n. to the Cheviot Hill itself 
(8 sw.Wooler) on the w. b. of Nb., at the source of the rivers Coquet and Till. 
Then it proceeds in a ne. direction 2 s. of Wooler to fall into the sea about Barn- 
borough (12 n.Alnwick), the ancient Bebbanburg, the former capital of the 
Saxon Kingdom of Bernicia. 

LINE 10. The L. line is the limit between L. Scotch and N. 
English speech, and is not precisely coincident with the political 
boundary of England and Scotland. 

Cu. Through Cu. the line coincides with the two previous lines 8 and 9. 

Nb. As far as the Cheviot Hill the line coincides with line 9. But after 
quitting the Cheviot it proceeds in a nw. direction along the w. border of Nb. to 
the Tweed, down which it runs in a ne. dir. till it reaches Wateadder Water, the 
w. b. of the Liberties of Berwick-upon-Tweed, and 2 n Berwick. 

Bw. Locally in the Scotch co. of Bw., but politically an independent territory, 
Berwick- on- Tweed and its Liberties, extending 2 to 4 miles into Bw., are 
linguistically part of England, and the L. line passes round the w. and n. of them 
to the sea about Marshal Meadows, 3 nnw. Berwick -upon -Tweed. 

It will be observed that this line of the separation of L. and N. 
En. does not coincide with the line given by Dr. Murray (D. of 
S. S. p. 25 note, and map). His L. line proceeds n. from Gretna, 
Df., to the w. of Langholme, Df., crossing the Esk E. to meet the 
Scotch range of the Cheviots, along which it continues to the ene. 
into Ex. as far as Peel Fell, Nb., and then runs in an ese. direction 
to the Eede E., just west of Otter-burn (18 nnw.Hexham), where 
it intersects my line 10, which it then pursues for the rest of the 
way. This throws a portion of Df. and Ex. known as Canobie and 
Liddesdale linguistically into England. He says that the dialect 
spoken in this region "is still quite distinct from that of the rest of 

[ 1453 ] 


[LiNE 10. 

Df. and Ex., and is rather that of Cu. than L. Scotch." This will 
be considered hereafter. At any rate it does not agree with the 
information I have received from other quarters. Taking the Nb. 
slopes of the Cheviots, which would thus be included in England, I 
am told that it is chiefly traversed by Scotch, that is L., shepherds. 
Indeed, JGGr. who was for a long time quartered in this very 
region, with a companion, both on Geological Survey duty, and for 
lack of houses had to sleep in a caravan, where his rest was often 
disturbed at night by the cattle creeping under and using the floor 
as a back scraper says that it was difficult to meet any but a 
Scotchman there. The whole parish of Falstone, on the North 
Tyne (20 nw.Hexham), which lies in the middle of this district, 
with its 57,000 acres of moorland, had in 1841 only 560 inhabitants 
spread all over it. And Plashetts, 4 miles further to the nw., on 
the North Tyne, together with Felstone, mustered only 222 in- 
habitants in that year. Dr. Frank Richardson, a physician, living 
in 1879 at Harbottle (17 wsw.Alnwick), at the foot of the Cheviots 
(certainly of that part which Dr. Murray also admits to be L.), 
writes: "I think you will not be wrong in considering that the 
Scotch occupy the entire hill country in these parts. The Cheviots 
are entirely inhabited by Scotch families, who rarely descend into 
the low countries." The Cu. portion which I include in L. 
has many more inhabitants than the Nb. portion. Bewcastle, 
6 nne. Carlisle, may have 2000, and Longtown, 8 n. Carlisle, may 
have 1200 inhabitants. But, as we shall see, their speech has all 
the characters of L., and does not even resemble that of Carlisle, 
much less any district s. of the n. tee line 7. 

THE ROMAN WALL. In connection with these lines 8, 9, 10, the 
position of Hadrian's or the Picts' Wall is noteworthy as pointing 
to a separation of races before the advent of the Saxons. This wall 
was built by Agricola A.D. 79 to 85, and repaired by Hadrian 
A.D. 121, and Septimius Severus A.D. 208. The following are the 
places through which it runs from w. to e., with their distances 
and directions from C. = Carlisle, H.=Hexham, and N.= Newcastle. 

Cu. It commences w. at Bowness, 12 wnw.C., and goes through Drumhurgh, 
9 wnw. C., and Beaumont, 4 nw.C. It then turns se. by Grinsdale, 2 nw.C., 
hending on the s. of the Eden B,., sweeping just n. of C. and going in a ne. 
direction by Stanwix (1 n.C.), crossing the Esk, to Wallby (4 ne.C.), Wallhead 
(5 nne.C.), Old Wall (6 ne.C.), Newtown (8 ne.C.), Walton (9 ne.C.), Banks 
(ll ne.C.), and Upper Denton (14 ne.C.), when it enters Nb. 

Nb. It enters near Thirlwall (17 w.Hexham), passes by Wall Town (15 w.H.), 
Burnhead (12fc w.H.), where it turns slightly ne., by Carrow (7 nw.H.), whence it 
passes near Carrowbrough and deflects slightly to se., crossing the North Tyne at 
Citurnum, between Walwick (5 nnw H.) and Brunton (4 n-by-w.H.), and goes by 
Halton Shields (5 ene.H.) and Harlowhill (8 ene.H.), after which it runs nearly 
ese. towards Newcastle, by Heddon on the Wall (7 wnw.N.) into N. itself, through 
which it passes and runs to Wallsend, 4 ene.N., where, as the name implies, it 

The course through Cu. is only slightly to the s. of lines 8, 9, 10. 
But in .Nb. it does not correspond to any dialectal division. 

[ 1454 ] 





Ireland. The n. b. commences at sea in Bannow Bay, and coin- 
cides with the Celtic Border, p. 13, and thence to the sea by 
"Wexford, and then by the sea to Wales. 

Wales. The n. b. coincides with the CB. through Pm., and Gin., 
and thence passing by sea again enters England. 

England. The line passes by the reverted ur line 3, from the 
Bristol Channel across England to the south bank of the Thames, 
and n. of Ke. and Sheppy to the sea. 

Area. All of England and its islands s. of this boundary, except 
the Channel Islands, where Norman French is still spoken. 

Character. The one ancient character which runs more or less 
persistently through the modern S. div. is the reverted (n)or retracted 
(r,), the parent of the point-rise or untrilled (r ) or vocal (B), which 
still permeates received speech. In north Germany it is replaced 
by the laryngal (T) and the uvular (r). But I believe that the reverted 
(R) is the true ancient form. The peculiar hollowness and roughness 
of effect, which once heard is easily recognised, is due to the hollow 
formed by turning the tip of the tongue up and back so as to point 
down the throat, and oppose the under (instead of the upper) surface 
of the tip to the hard palate. This (R) may or may not be trilled. 
The trilled form has not been generally recognised, but is quite pos- 
sible. But the untrilled form (R O ), for which here for convenience 
(R) alone will be generally written, is most characteristic, and seems 
to blend in a singular manner with the preceding vowel, altering 
its quality and rendering it difficult to be recognised, almost to the 
same extent as in nasalisation. The long rough untrilled voice 
form here written (SR) for greater intelligibility is probably nothing 
but the prolonged voiced consonant itself ('K O ') Naturally when 

(t, d, 1, n) follow (R), they are also reverted, as (ERT URD, 
hurt, heard, earned, girl, for the alteration of the position of the 
tongue would otherwise be extremely inconvenient. I feel that 
reverted (T, D, R, L, N) are the regular old Ws. forms whence have 
descended our peculiar English " coronal" (t, d, r, 1, n) as dis- 
tinguished from the continental " dental" or rather "alveolar" 
(t, d, v r, I, n). The Indians always represent our sounds by their 
"cerebrals" (suprd Part IV. p. 1096, col. 1). It is evident that 
the English sounds are merely imperfect utterances of the reverted. 
This reversion of (R) prevails still over the whole S. div. but the 
older main characters, as shewn in D. 4, all of which were probably 
characteristic of the whole division, fade out gradually to the e. of 
D. 4, and become complicated with other characters to the w. 
The reader is referred then to D. 4 for an account of the full 
characteristics of S. div. 

[ 1455 ] 



[D 1, 2, 3. 

D 1, 2, 3 = OS. or Celtic Southern, 

That is, the Southern forms of English on Celtic territory, con- 
stituting a group by themselves. They occupy the portions of 
Ireland and Wales to the s. of the CB. 

During the xnth century parties of Englishmen migrated 
evidently from Ws. regions, but under Norman guidance, and took 
possession of three peninsulas previously occupied by Celts, 1 ) the 
extreme se. of Wx. in Ireland, 2) the extreme sw. of Pm., 3) 
Gowerland in Gm. Tradition says that, at least in Pm., they were 
accompanied or reinforced by Flemings who had been driven out 
of the Low Countries by floods. 1 The people of Wx. believe that 
of the little band of 140 knights and 300 infantry, who came there 
with Strongbow in 1164, the infantry were recruited from the 
Flemings in Pm. and Gm. 2 But in the xiith century the dis- 
tinction between Flemish and Ws. must have been slight, and the 
"Ws. element must have predominated, for Higden in the xivth 
century finds the people speaking " good enough Saxon." At the 
present day Wx. presents no peculiarity, although a century ago, 
it was truly S. English. But Pm. and Gm. still possess remnants of 
the old forms. It is notorious that emigrants preserve the traditions 
of the old speech longer than the old country. In this case each 
settlement was surrounded by speakers of an unintelligible language. 
Hence the settlers scattered over a small extent of country were 
necessarily in constant communication, undiverted by other habits 
of speech. Consequently they preserved the old language with 
only natural changes. I regard these districts then as presenting 
remnants of a very old dialectal form, and hence place them first. 
But, as will be presently seen, they are now so worn away that 
their relation to S. cannot be properly felt unless D 4 be studied first. 

1 1. William of Malmesbury, 1095- 
1143, " Gesta regum anglorum," ed. 
T. Duffus Hardy, Hist. Soc. ed. 1840. 
Lib. iv. _ 311, p. 493, A.D. 1091, 
" Flandritis in patria illorum [i.e. of 
the Welsh] collocatis." Lib. v. 401, 
p. 628, " Flandrenses omnes Angliae 
accolas eo traduxit." 

2. Ranulph Higden (d. 1367), "De 
rebus Britannicis et Hibernicis, ed. 
Th. Gale, Oxford, 1691, p. 210, 1. 
" Flandrenses ... ad occidentalem 
Wallise partem apud Hauerford sunt 

translati Flandrenses, . . dimissa 

jam barbaria, Saxonice satis prolo- 
quuntur," or as Trevisa translates, 
" speketh Saxonlych ynow." 

For the three next citations I am 

indebted to Herbert Jenner, Esq., 
F.S.A., of the British Museum. 

3. Geraldus Cambrensis, b. 1147, in 
Pm., ' Itinerarium Cambriae,' lib. i. 
ch. xi. de Haverfordia et Ros : " gens 
hsec originem a Flandria ducens." 

4. ' Brut y Ty wysogion ' (under year 
1105, translation sent by Mr. Jenner), 
"that nation seized the whole cantred 
[? can tref = hundred] of Rhos . . . and 
was derived from Fflandrys." 

5. ' Annales Cambrise ' [under date 
1107, Florence of Worcester makes it 
1111], " Flandrenses ad Ros venerunt." 

2 The Very Rev. C.W.Russell, D.D., 
paper read at the Dublin meeting of the 
British Association, 1857. Dr. R. does 
not give his authorities. 

[ 1456 ] 


D l = w.CS = western Celtic Southern. 

Boundary. The CB. in Ireland and the sea on the se.Wx. 

Area. The baronies of Bargy on the w. and Forth on the e. in 
the se. corner of Wx., Ireland. 

Sources of Information. All that is known of the dial, as it once 
existed is contained in "A Glossary with some Pieces of Verse of 
the Old Dialect of the English Colony in the baronies of Forth and 
Bargy, County of Wexford, Ireland, formerly collected by Jacob 
Poole, of Growtown, Taghmon [9 w.Wexford in the adjoining 
barony], County of Wexford, and now edited, with some Intro- 
ductory Observations, Additions from various sources, and Notes 
by William Barnes, B.D., author of a Grammar of the Dorsetshire 
Dialect," London, J. Russell Smith, 1867, pp. 139. With which com- 
pare the older paper of Sir J. A. Picton, F.S.A., "Baronies of Forth 
and Bargey, County of Wexford, Ireland : an Inquiry into the Origin 
and Philological Relations of the Antique Dialect formerly spoken 
in this district ; read before the Literary and Philosophical Society 
of Liverpool, 1 866." This gives much additional information, but the 
subject is not looked at phonetically. Though the dialect is ancient, 
we meet with it in a modern form, affected by Celtic influences. 
The orthography is modern, and the words were written from dicta- 
tion evidently by persons unaccustomed to a systematic representation 
of sound, and like all such, not thinking it necessary, or not being able 
to explain the orthography they used. Hence many inconsistencies 
and probably double uses. Dr. Yallancey published his paper, 
reprinted by Mr. Barnes, in Mem. Irish Acad. 27 Dec, 1788. Mr. 
Poole, whose glossary is the foundation of Mr. Barnes's book, col- 
lected his words in 1823-4. Mr. Edmund Hore, author of the 
Forth and Bargy address to Lord Mulgrave in 1860, was of this 
century, and kindly wrote a letter to a friend of his for me on 
5th Oct., 1873, shewing by numerous examples that the old pron. 
had died out. " The Barony Forth dialect," says he, "was dying 
fast at the close of last century. It was in extremis by 1825, and 
in the present year, 1873, I am confident that there are not half a 
dozen young persons of and under 25 years, who understand a 
sentence of it. I have scarcely met one who did not laugh, and admit 
his ignorance of it. I was born in 1801, and my schoolmates never 
used a word of it between each other, except when in want of one 
to convey their meaning. They learned it, however, as children 
do, from their seniors, spoke it, with a mixture, to them, and hence 
it became more weakly by degrees, and would have expired in a 
shorter time, only that it was the language of the illiterate alone." 
I felt therefore that it was useless searching further among the 
people. I was unable to hear Mr. Hore read, and he was apparently 
unable to make his pronunciation clear by writing, saying to his 
correspondent Mr. Walsh, "I have not sufficient confidence in 
myself to finish the task " of writing the pron. of a Iw. which I had 
sent him, "and therefore leave you to do the Glossic." This was 

[ 1457 ] 



tantalising, for he adds: "A stranger, or more correctly a person 
who has not heard the dialect from the lips of an old Forthian, has 
only such knowledge of its pronunciation as Moderns have of the 
ancient pronunciation of the Dead Languages. A stranger reading it 
after the manner of English is as near the true sounds as he would be 
in reading French with the English sounds. The letter A had in- 
variably the sound of A in the English word father." To this he 
added in the preface to the Address (Barnes, p. 1 1 3), " Double ee sounds 
like e in me ; and in most words of two syllables the long accent is 
placed on the last," and also directed the reader to speak slowly. 

Under these circumstances we have to divine the pron. from the habits of 
different persons in writing dialects, of which I have had a great and unsatisfactory 
experience, and I have by no means felt certainty in phonetically rendering the 
isolated words and short extracts which follow. Thus a, e, i, o, u are assumed as 
(a, e, i, o, u), not distinguishing (e, E) or (o, o, o). But this is uncertain, as 
persons constantly write u for (u, a), as we do in dull, bull, without any indication 
of the change. In Pm., however, it seems certain that (u) is still occasionally 
heard. For digraphs I take ee, oo, aw = (ii, uu, AA) . I am not so sure of au ; it 
may have been used of (as) or (era). As for ie, it seems to have been sometimes 
(ai) and sometimes (ii). But aa, oa, ea are the greatest stumbling-blocks. 
Most dialect writers use them for (eee, OOB, ire) or some such forms. - Here, how- 
ever, I have generally taken (aa, oo, ee) as the sounds, not distinguishing (oo, oo) 
or (ee, ee) even when long, as all is utterly conjectural. There may have been 
two diphthongs (ao'i, a'i), but they are hopelessly confused by the writer, yet ay, 
ai, aay, aai, were almost certainly (ai, aai), but for safety I use unanalysed (a'i). 
As to ow, I use unanalysed (a'u) as a general expression, though I think (aa'u, a'u, 
a'u) at least likely. But ou often quite puzzles me. It may be (613, a, u, u, au). 
For the consonants I assume r to be (R), because the dialect is Southern, and dr 
is used for thr, but it may have become fully (r) under Celtic influence, centuries 
ago. The th, dh seem to be occasionally (th, dh), but also (tiq, dnr) or (th, fob), 
and dh final was perhaps (dtiq). Lh, rh were possibly (In, RH), but may have 
been (Ih, Rh), as these sounds seem still to occur in S. The postaspirates are 
probably all Celtic in origin, being frequent all over Ireland. The / when 
replacing (wh) may have been a strong (wh) misheard, but as (f) occurs in 
Aberdeenshire, probably under Celtic influence, it must be accepted ; fh may be 
simply an exaggerated or postaspirated /. The ah I attribute to the scribal 
habits of the writer. I cannot think (kh) occurred even 100 years ago. Mr. 
Barnes unfortunately frequently "regulated" the spelling of his authorities 
Vallancey's certainly, for I have compared the original, and Poole's probably so 
that we have not by any means the words as those who heard them tried to 
represent them, which greatly increases my difficulty, as I have to conjecture 
what is meant by Mr. Barnes's conjecture as to the meaning of the original 
spelling. But assuming these values of the letters, we find on going through 
Mr. Poole's. Vocabulary as printed and enlarged by Mr. Barnes, as decidedly 
characteristic : initial dr for thr implying (DR) or reverted (R) ; initial z, v, zh, 
for s, f, sh, and ich (ttj) for the pronoun I; (a'i) in tail, main, brain, rain, 
twain, eight, they, (ii) for long I', Y', which is very old. All these (except 
the last) also characterise D 4, so that the S. character of D 1 is established. The 
particulars are put in the form of a cwl. below, p. 30. 


1. Extract from Yallancey's A Tola Zong (1) (a Joo'la zoq) 
Fade teil thee (2) fartoo zo hachee (3) ? 
"Well, gosp, c'hull be zeid (4) ; mot thee fartoo, an fade (5) 
Ha deight ouz var gabble (6), tell ee zin go f glade (7) ? 
Ch'am a stouk, an a donel ; (8) wou'll leigh out ee dey (9) 
Th' valler w' speen here (10), th' lass ee chourch-hey (11). 
[ 1458 ] 


Conjectural pronunciation. 

fadt aid dhi faRtuir zo atjir ? 
wel, gosp, tjBl bi zaid ; mot dhi faR'tu ? im fadt ? 
ha diit uz vaR gab'l, tel i zm goo te gladt. 
tjam o sto^k im 13 duirnel ; WOB! lii aut i dai ; 
dhi3 val-BR WE spiin hiiR, dh' las i tjaRtj hai. 


Translation and Commentary. (1). 
An old song. Old, commonly loses its 
d, and becomes (oo\). Then a fractural 
(j) is prefixed, forming (jool), which 
form occurs in the Bride 1 s Portion 
(Barnes, p. 102, 1. 2). The additional 
a making (soo-Ve), is perhaps solely due 
to the following z, before which the I 
was lengthened by the speaker, and then 
the (B) was inserted by the literariser. 

(2). What ailsthee? I consider the 
original fade teil, to be an error for 
fadt eil, the reporter, Dr. Yallancey, 
1788, havingbeen misled by the running 
on of a t after fad to the following 
vowel. The fad for what, may be also 
a mistake of the transcriber. Although 
(f ) for (wh) occurs in Aberdeenshire, it 
is very likely that Dr. Vallancey may 
have misheard (wh) as (f ) . The rest of 
the stanza contains many un-English 
words, and is omitted with the exception 
of the last words. 

(3). Whereto (i.e. wherefore) so agee ? 
The fartoo is evidently where- to on the 
analogy of fadt for what. Agee out 
of sorts, "ill-tempered." Sir JAP. 
suggests Old French hachee, which 
Roquefort translates "peine, fatigue, 
penitence," supposing that Old French 
formed part of the language of the 
original settlers, adducing core heart 
fr. coeur, benisons blessings, meinies 
wives and families fr. mesnie, poustee 
power fr. poste [? posteis " un grand 
seigneur, un homme puissant"], mire 
wonder fr. mirer, avanet arrived fr. 
avenir [?] . Whence hachee really comes 
is unknown, and I am far from sug- 
gesting that it is the same word as agee, 
which translates it so well. 

(4). Well, gossip, it shall be said. I 
take ei here to represent (a'i). 

(5). But thy wherefore and what. 
Mot is translated by but in Dr. V.'s 
glossary, but he translates this passage 
as ' ' you ask what ails me and for what." 

(6). Have dight (or prepared) us for 
gabble. I doubt whether ah was a 
guttural in Dr. V.'s time. The pro- 
nunciation of ouz (as Dr. V. writes, Mr. 
Barnes has ouse) is conjectural. Observe 
for with southern v- in var. 

(7). til the sun go to valley. The zin 
is th or ough D evonshire . Glade is trans- 
lated valley by Mr. Hore in the address 
to Lord Mulgrave, Icel. glaftr, bright 
shining. You see the sun set through 
an opening only. 

(8) . / am a stock and a fool. Cham = 
ich-am, is a regular old Southern form. 
Stouk I suppose to have been meant 
for sto-uck, that is (storak), a stock or 
blockhead, and donel is unknown. Sir 
JAP. suggests Irish dona, a poor un- 
fortunate fellow. Dr. V. translates 
dunce, and Sir JAP. a simpleton. 

(9). Will lie (i.e. idle) out the day. 
The pronunciation of wou'll is quite 
doubtful. I take it for wol, that is, will. 
Sir JAP. considers it w'oul we will. 
Leigh is translated "idle " by Dr. V. 
Mr. B. compares "to lake" or play, 
ags. lacan, but this would hardly give 
anything written high. Dr. V. trans- 
lates "idle." Poole's glossary has leeigh 
to laugh, with which it may be related. 
The use of ee f or " the " is regular. Dey 
gives the Southern pronunciation (da'i). 

(10). Thelongerwespendhere. Valler 
may havebeen an error f or vuller = fuller. 
Dr. V. translates " more, longer in 
time." Sir JAP. suggests value. Speen 
for "spend" is like een for "end." 

(11). The less in church-hay . Hay 
an inclosure, with regular pronunciation. 
Sir JAP. says, "The meaning of this 
is, I suppose, that the churchyard on 
Sundays and holidays being the great 
mart for gossip, the time in telling the 
story now would be so much saved at 
the Sunday meeting." 

The rest of the text is so difficult, and 
evidently corrupt, that it is passed over. 

[ 1459 ] 




2. Casteale Cudde's Lamentation 
for loss o' his Cuck at vas 
ee-took be a vox. 

Eecited by Tobias Butler, 1823. 



Ye nypores aul, come hark to mee, 
Faade ee-happen'd me lautest 

Gooude Yreedie, 
Mee cuck was liveen michty 


Dhicka die fan ich want to a 

Horo! mee cuck is ee-go (foV), 
Neen chick es hav hea ee-left 


To fho shall ich maake mee 
redress ? 

As ich waant draugh Bloomere's 


Ich zide [a] vethers o' mee cuck, 
Aar was nodhing ee-left mot a 


"Which maate mee hearth as coale 
as leed. 

'Cham afear'd ich mosth cress a 


And lea a pariesh o Kilmannan, 
Mee pigges, mee geearthes, nor 

nodhing threeve, 
Lickweese mee been deeth in aar 



Zimaan Haay is a wicked man, 
Hea pryet ich mought na ha 

chicke or hen, 
Ar aany noor dhing at woode 

comfoort mee, 
Fan ich aam in this miseree. 


Mizluck mye Ihygt on Tarn 

Hea zed mee cuck view in a aare. 

kasteeif 1 ) kudz ( 2 ) laments 'shan 
foE los o hiz kwk, nt WBZ i- 
twk bi B voks( 3 ). 

(Barnes, pp. 102 to 106.) 


jina / ipoEis( 4 )aa'Bl( 5 ),kuumhaaEk 

te mii, 
fadt i-hap'nd mi laa'test guu^d 

VEiidir, ( 6 ) 

mi kwk WEZ b'virn miiti WE!, 
dhik-e( 7 ) da'i fan fltj want tu 
mEl( 8 ). 

hoo BOO ! mi kuk iz i-goo ! (he's) 
niin tje'kiz hov hee ( : ) i-lEft 

vaadheales ( 7 ), 
tu foo ( 9 ) sh^l itj mak mi 

az i'tjwantDEa'u( n ) :bluumee'Ees 

itj zid( 12 ) [i] vedh*8Ez( 7 ) B mi 

&E( 13 ) WBZ nadh'q( 7 ) i-lef mot 

B hiid C 1 ), 
wh*tj mat mi hast];( u ) ^z kool 

9zliid( 15 ). 

tjam ofii'Ed *tj most]; kses B 

ishanan* ( 16 ), 

en lee 13 pasi-sh B :k'lmanan* ( 17 ) 
mi p'g'^s, mi gii^RTHps, noE 

nadh^'q ( 7 ) DHRUV ( 18 ), 
Kkwii'z mi biin diith in e's 

hiiv ( 19 ). 


rziman* :ha'i iz B wk*ed man, 
hee pEa'i'et etj mo^t n^ ha tjik 

OE hEn (), 
BE ani nuuE ( 20 ) dhiq ( 7 ) ^t wwd 

komfuu-Et mii, 
fan( 21 ) 'tj am m dhe's mezeEir. 

m^zluk ma'i lnait( 22 ) on :tom 

hee za'id mi kuk vliu in B ee^E( 23 ). 

[ 1460 ] 





Lhaung life to Misteare Reed- 
forth an his vamilee, 

Lhaung mye thye live in pros- 
peritee ; 

He zide hea'de help me udh o' 

To hint dhicke cursed vox vrom 
Bloomere's Ihoan. 

:mistee'R :ReedfoRth 
BH iz vamilii- ( 24 ), 

ma'i dha'i liiv in pros- 
peRitii- ; 
hee zaid hee-d help mi udn ) -B) 

hoon t 25 ) 

tu hmt dhk kaRsed voks vRom 
:hluumee-Ris lHoon( 26 ). 


1. Casteale, Castle. The pronuncia- 
tion (kastee'l) is doubtful. It is im- 
possible to say that Mr. Poole would 
have written consistently, or what 
phonetic analogies would strike an 
Irishman 60 years ago. The ea is 
now, and was then, generally (ee) or 
(ee) in Ireland. Mr. P., like other 
dialect writers, often uses it I think for 
(ire), but probably he used it in both 
senses, for few dialect writers are 
consistent. This is stated to be a nick- 

2. Patrick Codd is given as the 
man's real name. 

3. ' Cock that was i-taken by a 

4. ' Neighbours,' the (p) occurs in 
other districts. 

5. As 'aul' could hardly have been 
used for the ordinary pronunciation of 
' all,' I have assumed it to be a-ul, 
which agrees with Southern usage. 

6. 'what happened [to] me last 
Friday.' The rhyme requires (dii), 
but (da'i) would have been expected ; 
see cwl. p. 30, No. 161. 

7. th, dh in F. and B. writing 
generally mean (tHj, dn} or postaspi- 
rated t, d. But here and there (dh) is 
a dialectal change from (th). I think 
dh means to imply (dh), or at least its 
Celtic substitute (Dh). 

8. Written mile, where the last letter 
seems to have been misread for I, as 
many writers make II resemble le. In 
Poole' s glossary mele, mell occur for 
flour, and Mr. Barnes inserted mile 
from this passage. 

9. That is (whoo) for whom. 

10. "Make my redress," instead of 
"apply for" or "go for." Tobias 
Butler, who recited this in 1823, may 
have been in error. The verse is 
throughout so faulty that this was 
probably often the case. 

11. Interpreting au as (a'u), but this 

is quite uncertain, drough may have 
been written, and meant merely for 
(DRUU), as I have had sent to me many 
times by informants. 

12. zide would be ' said,' as given in 
the glossary, hence this must be an 
error for zede=see'd, that is, saw. 

13. For (dhe'n), a regular Forth 

14. Here I suppose the -th indicated 
only a strong final flatus, which is 
written as (j). 

15. 'There was nothing i-left but 
the head, which made my heart as cold 
as lead.' In cold the d is omitted as 
in yola old. In this example the instead 
of (i) often becomes (B). 

16. 'I am afraid I must cross the 
Shannon.' I feel doubtful about the 
pron. of (kres) and (Shanan-). 

17. 'And leave the parish of Kil- 
mannan.' Kilmannan is a parish in 
Bargy (6 sw. Wexford). 

18. ' My pigs, my goats, nor nothing 
thrive.' The insertion of r in geearthes 
for ' goats ' may be right, for such inser- 
tions occur in w.Sm. But on the other 
hand it may be entirely due to the 
transcriber. In threeve, th must be an 
error for d or dh, as the thr- regularly 
becomes (DR-) or (DHR-). 

19. * Likewise my bees die in their 
hive.' Observe (Izkwii-z, hiiv), (biin) 
as a plural in n and (diith) as the Ws. 
verbal plural in -eth. 

20. ' He prayed I might not have 
chick or hen or any other thing.' 
Observe (pnai'et) ending in t. Compare 
maate for made in stanza 2. Observe 
(nuuBB.) for another (sometimes spelled 
anoor, and then another for other. 

21. Fan of course represents (whan 
when) . 

22. I have taken Ih to be a post- 
aspirated I rather than the voiceless (Ih). 

23. ' He said my cock flew in the air.' 
Here zed is apparently an error for zide, 

[ 1461 ] 




just as zide was miswritten before for 
zede, see note 12. The last two lines 
of this stanza are missing in Barnes, 
p. 102. 

24. The (v-) in this Latin word is 
doubtful, see introduction to D 4. 

25. ' Out of hand.' Here several 
things are uncertain, the pronunciation 

of M in (udh), the effect of (dn) which 
can only be shewn on the following 
vowel, and the sound of hoan, which 
I assume here to be (hoon) and not 
(hoen), just as in V&aung I took au 

tO = (AA). 

26. " To 'hunt this cursed fox from 
Bloomer's land." 


Collected from the glossary and specimens in Mr. Barnes's book. The spelling 
there used is placed first in Italics, and then the conjectured pron. in pal. 
Observations are included in [ ]. The numbers refer to the cwl. on p. 15*. 


A- 4 taake tak. 5 maake mak. 6 maate madt. 14 dra DRaa. 18 caahe kak. 
19 taale tal. 21 naame nam naam. gaam gaume gam [game]. glade glad 
[glade, valley]. [In all these words I feel that aa, au may have meant (a^, ee). ] 
A: 40 khime kHja'im. 43 hoan hoon. 44 loan loon. 53 coan koon. 57 ess es. 
A: or 0: 58 vram vRam. 61 amang -ema-q. A'- 67 goan go^n [going]. 
72 fho fiqoo. 73 zo zoo sae zoo zuu see [the last form is anomalous]. 82 oancs 
6e - nes. 86 oates 6-ets. 94 croowe kauu [?]. 95 drowe draugh DROO. A': 

laady laadi [lady]. 108 doaugh dhoaugh dough doo. 115 hime hyme ha'im. 
117 oan oon. 118 bane baan. 124 sthoan stiqoon. 

J&- aake aak [ache]. 138 vather vaadh-eR. 141 niel na'i'l. 141 tyel 
ta'i'l. 144 agyne ega'in. 146 mhyne nma'in [main, very]. 147 bryne bRa'iu 
[the y spelling in these last four words seems to indicate (a'i) with certainty]. 
152 waudher wadntjR. JE: 155 detch dEtj. bhlock bnlok [black]. 
156 glaud glad. 161 die dey daaily da'i da'ili. 165 zide, za'id. swaa^smaal 
[small]. 179 faade fadt. JE'- leache leetj [physician from Stanyhurst 
1577, misprinted leech in glossary]. 187 laave lea leev lee. 194 aany am. 

erroane eROO'n [errand]. 200 whet wheet. .33': 211 gray grey gRaV. 

meale meel [a meal]. 217 earch CCRTJ [ever-each, every]. 218 zheep zhiip. 
223 aar thaare aaR dhaaR. 224 far faR. 


E- 231 ee i [and] a U [compare omitted consonant in the D 40]. 238 hey hye 
241 rhyne Rha'in. 242 twine twy twa'in twai. 245 mele mell mcel [meal, 

flour]. brimel bRimel [bramble]. 251 maate meet. vether vedhsR [feather]. 
E: 260 laaye lai. 262 wye wyse wa'i wa'iz. 263 awye -ewa'i. 266 waal 
wal. dell del [delve]. 279 waant weent [?]. speen spiin [spend]. zeen 
ziin [to send]. een iin [an end]. E'- 296 deleave belee-v. 301 heereen 
heireen hiiRii-n ha'iRii-n [hearing, the second form is still heard in D 4, but is 
dying out]. E': 305 heegh hii. 

EA: 324 ayght a'it. ayghteen a'itii-n. 326 yoleyola jool joo'li3. 328 cole 
khoal kiqool. 330 houle ha'ul [?]. 346 yeat jEet Jitjt [?]. EA'- 347 haade 
had. 348 een iin [eyes]. EA': 360<ferfdiid. 351fe*liid. 352 reed aiid. 
353^ breed baud. 358 neeghe nil. 359 nypores na'iporis. reem rhyme Riim 
Rha'im [cream]. ayenst BJenst. Ihoicse lhause lowse loos la'us [? loose]. 

eeth eefe iith iif [easy]. 

El- 373 iA^dha'i. 374 naay na'i. El: 379 AaatJha'il. 380 aameem 
[(am, urn) ?]. 

EO: 388 mulke malk [or? (m'Lk) see D 10]. larrm baRm [barm=yeast]. 

hearth heeRtiq [heart]. 406 eart eard CCRT CCRD. EO'- 409 been biin 
[bees]. fieen fliin [flies, Mr. Barnes says 'fleas,' but that is impossible]. 
411 dhree dHRii. 412 shoo shuu. EO': 436 drue dnRuu [? (tHRau)l. 
EY- 438 dee dii. EY: 439 thrist tuatst. 

_ I- 443 vreedie VRiidii- [see p. 29, note 6]. I: 452 ich t'tj [and in compo- 
sition cha cham chas chood choote chull = I have, am, was, would, wot, will]. 
455 lee Hi [hence to idle, and then spelled leigh], michty mii'ti. deight 

[ 1462 ] 


diit. 458 neeght nieght niit na'it. 460 waaight wait. 470 aam e'm [see 380]. 
475 weend wyeene wiind wa'in [? Vallancey gives weend only]. 480 dhing dheq 
[(dmq)?]. zhip zhip [ship]. dhurth dH8RTj [dirt]. I'- 492 zeide 
zeed [taking ei as a mistake for ee]. 493 dhreeve dHRiiv. 494 deem diim. 
peepeare piipee'R [piper]. 496 eeren mien. I': 502 veeve viiv. hyehtii 
[hay, and also 238J. 510 my ma'i. leen Kin [line]. 515 veezer viiz^R [? 
(wii'ZBR), otherwise this is the only case where w=v], 

0- 518 buthee bodhee bothige butiqii- boditir. 0: 531 doughtere da'utee-R. 

cawl kAAl [? (kool) a colt']. 552 coorn kuuRN. 553 hoorn huuRN. 0'- 
555 shoon shuun pi. 564 zoon zuun. 565 nize niz naiz mz. 566 anoor anuua 
[another]. 0': 571 gooude goouness guued guuenes. 572 blooed bluuud. 
579 eenew iniu\ 597 zoot zuut. 

U- 599 aboo ubuu. 603 coome kuura. 605 zin zm [common in D 11]. 
606 dher dnaR. U: 609 vatter [? misprint for vuller} valeR, ? vwleR. 612 
zim zzm. 616 greoune gRea'un. 629 zm zin. U'- 640 keow kea'u. 648 oor 
UUR. 650 about abut Bbea'ut [?]. 

U': 658 deown dea'un. 662 ouse ouz uz ? 663 heouse hea'us. 667 outh udh 
titf dn, udho sdiOu [out of]. 671 meouth mea'uth. 

Y heeve hiiv [hive]. ree Rii [rye]. 679 chourch tjaRtj [? tjwRtj]. 

T: 684 burge\>9K&$. hele hel [? a hill] . 690 keene kiin. 701 vurst vaRst. 
Y'- keen kiin [kine, from "Ws. cy' plural of 240]. 705 skee skii. 

theene tine tiqiin [tine]. Y': breede bRiid [bride]. 


A. kaayle ka'il [kail]. E. lear leeR [empty]. skeine skyne 
skain [skein]. 0. poul pa'ul [poll of the head]. mot mot [but], 
U. unket a'qket [unkid]. 


A-- 810 faace fauce fas. 812 laace las. 813 bawcoon bakrnrn. pyle 
pa'il [... paele, a pail]. plaague plag [plague]. 820 gaaye gai. 827 aager 
eegBH. gryne gRa'in [grain]. 835 raaison Ra'izoo-n. 

E 885 veree veRii'. foyer fa'iR [a fair']. 890 beasthes beestnps. 
! and Y-- pee pii [a mag-pie]. 900 pry pRa'i. gimlie djtmli 

0-- faaighe fythe fa'i fa'ith. geint dja'int [joint]. 925 vice vais. 
937^c^kuk. 947 bile ba'il. 956 kiver kiYBR. U-- 960 kie ka'i. 
wa'it [wait] 

D 2 = m.CS. = mid Celtic Southern. 

Boundary. The CB. in Pm. and the coast sw. of it. 
Area. The two peninsulas to the sw. of Pm., formerly known 
as " Little England beyond Wales." 

Authorities. See Alphabetical County List under Pm., Ehos and Daugleddy, 
information from Rev. J. Tombs, Mr. Elworthy, Mr. E. L. Jones, Mr. W. 
Spurrell, and Archdeacon Edmondes. 

Character. The S. reverted (R) according to Mr. Elworthy, who says the dial, 
is " most like a book version of w.Sm.," see D 10, and thinks he heard some (yO, 
though Eev. J. Tombs says there is nothing like it there. Mr. Tombs also thinks 
the r is "not materially different from the Welsh r," fully trilled (r), and that 
Pm. speech is very different from a Sm. or n.Dv. But initial dr- accepted by 
Mr. Tombs in *Aree, trough, throw, Mreaten, implies (DR-). The (a'i) for 
, EG, initial (z-) for (s-), though only preserved among old speakers,^ and 
haps (a'i) for I', the use of (iin) for him, and of (dhiiez) a 

of (ei) perhaps (a'i) for I', the use of (iin) for him, and of (dhiiez) as one of the 
forms of this, the (e-) before the past participle, are all of them S. forms. The 

[ 1463 ] 


only words I have heard are 3 or 4 pron. by Mr. Elworthy. Hence I give the 
original spelling in the following cwl. The indications respecting the value of 
short U have been most diverse. It will be seen by the dt. furnished by Mr. 
Spurrell, from dictation of a Castle Martin man. that short U is invariably (u) or 
(u). Mr. E. L. Jones says it is " never " like the La. (u^, but "always " as u in 
rec. bwck (a, a). As Zoonday occurs in a subsequent specimen, I endeavoured to 
clear up the matter, without much success. Mr. Tombs gave (9, a) in love, 
come, swmmer, son, bwtter, wgly, some, drwnk, mider, tongue, hunger, Swnday, 
nun, swn, but allowed (u, u) in fall, cwp, dwst. Archdeacon Edmondes, of 
Warren, close to Castle Martin, says that a girl in his service speaks of " carr'ing 
things oop, taking in loonch" but her parents come from Narberth. Under these 
circumstances it seems that (it) still exists, but is not general. It is of course a 
mark of antiquity, and for this reason I assume it in the older form of D 1. 
There is no trace of it in D 3. For D 4 see the s. soom line 2, p. 16. Mr. Tombs 
or else Arch. Edmondes admits v for / in /air, /arm, /ast, /eed, /iddle, /our, 
/ox, /lail, from, /urrow ; (vseqk) for spark is known to Mr. Thomas ; and they 
admit 2 for s in say, self, seven, sick, six, soon, son, -Sunday, and lastly that the/ 
and s remain in /ace, /ail, /all v.,/alse,/ar, /at,/ault, /riend, not very regularly; 
and in sad, sand, saw, song, so, such, sweet, swallow, swine, still less regularly. 
As to ow, Mr. Tombs does not admit (eu), but Archd. Edmondes hears caoo (kew, 


T. written in io. by Rev. J. Tombs, Rector of Burton, Pm., and pal. conjecturally 

by AJE. 
S. written in a phonetic alphabet by Mr. Spurrell from the diet, of Mr. and Mrs. 

Thomas, Castlemartin, Pm. 

(1) T. zoo ei zaY, ba'uriiz, JE zii nia'w -BZ eV bi ReYt i3ba'ut -dat 
S. zoo QI zaa*', baYz, JOB zii neu aez eOm 'reit aeba'ut dhaet 

T. b'd'l maid kEnnm vRom dhi3 [skuul] 

S. b'd'l [liid'l] maaid kwmm [gwmm] vrom dhee skuul [skuuld] 

T. a'ut dheeR. 
S. eut dheer. 

(2) T. shii^z a")gwam dia'toi dh^ Rhoo^d dheeR, DRia'w dh-e Rid 
S. shii'lz as gwaam dewn dlia3 r dosed dheer, dkru dliae r*d 

T. gee't pmi dins Kft han zeid ^ dh^ waez. 

S. gaat pon dhae lift liaend [ha3n ?] zeid o dh83 waa?'. 

(3) T. shuuR ^nou dhi3 tje/1 IIBV ^-gon sTRa^t [ap t-e] dh^ 
S. shuur eneu dh83 tjeil[-d] ha3v 83 gon straa^'t wp ta3 dhaa 

T. duuR u dhB RAAq [ha'ws] 
S. duur ov dhae roq heus 

(4) T. weeR (waaR) shi ul 16*kl fern [dhat] DRaqkm diif (dff) 
S. weer shii ul leikb' fein dhast drwqk'n dVf 

T. SRiVlt Mra b dh-e nee^m v rtoruBs. 
S. skrwqk felae bei dhae neaem o itomass. 

[ 1464 ] 

D 2.] 



(5) T. [wi AA!] nAAz iin [VEB] WE!. 
S. wii dael TIAAZ iin vers wel. 

(6) T. [woont] dim AA! [tjap sunn] lasx BB not te duuH 
S. wwnt dhi aaul tjaep suun laarn ar not tae duuH 

T. puinm dhq ! 

S. pmir 


(7) T. [>k !] been't [it] TEI'U ? 
S. luuk beent it tn'u ? 

Notes to T. version. "Words in [ ] 
were not filled in by Mr. T. and are 
supposed to be in (dialectal) rs. Mr. 
T.'s spelling may be seen in the cwl. 

1. So say. The initial (z) is heard 
only from old people. / be is more 
heard in the n. and I am in the s. of 
the district. right. The pron. (ei) is 
adopted from Mr. Jones, who says it is 
most like the Cockney a in fte, which 
sounded to the Tenby schoolchildren in 
Mr. Matthew Arnold's pron. like their 
own pr. oijight. boys now about. I 
have interpreted Mr. T.'s ou, ow, eow 
as (a'u, ia'u) using the unanalysed form. 
The triphthong (ia'u) possibly occurred 
in D 1. We find (eat*) in M. But 
Mr. Spurrell's version points to its 
meaning (eu}. from. I adopt (R) 
everywhere on Mr. Elworthy' s authority. 
Initial it is probably aspirated as in Mr. 
T.'s rho-ad. His dr for thr implies 
(DR), and perhaps tr would be (TR). 
But I leave (r) in Mr. Spurrell's 
phonetic writing. that (dat) is very 
peculiar. Its appearance and present 
gradual disappearance may be compared 
with D 9. That the should not be 
similarly affected is singular. little, 
(lid'l) is found elsewhere. maid, going 
(ai) in (maid, gwain) is regular S. 
from (vRom) is regular S., but the other 
forms from, throm, which Mr. T. has 
heard, seem to be foreignisms. 

4. where. I considered Mr. T.'s 
written wh to be an accident for w. 
He says, however, that h is " very well 
and correctly used generally speaking ; 
it is occasionally but rarely omitted 
where it should be heard ; but still 
seldomer inserted where it should not 
be ; these are, I think, faults of recent 

4. shrivelled, (shr-) seems to be a 
difficulty. In this word (sr-) is used, 
in others (she-r-), see shrub before 
543, and shrimp 756 in cwl. infra 
p. 35. 

5. we all know him (wi AA! UAAZ 
iin). " We is sometimes heard as the 
objective case, and us as the nomina- 
tive, but rarely ; and this usage has 
grown up within the last twenty -five 
years [dated Mar. '79] by the advent 
of English navvies into the district to 
form the railways ; many such have 
married and settled here, and the 
natives have partly followed their usage 
sometimes." The usage is common in 
Do. The form (UAAZ) for the pi. is 
common S. (iin), which Mr. T. writes 
ihn as in German, is the regular S. 
en (TO), from Ws. hine, the true ace., 
for which the dative him has been 
substituted in rs. 

6. thing (dhiq) is old. 

7. is not. I be is heard more in 
the n., lam in the s. of the district. 

2. Example given at the Swansea meeting of the Cambrian 
Archaeological Society, 1861 : 

"I'ze a gwaaing to zell zum vish to buy zum vlesh vor that 
blezzed day zoonday." 

This Mr. T. thinks "unmistakably Flemish." It is "unmistakably" S. But 
Pze, as thus written for / is, is the N. form, and is of course an error. There is a 

a cutting from a Carmarthen news- 
s so = saw, the distinction (AA, oo) 

possibility that it stands for ees be (iis bi). In 
paper I find I's regularly used for /, as "I' 

[ 1465 ] 

E.E. Pron. Part V. 


is heard with difficulty], I's tell, I's cud, I's hasn't, I's goin, I's did, I's 
isn't, I's does, I's has, I's propos, I's thinks, I's has, I's was," where Ps is 
simply an old S. (iis) = 1, and only in "I's goin" is the verb omitted. A man who 
left Narberth about 1864 told Mr. Spurrell he had heard (eiz thiqks) for I think. 
This is very doubtful. I cannot get any other confirmation of the use of such a 
form. Mr. E. Lloyd Jones, a Tenby man, never heard it. And oo in zoonday is 
also N. Perhaps, using (u) as in the dt. from Mr. Spurrell, we may read (iiz hi 
B)gwain te ZE! zum. vish te bao'i zwm vlEsh ver dhat blEzed dai zwnda'i) . 


Compiled from words furnished me from different quarters, distinguished by initials. 
Ed. From Archdeacon Edmondes of Warren (4 sw. Pembroke), in answer to 


El. From Mr. Elworthy after a visit to Tenby, communicated w. 
Ev. From Miss Evans's "Molly and Eichard" in Chambers' s Journal, quoted as 

Pm. in Eev. J. Tombs's lecture. Her spelling is put first in Italics and 

the pal. follows. 

J. From Mr. E. Lloyd Jones, native of Tenby. 
N. "Words from Narberth furnished by Mr. Spurrell of Carmarthen. 
T. From Eev. J. Tombs, rector of Burton (3 n.Pembroke). His own spelling is 

put first in Italics and the pal. follows. 
Th. Mr. and Mrs. Thomas of Castlemartin (5 wsw. Pembroke), obtained w. by 

Mr. Spurrell and written in his phonetic alphabet here transliterated. 


A- 21 T. naame neeum, Th. nea3m. A: 43 T. han* han. A: or 0: 
58 T. vrom rom throm from rom throm [but the speaker had "Welsh blood]. 
64 T. nzww^ rAAq Th. roq. A'- 67 T. agwaayin' ugw&in. 73 T. zo zoo [(z) used 
only by older people]. 92 T. we knaows wi UAAZ [see 98]. 98 Ev. knawed 
nAAd [? nood]. A': 104 T. rho-ad rhoo^d [Mr. T. does not acknowledge (R) ], 
Th. rooffid. 123 Ev. nawthin nAAthin. 

JE- 138 Ev./<?/i^rfeedhi3R,T.veedlrer. Ev.spaidsip aid [spade]. 141 Ed. 
nail. 142 Ed. snail. 143 Ed. tail. T. aahenvgen-. 146 Ed. main. 147 Ed. 
brain. 148 Ed. vair. 152 Th. wee-ter. M\ 160 Ed. dai. 161 Ev. to 
daay. 162 Ed. te dai. 164 Ed. m&i. 166 Ed. maid, T. maayd maid N. maid. 
177 T. dat dat [Mr. T. says, "d for th was a characteristic mark in 1860, fast 
disappearing"]. JE'- El. JEth [heath, as well as 405 hearth] JEM 
[Heathfield]. JE': 224 T. whair wharr weea war. 

E- 231 tha dhi?. E: 261 zay zai. Th. zaai [used only by older people], 
Ev. saay sai. 262 waey wai. 265 stray et strait. E'- 297 T. fellah fiah 
fEl-B fla [?]. EA: 326 T. awle ool, aawl. 332 Ev. tould too-eld? 335 
Th. doael. 346 T. ga-at geeut. EA'- El. JEfeR [heifer]. EA': 
352 T. rirfrid. 355 T. deef diff titt. dif. Ev. yasy jee-zi [easy]. EO: 
392 [not used]. 394 [not used]. 402 T. lame laRN [teach]. 405 El. JEth 
[also used for heath, see under JE'-]. EO': 427 bairit beent [be not, for is 
not\ 428 T. zee zii [z used only by old people]. 436 trew triu [rhymes to 

I- 447 hururhumen. yis jis [yes]. I: 452 J. Th. ei. 459 J. Th. 
rite reit. 469 ooJ ul. 470 T. ihn in iin [?]. 477 

477 T.Jine' fa'in. 480 T. 

dhiq [" flat th as in then among old people ] 484 El. dhiiez [a distinct form of 
this]. I'- 492 T. zide zeid [z used only by old people]. 

0- - N shwv'l [shovel]. 0: - T. shurrub shwab [shrub]. 543 T. 
'pan pen. 0'- 560 Th. skuul skuuld. 0': 578 Ev. plough pliu. 579 
enaf enou [sing, and pi.] 

U- 603 T. cummin' kQm- in, kwmin. 606 T. doore duuR. IT: 613 Th. 
drwqk'n. skruqk [skrunk]. 632 Th. wp. 633 Ed. kup. 634 T. dreow 
DRIOU, Ev. throw thra'u, ? DRa'u ; Th. dhru. U'- 643 T. neow nia'u, Th. neu. 
U': 658 T. deown dia'un, Th. deun. 663 Th. hews. 667 T. out a'ut ? 

Y- 682 toddle lid'l. Y': 709 Th. va'ir. 

[ 1466 ] 


E. 749 T. lift lift. 

I. and Y. 756. T. shur-rimp shurrmp. 760 srivolet sriv'lt [often heard by 
Mr. Tombs, not known by Mr. Thomas]. 
0. 791 T. bouiese b6iz ba'ujiiz [?]. 


A-- 866 T. poour puuim. 

E T. Ed. crawtur krAAteR [creature]. 

Ev. jouin dja'u;in [join]. 

D 3 = e.CS. = eastern Celtic Southern. 

boundary. The Grin. CB. and the Bristol Channel. 
Area. The 17 En. speaking parishes of the peninsula of Gower- 
land, Gm., enumerated under Gm. CB. p. 130. 

Authorities. See Alphabetical County List, Gm. Gowerland. 

Characters. Reverted (R) inferred from (DR&U) through, (z) initial in place of 
(*), ('n) for him are all distinctly S. The dialect seems to have been greatly 
worn, as my informant, the Rev. J. D. Davies, alters the spelling of but few 
words in the dt. and says that the others are in rs. No specimen has been 
printed. Not having been able to find or obtain any complete specimen of the 
dialect, and Mr. Davies' s dt. being very defective, I merely add the words in the 
cwl. form. 


Containing the words supplied to me by Rev. J. D. Davies, giving his spelling 
first, followed by the conjectural pron. in pal. 


A'- 67 gwain gween [going]. 73 zo zoo. 

JE- 144 agen ^gE'n. 

E: 281 zay zai [possibly (zee)']. E'- 297 fellah MU. EA: 326<w^AAld. 
EA': 355 defe diif. EO: 392 [not used]. 394 [not used] EO': 427 
bean't beent [is not]. 428 ze zii. 

I- 447 er BR. I: 470 n 'n [after verbs]. I'- 492 zide zeid [?]. 

U- 606 dceur daR [probably, Mr. Davies says, like the French sceur (soeoer)]. 
U: 634 drough (DRU'W ?) [may be (DRUU)]. 

Y- 682?H1. 


A .. gracieuse graslms. 

E-. precieuse preshi^z. 

In the Philological Transactions for 1848-50, vol. 4, p. 222, is 
a list of 68 Gower words, given hy Rev. J. Collins, with no 
explanations of spelling. Of these the following are com m on words. 
I do not trust myself to give the pronunciation. 

Brandis (brandrith), iron stand for pot or kettle. Cammet (cammed), crooked. 
Eddish, wheat stubble. Hay, an inclosure attached to a dwelling. Main, strong, 
fine (but here said of growing crops). Nommet, noon -meat, luncheon. Plym, 
plump, full. Peert, lively, brisk. Quapp, to throb. Hat he, early. Meremouse, 
bat. Snead, handle of scythe. Songulls (songles), gleanings. 

[ 1467 ] 

36 THE MTD SOUTHERN. [D 3, 4, 5. 

The following are Southern or "Western : 

Caffie, entangled, Sm. Gloom, earthenware, Co. Clit, stiff, sticky. Dreshel, 
(drashel), a flail. Evil, a three -pronged fork. Fleet, exposed in situation, Sm. 
Flott (float), aftergrass, Dv. Foust, tumbled. Frithing, wattled fence, to frith 
a fence, Dv. Nesseltrip, small pig in a litter. Ovice (ovis), eaves of house, Dv. 
Planche, boarded floor, Do. Purty, to turn sulky. Quat, to press down or 
flatten, Do. Show-y, to clear (of weather), the verbal termination -y common. 
Soul, cheese, butter, etc., as eaten with bread. Slade, a vaDey, ground sloping to 
the sea. Sul (zul), a plough. Suant, regular, working smoothly, Dv. Toit, 
small straw seat, Dv., frisky, Co. Want, a mole [the animal]. Wimble, (wine), 

Of the other words I am not so sure. 

Angletouch, warm. Bumbagas, bittern. Charnel, place in roof for hanging 
bacon. Deal, litter of pigs. Dotted (? doted), giddy, of a sheep. Dome, damp. 
Firmy, to clean out (-y is S.). Flaairing, an eruption like erysipelas. Fraith, 
freespoken, talkative. Flathing, a dish made of curds, eggs, and milk. Gloy, 
refuse straw after the "reed " has been taken out. Gloice, sharp pang of pain. 
Heavgar, heavier (so also near-ger, far-ger) . Homrach, harness collar made of 
straw. Kittybags, gaiters. Lipe, matted basket of a peculiar shape. Letts, a 
lout. Noppet, Nipperty, lively, convalescent. Eyle, angle in the sea. Riff, a 
scythe sharpener. Seggy, to lease (the -y is S.). Semmatt, a sieve made of skin 
for winnowing. Shoat, a small wheaten loaf. Stiprog, a mode of fastening a 
sheep's foreleg to its head by a band of straw or withy. Susan, a brown earthen 
pitcher. Sump, any bulk that is carried, Sf . Slade, ground sloping to the sea. 
Tite (toit), to tumble over, N. Vair, a weasel or stoat. Wing, a willow. 
Weest, lonely, desolate. Wash-dish, the titmouse. 

Hence, although vocabulary is a very uncertain test, the dialect 
has a clearly S. character, agreeing with the small evidences 
furnished by pron. 

D 4 and 5 together form the MS. = Mid Southern 


This was the principal seat of the Wessex tribe, and the 
strongly-marked peculiarities tend to shew that the people have 
preserved much, although they have altered much of the original 
pron., more marked on the w. side than on the e. Although no 
strict line can be drawn separating the two, yet the peculiarities 
die out so rapidly to the e. that I have thought it best to divide 
the group into two districts, by a rather arbitrary, nearly direct 
n. to s. line, which is the best I can draw. D 4 on the w. must be 
regarded as the typical form of S. speech. It is not quite uniform, 
but nearly so. 

Boundaries. The n. and s. b. of D 4 and D 5, the w. b. of D 4 
and the e. b. of D 5. 

Area. All "Wl., Do., and most of GL, with n. and e.Sm. ; most 
of Be., all Ha. and Wi., s.Sr. and w.Ss. ; with narrow slips of 
e.He. and w.Ox., and the extreme se. corner of Dv. 

Character. Phonetically, reverted (E) or retracted (r,), and (DR-) 
for thr- ; (z, v) initial for (s, f ) in Ws. words, but not in Romance 
words ; the use of (aY) for JEG and EG ; the broad (ao', eo'w) for 
I', II'. Grammatically, / be for I am; a becoming (15) before past 
participle. All these are subject to slight variations. 

[ 1468 ] 


D 4 = w.MS. = western Mid Southern. 

Boundaries. Do. Begin on the English Channel just w. of Axmouth (20 e- 
by-s. Exeter), on the Axe R. Proceed in a n. direction e. of Colyton (20 e-by- 
n. Exeter), through Yarcombe (22 ne. Exeter). 

Sm. Enter Sm. a little w. of Buckland St. Mary (8 s. Taunton), and e. of 
Otterford (7 s. Taunton), and keeping e. of Wellington (6 sw. Taunton), and w. 
of Thurlbeer (3 se. Taunton), proceed nearly to Taunton, then n. to just e. of 
Kingston (4 nnw. Taunton), when it deflects to nw. and follows the Quantock 
Hills to the Bristol Channel at East Quantock Head. 

Bristol Channel. Proceed along the coast of Sm. and Gl. to just opposite the 
mouth of the river Wye. 

Gl. Cross the Bristol Channel and follow the reverted ur line 3 to just 
opposite Monmouth. 

He. Continue along the reverted ur line 3 in a nne. direction, w. of Ross, 
Stoke Edith (6 e-by-n. Hereford), and Much Cowarn (9 ne. Hereford), but e. of 
Bromyard (10 ese. Leominster), and then passing w. of Whitbourn (14 e. 
Leominster), enter 

Wo. Continue in nearly a straight line to Bewdley (3 se. Kidderminster), 
where quit line 3 and return suddenly s. along the Malvern Hills in a nearly 
direct line to the s. b. of Wo. by Staunton (7 wsw. Tewkesbury), then turning 
e. pass s. of Eldersfield (6 wsw. Tewkesbury), into 

Gl. Go through Tewkesbury and proceed direct e. to Moreton-on-Marsh (19 e. 
Tewkesbury), and continuing e. to the w. b. of Ox. Then turn s. along the 
w. b. first of Ox. and then of Be. as far as Hungerford (24 w-by-s. Reading), and 
then continue in a n. to s. line through 

Ha. Passing just w. of Andover to Nursling, just at the n. point of South- 
ampton Water, and then to the sea near Lymington (10 e. Christchurch), and 
turn w. along the coast to the starting-point by Axmouth. About Lymington 
and Christchurch there is no dialect. The line is intended to avoid the whole of 
Wi., which is all in D 5, but accidentally it appears on the map as if a small 
portion of Wi. belonged to D 4. The whole line from the w. b. of Ox. is very 
uncertain for want of sufficient information, but it cannot be far wrong either way. 

Area. All WI. and Do., n. and e.Sm., most of GL, the extreme 
se. of Dv., and small parts of w.Be., and w.Ha. 

Authorities. See the Alphabetical County List, under the following names, 
where * means vv. per AJE., f per TH., J per JGG., || in so., in io. 

Dv. Axminster. 

Do. Bingham's Melcombe (or Melcombe Bingham), Blackmore Vale, *Bland- 
ford, Bradpole, Bridport, East Lulworth, East Morden, *Hanford, Sher- 
borne, Starminster-Marshall, Swanage, Walditch, ||Whitchurch Canonicorum, 
|| Winterbourne Came. 

GL *Aylburton, Berkeley, fBirdlip, fBishop's Cleve, Bisley, fBristol, 
tBrockworth, t Cheltenham, *f Cirencester, *Coleford ( = Forest of Dean), 
Compton Abdfde, fFairford, fGloucester Town, *Gloucester Vale, fHighnam, 
tHucclecote, King's Wood, tMaisey Hampton, fTetbury, fWhitcomb. 

Ha. Broughton, Christchurch, Iford, "Nursling, *Ringwood. 

He. ||Eggleton, *Ledbury, ||fMuch Cowarn, tRoss, t Stoke Edith, Upton 

Sm. || Bath, Burtle Turf Moor, Castle Gary, Chard, Chedzoy, Combe 
Down, Compton Dando, || Crewkerne, Croscombe, East Harptree, "High Ham, 
Langport, *Merriott, *Montacute, Nailsea, North Wootton, Sutton Mallet, 
Swanswick, Wedmore, tWincanton, Worle. 

WI. Aldbourne, Calne, JChippenham, * Christian Malford, *Corsham, 
Corsley, Damerham, East Knoyle, fKemble, Maddington, 0rcheston St. 
George, fPurton, Salisbury to Warminster, Seend, Sopworth, *Tilshead, 
Wilton, Yatesbury. 

[ 1469 ] 




It will be necessarily impossible to give all the information received from so 
many places. My best help has come from Christian Malford, Chippenham, and 
Tilshead, and as n.Wl. seems the most typical form ofD4=w.MS.,I shall examine 
this part of the district at great length. The use of these numerous sources of 
information is necessarily to shew the continued prevalence or the change of any 
form of speech. Indeed without this large body of evidence, it would have been 
totally impossible to map out the district even roughly with any degree of accuracy. 
Hence my investigation is greatly indebted to those who have furnished some clue 
to the prevalent speech sounds, even when it manifestly became impossible to give 
their communications at length. 


Consonants (f v, s z). . The conspicuous feature of D 4, which 
most strikes the visitor from any other part of England, is the use 
of (v, z) initial in place of (f, s). But undoubtedly for Ws. words 
(v, z) were the original forms, just as to this day (z) initial is the 
received form in Dutch where z is written, and High German 
where f is written in German. In both, however, the pron. when 
no vowel or voiced consonant precedes is (sz-), thus High German 
sie sehen is (szi zee'vn) they see. The (f, s) are later developments, 
and seem to have been introduced by the Normans, for as a general 
rule, to which even at this late period there are very few excep- 
tions, and those chiefly in words familiar to particular districts, 
" Ws. words have (v, z), and Romance have (f, s)." This custom 
once prevailed over the whole s. of England from Ke. to Dv. It 
has altogether disappeared in Ke. and Ss., and has almost dis- 
appeared in Ha. and Be. But it is rarely lost in D 4, and in D 10, 
12. In order to test the prevalence of the rule just given, I 
examined all the words in question in Dan Michel's Ayenbite, which 
is in Kentish of the xrvth century, and the words in Mr. Elworthy's 
lists attached to his Dialect of West Somersetshire, and then I sent 
lists of most of them to Rev. "W. Barnes for Do., and Rev. A. Law 
for Wl., requesting them to mark the words for (f v, s z, sh zh, th 
dh), etc. The result is given in the following table, where the 
words in usual spelling are arranged in alphabetical order under 
appropriate headings, and against each word is written the sound 
of the letter used, /, #, 5, z, etc., or #/, sw, when sometimes one 
letter and sometimes the other is heard, adding M for Dan Michel 
for Ke. in xrvth century, D for Do., W for Wl., and S. for w.Sm., 
in the order from e. to w. An * points out Fr. or Romance words. 



*face/DS, vW 





fag v S 


fain adj./S 


fair adj. /DWS, t> M 



fall vb. v MDWS 


fallow v DWS 

*false/DS, v M, v 




fan v MS 

far v MDWS 

fare /DWS, v M. 


*farmer/DS, v W 


[ 1470 ] 

farrow v WDS 

farther v S 

farthing v MDWS 


fast vb. adj. v M 

fast adj. adv. v S 


fat (vat) sb. v M 

fatadj./DW, v M, vfS 

fate/ DWS 

father /D, MW,;/S 

fathom v S 


*fault/DS, v W 

D 4, INTROD.] 




fire v MDWS 

foot v MDWS 

*fawn sb. / S 

firkin, v S 

for MDWS 

*fawning v S 



fear/D, vW,vf& 

first v MDW, v/ S 

forbear v MS 

fearless v S 

fish MDW, 0/S 

forbid v MS 

*feast/MDS, vfW 

fist t; DWS 

force/DS, */W 

feather t; MS 


ford v DS, vfW 

*february/ S 

fitch (polecat) / S 
five v MDWS 

j %/ 

fore v S 
forehead v S 



*foreign/DS, v W 


flagv S 

*forest/DS, v W 


flagon, v S 

forgive v MS 

feed v M 

*flail v DWS 

*forge/D, v W, /S 

feel v MS 


fork t; DWS 

feet v MS 

flange v S 

forlorn f? M 

*feign vb. / S 

flank v S 



flannel /D, vW, vfS 

*f orm. (bench) / S 

fell sb. v M 

flare S 

forsake t? MS 

fell (in sewing) v S 
felloe DS 

flask /S 

forsooth v M 
forswear v M 

fellow /DS, t>MW 

flatter v/M 

forth v M 


flawv S 

forth v DWS 

feltvDW, /S 

flaxv S 

fortnight v S 


flayed v M 

*f ortunate f S 

fennel v S 

flea*; S 

fortune /S 



forty v MDW, vf S 



forward t; WS 

fernv S 

fledged v S 

foul/D, *M 

*ferret/DS, v W 

fleece v DWS 

found v MDWS 

ferry /DS 

*phlegmatic / M 

*f oundation / S 

ferule v S 

flesh v MDWS 



flew v S 

four v MDWS 

fester /D, v M, /S 


f ourfoot v S 

fetch v DWS 

fling /D, vW,vf8 

fourth v M 

fetters v M 

flint v MS 

fowl v MDWS 

fetlock v S 

*flippant (elastic) /S 

foxt>MW,/D, t/S 

*fever/MDS, v/W 

flitch v S 


few v MDWS 

flock v DWS 


fiddle v MDW, v/ S 

*flog v S 


fidget /S 
field MDWS 

flood v MS 
floor v DWS 

frail /S 

frame /S 

fieldfare S 



fiend v M 

flow*; S 

freak /S 

fifth v M 


free v MDWS 



freedom v M 

*fig/DW, 0/S 
fight 0MW,/D, t/S 

*fluent (said of quickly 
running water only) / S 
flush v S 

freehold v S 
freeze v S 

*filbert v S 

flute /S 

fresh /D, t; WS 

fiU v MDWS 

flutter v S 

fret/W, */S 

film S 

fly vb., sb. v MDWS 

Friday v DWS 

*philosophy / M 

foal v DWS 


-filter/ S 

foam v S 

friend MDWS 

filth /DS, vM, 0/W 


fright v S 

fin v S 

fog* S 


foldfinch v S 

fold v DWS 

*f ringe vf S 

nd v MDWS 

folk v MS 

fro' fS 

*fine/DS, v W. 

f oUow v M 

*frock v S 

*finger v MDWS 

folly /M 


frog/D, WS 
f rolick v S 

fir v S 


from v MDWS 

[ 1471 ] 


front /S 
frost v MDWS 
froth v DWS 
fruit /MS 
*fry/D, t/S 
full v MDWS 
fuller sb./S, vM 
fumble /D, v W, v/S 
funeral /D 
furbish v S 
furl v S 
furlong v S 
furlough v S 
furnace /MS 
furrow v DWS 
further v S 
furze v DWS 
fusty /DS, *W 
physic /M 
physician /M 


(o means not pronounced, 
bailiff o S 

half/DW, vS 
handkerchief o S 
herself o S 
himself o S 
leaf/DW, vS 
life/DW, 0S 
loaf/DW, v S 
plaintiff o S 
roof/DW, v S 
sheaf /DW, * S 
turf (tare) S 
wife/DW, oS 


cough /S 
dough (occ.) / S 
enough o S 
plough o S 
slough o/S 
though /S 
through o S 
tough /S 
trough o S 


(s = z, S, before Jclmnow 
except as below.) 

sabbath D 
sack z DWS 
sacrament * D 


[D 4, INTROD. 

sad z MWS, s D 
saddle z DWS 

sketch s D, z S [(zkitj) 
almost two syllables] 

safe s M, z W 

skill sD 

sage * D z WS 

slack * M 

said z MDWS 

slay s M 

sail z M 

sleep * M 

sailor D, z WS 


saint zs M 

small s M 

sale z DWS 

smell * M 

sallow z S 

smith s M 

salt z MDWS 

snail s M 

sand z DWS 

snow s M 

sap z MS 



sob z M 

Saturday z MDWS 

sober s M 

save * M 


I saw z DS 

sold z M 

a saw z S 

some z DMW 

say z MDW 

son * D 

scrape * D 

song z M 

sea s D, z M 

soon z MW 

sedge z DWS 

sooth z M 

see z MDWS 

sorrow z M 

seed sb. z MS 

sort s S 

seek z M 

sought z M 

seem s D, z WS 

soul z M 

segment z S 

sour z M 

self z MDWS 

south z M 

sell z MDWS 

sovereign s W 

send z M 

sow vb. z M 

sentence * M 

sparroAv * M 

sergeant s M 

spring s D 

sermon s M 

string s D 

servant s D 

subtle s M 

serve s MW 

such z MW 

sessions s D 

suck z M 

set z MDWS 

suffer * MD 

settle z S 

sugar sh S 

seven z MDWS 

sul (plough) z M 

sew vb. z DWS 

sum * MD 

sick z MDWS 

summer z MW 

side z MDWS 

sun z MD 

sieve z DWS 

Sunday z M 

sift z DWS 

sup s M 

sigh * D, z WS 
sight z M 

supper z W 
sure zh W, sA S 

silver z MDWS 

sustain s M 

simple s M 

swallow z M 

sin z M 

swear z M 

since s D, z WS 

sweat z MW 

sinew z S 

sweep z M 

sing z MDWS 

sweet z M 

single * MD, z WS 

swift z M 

sink z DWS 

swine z M 

sip s D, z WS 

sword z M 

sir s D, z S 

sister s D, z MWS 


sitz S 

share (part) sh DW 

site z S 

share (of a plough) zh sh S 

six z MDWS 

shave sh DW, zA sh S 

sire s DWS 

she zA W 

[ 1472 ] 

D 4, INTROD.] 



sheaf sh D, zh W, zh sh S 

though (dhaw) rfA W, 

shear sh D, zh W, zh sh S 

(thAAf) A S 

shepherd zh W 

thr- dr WS, not M who 

shoot sh W 

has ]>r. 

should zh W 

th- dh S except in the 

shred sh D, zh WS 

above cases 

shrew zh S 
shriek sh D, zh S 
shrimp sh D, 2 A S 
shrink sh D, zh S 


sheath /S 

shrivel sh D, zh S 

cloth /S 

shroud sA D, zA W 

tooth /S 

shrove *A D, zA W 


shrub sA D, zh WS 
shrug a S 

*value/S (fali) [common] 
"variety v M 


*veal dh S (dhs'id) [some- 

thatch v S 

*venial v M 

thick th S as distinguished 

*venom v M 

from (dhik) this 

*very <*A S 

thief th S 

"vestments v M 

thin th S 

*vetches ^A S (dhatjes) 

thing dh W 

*vice v M 

thirsty dA W 

"victuals / S (fBt'lz) 

thistle rf S 



"village/ S (ftrlidj) [com- 


*villain v M 
*vouch dh S (common) 

(0 means omitted.) 

above o S (ubuu-) 

cleave (kluf ) / S 

curve b S 

give o S 

have o S 

heave /S 

leave /S 

lieve/o S 

*serve (earn wages) o S 

themselves o S 

valve (valb) i S 

-ive o S [ = (i, if) never (iv) 
common in : expensive 
abusive native laxative 
active destructive de- 

(B). The most important character of the S. dial., the reverted 
or retracted (B, r 7 ), is, as has been mentioned, not confined to this 
district, but spreads more or less strongly over the whole S. div. 
Its nature was explained supra, p. 23, together with the way in 
which it affects a subsequent t, d, r, I, n, which were probably 
originally reverted. But I think, although I have not been able to 
verify the conjecture, except by private trial, that it also affects (sh, 
zh ; th, dh), converting them into (sh, zh ; Th, Dh). In this case (sh, 
sh) would be spoken with the tongue quite turned back, a true 
" cerebral" (sh, zh), and in (Th, Dh) the under part of the tongue 
tip would be brought against the teeth. The (sh, zh) would occur 
in the diphthongs (TJ, DJ), or (Tsh, Dzh), in place of the ordinary 
(tj, dj). These forms would probably arise from the convenience 
of the tongue remaining in its reverted condition. The most 
doubtful are (ih, Dh), because we do not find thr- initial, that is, 
(DUE-), but the easier dr- (DB-). The (TJ, DJ) are however almost 
necessary in such combinations as hurchard ha^T^RD for Richard 

and orchard, and lurdge (baEDjh), bridge. And in the same way it 
would be easier to say (anih, wacEDh*') earth, worthy, than (acsth, 
wandb'), the last word usually omits the (R). In process of 
time, however, especially as the dialect advances eastwards, the 
actual reversion ceases, and the effect is pretty well produced 
by retracting the tongue, and arching its back so as to allow 
a hollow to exist behind the raised tip and the raised back of the 
tongue. Towards the w. and n. of the district there seems to my 
ear to be no such retractive tendency. JGrGr., however, regards re- 
traction as the typical formation. In the E. div. we shall find (truu, 
ted) through, thread, which probably point to an original but 

[ 1473 ] 


now lost (xRhuu, TRUED). This retraction accompanied with 
hollowing is further refined by omitting the hollowing, so that we 
have merely a raised tip of the tongue, producing the coronal 
English (t d r 1 n), etc., which are so distinct from the continental 
(t d T I n) that they must evidently have had a different genesis. 
"We shall meet with ( t) before (?) in the M. and 1ST. div. Now the 
English coronal form was the only one acknowledged by Mr. Gupta 
(Part IY. 1096b', 1137c') for Indian pronunciation of the Sanscrit 
cerebrals, so that the same refining system has gone on in both 
countries, but in our own dialects we have all the stages (R r, r, T 
t, t) now coexistent. This (R) is constantly flated when initial, and 
often transposed with an (h) prefixed, as (hamd, haR^), red, run, 
from (R!IED, Rhatf). 

Another very important character of this (R) is its amalgamation 
with a preceding vowel. In fact, it seems to give a new series of 
vowels (a R a R A B ), etc., and even (ii R ee tt UU R ). With regard to the 
first, it was a great difficulty with me how I was to represent such 
words as h<?r, bwrn, and for some time I thought that they had 
merely vocal ('R O ), thus (h'R b'R n), but I latterly came to the 
conclusion that there was a preceding vowel followed by an amalga- 
mation of the vowel with a-|-a E (R). What that vowel really was, 
however, I found so difficult to determine, that I finally adopted 
different hypotheses as I heard different speakers. I have used 
(ar, 9R, BR), and JGG. writes (i3R, B^R). But latterly I have 
fallen back on (aR) accented, and (-BR) unaccented, whether rightly 
or not I cannot quite make out. With this explanation, however, 
this sign will suffice, and it must be left to actual audition during 
a long period and with many speakers, for good phonetists to 
determine the best representative of the actual sound. I have not 
met with any instance in D 4 and 5 of the introduction of an (R) 
after a vowel which was not justified by the orthography, but in 
D 10 and 11 there seem to be some cases, there to be noted. 

With regard to the complete series of sounds (T D isr R L), etc., it 
was only on the close of a second revision of his wl. taken from his 
stepmother, that JGG. (although he had been familiar with Wl. 
dialect from childhood) recognised that they invariably took the 
place in her pronunciation of the usual (t d n r 1), etc., just as 
these in English and in the pron. of continental languages by 
Englishmen invariably replace the continental ( v t x d n r v l), etc. 
For myself I had not observed it, although it seems to me most 
probable. In JGG.'s Chippenham wl. and spec, therefore the 
complete substitution is made, but as in those specimens which I 
took down from native speakers, I only detected (R), and the other 
letters when juxtaposed, and therefore as it seemed to me assimi- 
lated, I have thought it best to retain what I wrote from their 
diet., although I have now, in the course of many years, come to 
the conclusion that my former appreciation was probably erroneous 
and ought to be amended in this direction throughout. And the 
same is probably the case for my (sh zh tj dj), which in the S. 
div. should prob. be (sh sh TJ DJ). The final (D) is frequently lost 

[ 1474 ] 


after (L, IT). The ending of the present participle, modern -ing, was 
ancient -ande, hence the (--BIT, -m) now heard, really arises from 
the omission of (D) after (N), and not from the use of (N) for (q). 

(h). In D 4 and 5, as well as in almost all our dialects, (h) is 
naturally omitted, but with no hiatus to indicate the speaker's 
knowledge that it is absent. My authorities differ very much as 
to its presence. It seems decidedly used when (nan-} is employed 
for (Eh-). 

The other consonants have no peculiarity. There is for example 
no use of (b D g) for (p T k), parallel to (v z) for (f s). 

Vowels. The following gives the principal characters of the 
vowels, for details see the various cwl. that follow. 

A- is often represented by (ie), reduced to (fa IB ii'), and finally to (ii 1 ii), as in 
name (idem Niam Nrem Ni^m Niim), or else (e l Q face) as (Ne'^m NetemNmn). The 
former prevails over the m. andn. part of the district, (ii) being especially prevalent 
in towns, e.g. in Gloucester, and (ee) in rural districts. 

A: varies from (ae) to (a 1 , ah), but hardly reaches (a). 

A' is normally (ua), whence (UB, ua), but it varies. 

JEG and EG are normally (ai) not (a'i ai), but this falls locally into (se'i a'iEE), 
and sometimes into simple (ee), and similarly for Fr. ai. This (ai) sound is a very 
strong mark of the w. forms of S., but it is not peculiar to D 4. 

I', in contrast to this clear (ai), has (a'i, ao'i) or (ai), which Grangers hear as 
(o'i) and write oy. 

I generally hear as (o), but JGG. only hears it as (o). The latter sound, being 
the modern received form, is always given me by people of education. But it is, 
I think, a modernism or misappreciation. 

0' is properly (uu), but occasionally (a) and rarely (33), a sound of (a) with (AA) 
running through it which I have heard only from Mr. Law in the words EY : 
439 TRIOS, 0' 567 ta)dheR, 587 isdarn, U 604 za>nreR, 627 zamdi, Y 673 ma)ti, 
TJ 804 DR3>qk'n, 950 z3)pp'R, and in no other words. JGG. has, however, 
quite recently observed what I suppose is the same sound. 

U is regularly (a), but there is a trace of M. (u) as far s. as Purton (4 nw. 
Swindon, WL), see s. sown line 2, p. 16. 

U' is regularly (a'w, so'u] not (&w, du). 

In grammatical construction, that which strikes a stranger most is 
/ be for / am, the prefix (B) before the past participle, as (a'i;v 
ads-n) I)have a-done ; and the periphrastic form / do go for the 
simple I go, together with the curious use of the nominative for the 
objective case, and sometimes the converse. Remarkable survivals 
are first (un) for him, the true ace. of lie, for which the dative 
Mm is substituted in rec. sp. This (ran) is very widely spread in 
the S. div., and is also used where it is said in received speech, on 
account of the general use of he applied to inanimate objects ; and 
secondly, in a small district of Sm. hereafter described as the Land 
of Utch, the forms (atj, Etjir) for the personal pronoun I, which in 
old writers is the usual mark of our S. dialects. But these are 
forms which cannot be more than alluded to. For vocabulary, see 
the printed Glossaries, which, however, must generally be used 
with great caution. 

Varieties. Over such an extensive tract of country there must 
necessarily be many slight varieties, some of which are mentioned 
in the preceding table of vowels. But I have not been able to 
mark out any sharply -defined varieties or subdistricts. I find it, 

[ 1475 ] 

44 THE MID SOUTHERN. [D 4, V i. 

however, necessary to draw attention to six different varieties or 
forms, which, on account of the importance of this district, I 
proceed to illustrate at considerable length. 

V i. The Middle or ~W1., typical or standard form of D 4, of which three 
phases are given, Christian Malford, Chippenham, and Tilshead, all 
from vv. information. 

V ii. The Northern or Gl. form. 

V iii. The North -Western or e. He. form. 

V iv. The South-Eastern or Do. form. 

V v. The land of Utch, or region of the continued old use of (Etj, atjir) for 
the first personal pronoun. 

V vi. The South-Western or Sin. form. 


Phase I. Christian Malford (11 nnw.Devizes), "Wl. 

Rev. Arthur Law, son of the Rector, whose curate he became (he is now rector 
of Dauntsey, 4 nne. Christian Malford), was born there and lived in constant 
communication with the peasantry, entering heartily into their mode of speech, 
which he acquired with remarkable accuracy and fluency. He wrote a version of 
my cs. in io. and kindly came to London on two occasions (in 1874 and 1878) on 
purpose to work it over with me w. As this was the foundation of my knowledge 
of D 4, I add the whole cs. as he rewrote it, with additions, to give it more of the 
character of a Wl. peasant's speech. And as it departs so much from the original 
in the Preliminary Matter, No. III. p. 7*, I add a slavishly literal interlinear trans- 
lation. Some separate sentences written from his diet, are annexed with notes 
and a cwl. 

0. waV :djon ae'ravz noE)i3 da'wt. 

why John has ne'er) a doubt. [The peasant would probably say,] 

z)dhii want d)naw wa'e :djon bii zi zaaRi'tf ba'wt dhak)i3R 
dost)thou want to) know why John be so certain about thick) e'er 

a'fl dhEn a'*)l tEl)i. 
thing, why then I'll tell) ye. 

1. wal, wot be laefm [bsdlm] rat "s!i VBE, dhB ganT zi\iz ? aa ! 
well, what be (you) laughing at I for, the great sillies ? ah 

t?)mi3d) lae'af bww^dh on)i, f)i maVn tw, i3t)wat a 
ye)mote=may) laugh both of) ye, if)ye mind to, at) what I do)tell)ye. 

aV dw)^nt ki'ior ! t)f)mit no odz te 'a'/, ne naa-b^d* zuls 
I do) n't care ! it)is)nt no odds to I, nor nobody else 

I3z)i3)nawz on. 
as) I) knows of. 

2. t)wu)imt k^l) tjsep bm [k00z] B)d i e) lae'^f set)^n, al) 
it)will)not kiU)a chap being [because] ye)do) laugh atjhim, I) 

dB)lot)'n) ! tnt la'ikli. 
do)allot)him, it)is)not likely. 

[ 1476 ] 

D 4, V i.] THE MID SOUTHERN. 45 

3. wat aV b* gwom tB)iEl)i, B(WEV"BR, bi TRUU)BZ EVBB tfi 
what I be going to)teU)ye, however, he true)as ever I 

baa^RKD. dliBR [dhe'R] na'w ! zra djEz baVd 
were born. there now ! so just bide quiet, 

en 1st "s!i spee^k. 
and let I speak. 

4. WE!, aV ha'^RD)^ni zai, B;WBVBE, ^n zam)^ dha^' 

wel, I heard) them say, however, and some) of they very 

vaak tw, i3z)zid)e't vrem)dh^ vas dliBRZEL'vz, ai)hai- ! 
folk too, as)see'd)it from)the first theirselves, igh-high ! 

dhaet)i)dd TRU naf 
that) I) did true enough 

5. dlit)dlrB)jBqgt8t zan zE-lf, ^)gaRt b^oi is)na / m, nawd)/z 
that) the) youngest son his-self, ajgreat hoy of)nine, knowed)his 

z viiois isz)zuund)Bz EVBR i) 
father's voice as)soon)as ever he) heard) him ( = it), though 

[dlia'w] t)wBR Z'B) kom-ek'el) la^'k. laa blEs)i, 

it) were so) comical like. Lord bless) ye, it) were) as 

skweeki en bsese^li BZ) E'v'R)k^d)b/, bat 'ii nawd)'n, 

squeak-y and bawl-y as) ever) could) be, but he knowed)him(=it), 

en ii)'l speek dhB TRuuth aaR)^ deee (da*), a 7 *)! waaRi<r)m 
and he)'ll speak the truth e'er)a day, I'll) warrant)him 

[warrant) him] . 

6. im dh)a'wl;d)wm^n ^RZE'lf, 'l)tEl Eni on)i, 

and the)old)woman herself will)tell any of)ye, as)straight 

z En 
forward as any thing, I) '11 warrant) her, if [you] '11 ask) her 

7. IfestwaYz ER tsld -a 7 ! wsn a'i sekstJ^R tuu)^R)DRii taVmz 
leastways her telled I when I asked)her two)or)three times 

naw, *f 8eR)^n u'l, E' 
her) did, and -she) would know, if e'er) one will, I do) allot) 

VY, wat d^)dhEqk)on)t, a^? 
her, what do[you]think)of)it, eh? 

8. WE!, ^z)a'')w^R)t3)zarm [zse'on], R 

weU, as)I)were)a)saying, her) would) tell) ye where)her 

va'wn dhek)^R DRa>qk'n 

found this)ere drunken beast as)her do)caU herjhusband. 

46 THE MID SOUTHERN. [D 4, V i. 

9. deld>'f>E dd)'nt tal aY BZ BE)ziid>n BEZE-H "- 

dashed)if)her didjnot tell I as her) see' d) him herself. "-there) 

i)was," BE)zEd, "bxl ds'wn I)WBE wii)iz bEs klaaz on, 
he) were," her) said, "laid down he) were with) his best clothes on, 

BZ tops* BZ EVBE)B kBd)bii, B)kwd)'nt waeg e'zE'lf noo a'w. 
as tipsy as ever)he could)be, he)could)not wag his-self no how. 

B)wBE)klas ap Bgrn dbB duBE)B)dhB a'ws -Bt)dhi)kaENBE 
he)were)close up against the door)of)the house at)the)corner 

ofthe lane. 

10. ( B)w^R)B)bse8eim ^n)^)skw;8e8e-lm, blEs)i, v^E 

he)were)a)bawling and) a) squalling, bless)ye for) all) the 

world like)a sick child or)a)cat a)mewing." and)her) 

on)^m, BE zsd, 'B 
asked two)or)three of) them, her said, as)were)not very far 

aaf, ^n "dhee Elpt aV vat)^! dm," BE)zEd, "un dha* bsaat) 
off, and "they helped I fetch) him home," her) said, "and they brought) 

-en ael ( edliBET)Bsk^rnt vaEm^E ipa'tks ve'l," BE zEd, " 
him all athwart) asquint farmer Pike's field," her said, "where 

I do) bide, and there they) left) him." 

11. sen dheet [dbEk] WEE, d)nEE^ ? BZ zhii)im)aE daet"BE IEE 
and that [thic] were, do[you]know? as she)and)her daughter[in]law 

kamd m DEUU dhi bsek jiaED, wan)BE bm ( B)aeqm 

come'd in through the back yard, where) her [had] been a) hanging out 

dlii klaaz te 

the clothes to dry. 

12. / en)'BE)wanted te b^a^'l dhi kt'l VBE tee. "*t gd a 7 * ael) 
and)her)wanted to boU the kettle for tea. "it give' d I all) 

," BE zEd, u/ en m^-ed a 7 * z^Et BmttB's sel 
of) a turn," her said, "and made I sweat almost all over. 

dhaat on)m, YBE)B 
Bill Jones there, he)had)a dubious thought of)him, for)he 

tsld a'f ez)i)zid)Bn Bbs'wt va'w'E Bklo'k m 

telled I as)he)see'd)him about four o'clock in the) afternoon, 

[ 1478 ] 




Bn)i)wi3E main voE-adi'sh dhEn. i3(d waakt PBET/ nsY 
and)he)were main forwardish then. he) d walked pretty nigh seven 

ma VI Blo-q dhe Ehaad, -Bn)i)waE)uz da'wsti>z EVBE Eni 
mile along the road, and) he) were) as dusty)as ever any 

a 7 * nE 

I never see 


zid noo ze'tj dhEq BVM'B'E." laa "blEs)i ! 
ee' d no such thin afore." Lord bless e* 

t)w'E)u wirok vghv kam neks dhanzd*, Bn 
it)were)a week ago come next Thursday, and)a)fine 

tuu, t)wBE. 
afternoon too, it) were. 

13. an)tEl)i wat ! a 7 ! HEV^E ha'i'BEd noo nuia)B)dhk8)ieB 

and) tell) ye what ! I never heard no more) of) this) here 

d.job tl tB deei. Bn)B)dw)Bnt kiBE WEE)B duu BE naa, 

job till to-day and)I)do)n't care whether)! do or no, 

aa')lak)e ! 
ah) look) ye. 

14. Bn)dhi3E)a:V bi gwbin MBDI tB hee)B bit B za^p-p'E, zt})gwd 

and)there)I bi going home to haveja bit of supper, so)good 

fitj Bn)du)^n)i bii ZB k^k tB Ise'BfjBt)^ tjsep 
night, and) do) not) ye be so quick to laugh) at) a chap again, 

)dB tEl)i)B Ent dhsq. 
when) he) do tell) ye) of any thing. 

15. im)dhset)s eel tfi got te)zai tw)t. g?id ba 7 *. 
and)that)is all I [have] got to)say to)it, good b'ye. 

Notes. The figures refer to the paragraphs of the above cs. 
%* Perhaps thoughout (t d tj dj n 1) thould have been (T D TJ, DJ, x L). 

2. Being (bin) for because is used by 
older people. 

4 and 13. Heard, this is the form 
used by older people, see D 1, cwl. 301, 
(ii'R p D) is the result of education. The 
(h) is heard only when the word is 
emphatic, and is gentle even then. 

5. Eawly, cats are said to (bsese B!) 
in n.Wl. 

6. in (3'wljd)wnven) old woman the d 
separates from the (1) and is made part 
of the next word ; (d) is dropped in (im 
bi v^Ri, a'wl) she be very old. 

7. She. Observe emphatic (-zhii) ; 
compare (-zhii sevz)'n) -she has)him with 
(BE.) z) got) ' n) she' s got him . Know . 
This has its regular form, but the final 
(u) is dropped in ('a'i du'n naa, -z'i naa 
na'wt -ebaVt)it) I don't know, I know 
nought about it, and even the (a) is 
changed in par. 11 (d)nw?)do(you)know. 

10. Athwart, by itself, means across 
a field at right angles to its sides, 
(edheRT uskwint) athwart asquint, is 
diagonally, from one corner straight to 
the next but one. 

[ 1479 ] 



[D 4, V i. 

Phrases and sentences originally heard from peasants, and dictated 
by Eev. A. Law. 

1. (mtfi hEd bzst laVk- DEEYsh'lz )gwam), my head beat like 

flails a-going. 

2. (dw)'nt)i shuut ta'w^KDz dire ha%z'n), don't ye shoot towards 

the houses. 

3. (te hee)^ bet on)t), to have a bit of)it. 

4. (i)w'n T3)tja3mpm et -a'i), he was chaffing at me. 

5. (i ded ima'w iz hEd bsek ^n kwk'ld), he did throw his head back 

and gargled. 

6. (blEs)em ! Vt)s hand mast's, to kam apza'edz w$)i3n), bless 

him ! it's a hard matter to come upsides [right way up] 
with him. 

7. (i)z nee-tli ks'wl), he's naturally cold. 

8. (ra peen a'i ha3d isdha'K'T dh^ sm^z), a pain I had across the 


9. (a:'i)l tEl)i a'w WBZ saaKD), I'll tell)ye how I was served. 

10. (i)z got te vod^E dh-e bz^s), he has to fodder the beasts [horned 


11. (dhi3B)z)B paes'l)^ Kt'l odzez), there's a parcel of little odds 

and ends. 

12. ('zhii hsevz ^ VBE* gM)mi), she has a very good one. 

13. (go so-b'd, a^'l mtek in;k^aVree-sh'n), go quickly, I'll make 


14. (i)z VBE bsed na'i'temz), he's very bad night-times. 

15. (dha3t)s th^ ma'm on)^m), that's the mind [intention, bent of 

mind] of them. 

16. (a'i dhaat sV)slrBd)B da'd m)dh^ na'et), I thought I should 

have died in the night. 

17. (ha'wld)mi ta'it), hold him tight. 

18. (wan)im) ^na'dh'K , tuu)Bn)^ t)a>dhBE), one and another, two 

and a t'other. 

19. (dwBn)os ? wat)^d? a'i, jEn^'t ?) don't us = we? what 

should? aye, is - )n't it ? 

20. (a'i bi zafttm zhau^R ; t'l)aV)v da)*n), I am certain sure ; till 

I've done. 

21. (nra rnw^B n^E dhbs), no more than this. 

22. (t)zi3)nt nra odz te jia'w), it is not no odds to you, it is no 

business of yours. 

23. (baV dire zim on)t), by the seem [appearance] of it. 

24. (dhaek)s a'w aV spEl fa'ev), that's how I spell five. 

[ 1480 ] 

D 4, V i.] THE MID SOUTHERN. 49 


Containing the words from the preceding examples and some others given me by 
Mr. Law. Probably all the (t d t j dj sh n 1 r) should be (T D TJ DJ *h N L R) 
See supra p. 23. 


A- I ZB. 5 nuBk. 6 mz'ud. 8 te hee [to have]. 17 IEE [the older sound 
was (laa), and Mr. Law himself, who used to be called (laa), is now called (!EE)]. 
21 n/Bm. fa'iR [fare]. 34 lEBst. A: - ssed'l [saddle]. 39 kamd 

[come'd]. - zsen [sand]. 49 aqin [hanging], 54 want. 56 weish. 
kifit [cat]. 

A: or 0: 58 vrem [weak form]. 60 uhrq [along]. 64 roq [generally, occ. 
(raq)]. A'- 67 gw6in [going]. 69 naa noo no. 72 IIUUB [when standing 
alone, otherwise (uu)]. 73 zi ZB [weak forms]. 74 tuu. 77 laa [for Lord ! is 
an exclamation]. 79 a'wn. 81 Iten. 84 HIHBR. 87 klaaz. 89 buuedh. 
92 nau, [but (d)nEE) do you know?]. 94 knis'u. A': 102 a?ks Eekst. 104 
Rhaad. 107 IwBf. zhroov [shrove]. Ill aat. 113 HUU el [A half sounded]. 
115 wBm. 120 BgwB. 

M- 138 VEEdhB. 144 Bg/Bn. 146 main. 148 fain [see 709 and 887]. 
150 1/Bst wa'iz [least wise]. 153 zset'Rdi. - WBR [whether]. - pBRti 
[pretty, tolerably]. 7R; 154 baek. ml [had, weak form]. za?d [sad]. 
158 setBR. 159 haevz. 161 deei [seldom (dai)]. 162 tBdeei [to-day]. 165 ZBd. 
166. maid [a little girl, see 758]. 169 WE'U [" not quite a dissyllable" and] 
WEU. 173 waR [were, was]. 174 a'ishBn TRii ["always with (BU) " ]. 177 dhoet 
[also (dhaek)]. 179 wot wat. 

M'- 187 1/Bf [left, did leave]. - zOi [silly]. 194 Eni. 196 W^RD)'NT 
[were not]. 198 lEt. !&': 205 DREd. 208 EVBR, a?R)Bn [e'er a one], aaR)B 
[e'er a]. 209 UE'VBR noR [never a]. 213 a'idhBR. 214 na'idhBR. 220 
zhEpBRD. 221 vi'R. 223 dhaR, dhi'R. 224 waR. 225 vlEsh. 226 BUIWB-S 
[almost]. 227 WE'Bt ["not quite a dissyllable"]. 228 z^Et. 230 va3t. 

E- 231 dhidhBdh-. 233 speeBk. 236 VBBVBR. 239 zato [sailor]. 244 wal. 

[tell'd]. - zhiBR [shear]. 251 meet. 252 ktt'l. E: vat 
i]. 256 
[sayin] 263 Bwai-. 265 STR&'it. " VZ'B! [field]!' 269 zElf tza-lf BRZE-lf 

VEtj [fetch]. 256 sTREtj. 258 zEdj. 260 Isd [laid]. 261 zai zarin 

dhBR/E'lvz [self himself herself themselves]. 271 tEl. 272 BlniBn TRU [" always 
with (tm)"]. - ZB!S [else]. -- Elpt [helped]. -- zil [seU]. 278 wEntj [a 
marriageable girl, see 758]. 281 lEqth. vrEsh [fresh]. 284 DREsh [see after 
735]. - Bdha-Rt [Bthwart, across from side to side, (Bdha-Rt, Bskwint) athwart 
asquint, diagonally from one corner to the next but one]. vE'stBR [fester]. 

- bEs [best]. E'- 289 i [weak]. 290 ii, *, ' [(B)ad, 'd) he had, weak 
form]. 297 VC!BR. 298 v^'Bld [felt]. 302 mint. E': 307 na'i. 312 ten. 
313 haRk. 314 ha'iRD [older people]. bins [bless]. ta'it [tight]. 
316 nEks. 

EA- - shiiv [shave]. vaslB VO!B [fallow]. 320 kmm. EA: 322 

IseBf laefin lEEfin [laughing]. 325 waakt [walked]. 326 a'ul-d. 328 ka'ed. 
329 VOOB!. 330 tB ha'uld [( hoolt) subs.] 333 kse'Bf. 334 ha?'Bf. 335 sel. 
336 VJB'B!. 338 kaaee'Bl. - zas't [salt]. - sh/BR [share]. 340 jiaRD. 

- VORB [farrow]. EA'- - zhREd [shread]. 347 hEd. 348 a'i-z. 349 
via'w. EA': 354 zhz'Bf. 356 b'Bf. 357 dhaw dha'w. 359 na'ibBR. Bg/Bn 
[against]. 364 tiaap. 366 gsRt. 367 DREt. 

El- 372 y. 373 dhai dhee. El: 378 wee^k. EO- 383 zEb'm. 
387 nia'wz [news]. EO: 390 zhwd. - zilv'R. vaRmBR [farmer]. 

402 laRN. 403 VBR. 407 vaRdin. - ztstBR [sister]. 408 na?^d [made weak 
from (n aw) know]. EO'- -- vRii [free]. 411 DRii. 412 zhii. 414 vk'i. 

- shuut [shoot]. 420 va^BR. 421 vaBRxi. EO': 422 zik. 426 va'tt. 
427 bin [being = because]. 428 zid [see'dl. 430 VREU. 434 b/ut. 435 ja'u 
[not used]. 436 TRUU. DRa'( [threw]. 437 TRUuth. EY- 438 dac'i. 
EY: 439 TR^DS. 

I- 440 wuek. 441 zi'v. 443 vra'id^. 446 na'tn. in, Bn [him, old 

E.E. Pron. Part V. [ 1481 ] 95 

50 THE MID SOUTHERN. [D 4, V i. 

ace. form]. sine [sinew]. 447 R. eez [yes]. 448 dhiez. bit [a 
bit]. 449 got [p.p. of get]. vid'l [fiddle]. 451 zaw. I: 452 & 

453 kwtk. 465 lain [lying]. zift [sift]. 458 na'it. 463 til. 465 zitj 
sitj. 466 tja'il. 469 w'l [will, for (wol)]. 477 va'in. 480 dhEq. - zEq 
[sing]. 481 VEqgeR. ZEqk [sink]. 483 iz. 484 dhz'es dhis. vish [fish]. 
zans [since]. - ziks [six]. I'- ba'id [bide]. 491 za'i. 492 za'id. 
gid [give' d= gave]. 494 ta'im. 495 wa'in. I': 500 la'ik. 502 va'iv. 
503 laif. 505 waif [generally my (mises) or (pl;d)miai)]. 506 mmm. 508 
ma'i'l. 509 wa'i'l. 

0- 519 aavBR. 521 va'wel. evuim [afore]. voRed [forward] 
voRedish [getting forward, tipsy]. bAARND [born]. 524 waRL. DROot 
[throat]. VRath [froth]. vlok [flock]. odz [odds]. 0: 525 aaf 
[off]. VROg [frog]. zhrab [shrub]. 528 dhaat. 529 bRaat. 531 dsexeR. 
535 vaak. 538 M. 541 t)wu'nt [it won't]. 543 on. 544 dhEn. 546 VBR 
va'R. vaRk [fork]. 548 VSRD. 550 waRD. VRas [frost]. - - vaRth 
[forth]. voks[fox]. 0'- 556 d' te. 557 tuu. 558 aa-)lak)i [ah ! look 
ye! exclamation]. 564 zuund. 567 trodhBR. ta'wRDz [towards]. 0': 571 
gwd. Raf [roof]. 579 naf. 586 a'i de, a'i du)'nt. 587 ^darn. 588 
seTBRnwim. 590 V!M'R. 592 zwaRD. 595 vat. 

IT- el [wood, not (hwd)]. 601 yg'trel. 603 kam. 604 za>mi3R. 605 
zan. 606 dueR. U: 609 vaL. 612 zam. 616 gRa'wn. 619 vawnd. 
627 zaondi. 631 dhaRzdi. vaRB [furrow]. 634 DRUU. 
[thirsty]. 639 da'wsti [dusty]. U'- 641 a'u, a'wsmndEv'R, 

B;WE-VBR. 643 na'u. 650 ba'ut eba'^t. 651 wi-at. 652 ki?d [weak form]. 
653 bat. U': 654 zhra'wd. 658 da'wn. 663 a'ws, ha'us [pi. (ha'uzBn)J. 

666 azien. 667 a'wt. 

Y-. 673 ma>tj [greatly resembled (moti)]. 674 did d^d [the latter emphatic]. 
675 DRa'i. 681 biznis [seldom used]. Y: vil [to fill]. 691 ma'in. 
692 joqgist. vaz [furze]. 701 vas. 702 wi, wii. Y x - 706 wa'i. 
Y': vilt [filth]. 709 va'iR. vh'es [fleece]. vist [fist]. 


A. wa3g [to wag]. 725 zivl. 726 taak. - vlsen'l [flannel]. 732 
, flail]. bsese'-eli [bawly, a crying child is 

aep'm. DRa'ish'l [thresher 

E. - zim [seem]. 751 P/BRT. 752 frE'-et. - miawtin [mewing]. 

landY. :bil [Bill]. kil [kill]. ^skwint [crosswise, diagonally]. 

vlEq [fling]. tipsi [tipsy]. zap [sip]. 758 g'R RL [a long untrilled 
(R O ) followed by a trilled (R) and reverted (L)"much used for a servant. See 166 
and 278]. 

0. t?klo-k [o'clock]. djob [job]. 765 rdjon. 767 na'iz. rdiaenz 
[Jones]. 776 gM ba'i. 781 bodh^R [usual word (kaed'l)]. lot [allot]. 
791 bw?6i. 

U. 797 skweeki [squalling]. 798 kwaR [modern (kidra.)]. vamb'l [fumble]. 
804 DRa>qk'n. 


A- zsek [sack]. SlOvz'us. 815 feks. vlai'l [flafl]. - - zeedj 
[sage], fail [fail]. 835 Reez'n. waaRND [warrant]. 857 kt'-es. 

mseteR [matter]. 862 z/ef. fseset [fate]. 864 k^z. 865 vseset. vse'uls 

E - 867 tee. peen [pain]. 885 vuRi. fee'r [a fair, market, see 148]. 

VORTBR [farrier]. 888 zaaRtin. saaR [serve]. 890 bz'ras [pi. (b/^stiz) 
occ. bi'us]. 891 vi'st. 893 vla'wBR. - plae-tiks [apoplexy]. - - vEg [fig]. 
901 va'in. zaqg'l [single]. - zaiz [size], 

0-- 918 fe^b'l. 920 pwoint. 925 vwois. komik'l [comical]. VMBS. 
[force]. 938 kaRUBR. - va'Rin [foreign]. voR^st [forest]. vaimdj 
VMBRdj [forge]. 939 klas, klast [occ.]. 940 kwet. 941 vtiuel. 947 bwa'il. 
950 za)ppBR. - taRn rturn]. 955 da'wt. 

U- - djwwbiles [dubious]. 963 kwa'rut. 969 zha'u^R. 
970 diEZ. vasti [fusty]. 

[ 1482 ] 

D 4, V i.] THE MID SOUTHERN. 51 

Phase II. Chippenham, 9 mrw. Devizes. 

As JGG.'s stepmother (now an elderly lady, who had brought him up) was 
a native of Chippenham, and though long resident in London, kept up her know- 
ledge of the dialect (which she did not use in speech) hy visits, and by seeing 
many Wl. people, I requested JGG. to ask her to repeat one of those stories 
with which she used to amuse the children, while he noted it down in pal. As 
she was good enough to consent, the attempt was repeated on many occasions 
during the last few years, and the following fable by Akerman is the result, after 
many corrections. The difficulties in palaeotyping any individual's speech are 
very great ; and of course such minute accuracy as JGG. attempted is liable to 
the perpetuation of individualisms. Still it is very instructive to compare the 
result with the specimen by Mr. Law, just given, as the two places are only four 
miles apart and both must represent a Wl. pron. I must draw attention to the 
constant reversion or retraction as JGG. considers it of the (T D N L R sh) series 
and of (K.) and the conversion of (tj, dj) into (TJ, DI). I am anxious to express 
my obligations to Mrs. Goodchild for submitting to such a fatiguing trial and for 
venturing to dictate a complete wl. The original spelling from the preface to 
HalliweU's Dictionary is added interlinearly. 

dha aaE N8T an dha bu^ai'. 

The Hornet and the Bittle. 

dha aan N8T zai N)a OLa Tidi, 
a harnet zet in) a hollar tree, 

13 pROpim spayifBL Too'ai) wan ii ; 

a proper spiteful twoad was he ; 2 

an)a menELfc! zaq uayx ii DD zei 
and) a merrily zung while he did set 

iz sTE*q 13Z shaaE p / ez 

his stinge as shearp as) a bagganet. 

" oo ira za vayn ^n ba^wi/D az ay ! 
oh ! who so vine and bowld as I ! 

" ay beant T3fzran D a #ops, nan vLay ! " 
I vears not bee, nor wapse, nor vly 

13 bzDai," ap dhak TRU DD 

a bittle up thuck tree did clim, 

and scarnvully did look at him. 

zeD ii, "zan aan NaT, uu gi> dhii 
zays he, "Zur harnet, who giv thee 

13 itayT TO zex in dhk 

a right to zet in thuck there " tree? 10 

vaR aeseL dhii zeqz za 

vor ael you zengs zo nation vine 

ay TGL dhii T)*Z a a'ws 

I tell 'e 'tis a house o' mine." 

[ 1483 ] 



[D 4, V i. 

dbB aaR nats KOisrshairs 

the harnet's conscience velt a twinge, 

baT GRaa'm ba^'wL'D ui z Loq stE a q 
but grawin' bowld wi his long stinge, 

etfz dha 

zays he: "possession's the best laaw ; 

zoo iT3im dhii sbseT)':NT psi a KLEE ; 
zo here th' sha'sn't put a claaw ! 

b aai 8N L^OV dha TRii ta ay ! 
be off, and leave the tree to me ! 


the mixen's 

enaf VBE O dhii ! " 
good enough for thee!" 

e's dhen, ^ IS^WK'L', paeaesm bay> 
just then, a yuckel, passin' by, 

waz 83ksT be dliE 1 !!! dha kEEz Ta TRCZJ ; 
was axed by them the cause to try ; 

EE EE j z aw TZ 
"ha! ha! I see how 'tis! 

! " zE 1 !) ii, 
" zays he, 

" dbz)aL r mn^k 'B viimas maisrsh VBR O ay !" 
"they'll make a vamous nunch vor me!" 

iz bL waz sbaaE p, e'z STHUME: Lii^E , 

his bill was shearp, his stomach lear [empty], 

zoo ap sxaepT db'B 

zo up a snapped the caddlin pair. 








86831^ Jtm az bii ta Laa 

ael you as be to laaw inclined, 

dhVas LfliV sTaR* b^^E in mdyii ; 
this leetle stwory bear in mind ; 

vaE ii ia Laa 1 juu se'e'mz T^ gd ! a 
vor if to laaw you aims to gwo, 

JUU)L vayN r D dli89')L' seasluaz 
you'll vind they'll allus zar'e 

JUU)L" miiT db^ vn'T 13 dbiiz iii3R TUU, 
you'll meet the vate o these here two, 

they'll take your cwoat and carcass 
[ 1484 ] 

KaaRKas TUU. 

too ! 

zoo ; 
zo ; 







Notes to the above. 

0. The references are to the number 
of the line. In this transcript an 
endeavour has been made to follow 
JGG.'s notation of the last of his 
many transcripts. In the following 
cwl. as there explained, some compro- 
mises have been made. The letters 
(T D L N R sh) have been used for 
typographical convenience in place of 
(t, d, 1, n, r, shj, which would represent 
JGG.'s opinion of their formation as 
retracted rather than reverted, but we 
are quite at one respecting the sound. 
Also throughout this example I have 
used (B O ) in place of (B) to show ab- 
sence of trill. I am, however, by no 
means clear that there is no trill, 
though the effect of the reverted trill 
(R<J) is quite different from that of the 
tip trill (q), on account of the dullness 
and indistinctness of the beats. In the 
cwl., and also in recording the pron. of 
other districts, I have used (R) ex- 
clusively for this r, whether reverted 
or retracted, whether trilled or un- 
trilled, because the sound itself is 
certain, and these four differences are 
theoretical. In my own pron. I feel 
that (R) is both reverted and trilled, as 
the form (R) properly implies. 

0. hornet (aaR N8T), which I should 
prefer writing (aRNBT). The (aa) says 
JGG. "is not quite pure (aa), there 
is more or less (a 1 ) character about it, 
it is certainly modified before (R O ) by 
an upturned tongue. The (R O ) is an r 
with the tongue turned tip upwards, to 
the highest part of the palate, so as to 
present a teaspoonbowl-like form to- 
wards the larynx and is not trilled 
wherever I have heard it." JGG. 
has been constantly in the habit of 
speaking to Wl. people. The reverted 
or retracted character of (T D N L) as 
well as (R) on all occasions has been 
introduced here as well as in the cwl. 
as explained to me by him verbally. 
The aspirate (h) says JGG. "seems 
to be rather permissive than obligatory, 
except of course where the word is em- 
phatic, but I have never noticed any of 
the Wl. people inserting an aspirate in 
its wrong place, as Londoners do ; and 
I have been familiar with Wl. talk for 
the last 25 years." 

and the (an dha), " (a, u) in unaccented 
syllables may be simply (a) throughout. 
By (a) I mean my own pron. of the 
vowels in the words, some one's hwsband 

son or brother comes rwnning in at 
once." JGG. 

beetle (bu l D8L') : this is a common 
London mispronunciation, if (d, 1) be 
substituted for (D, L). In Mrs. G.'s 
first and second dictation, and as JGG. 
remembered her repeating these lines 
when he was a child, she said (bT'i/), 
and all my other Wl. authorities give 
(bit'l) both for the mallet and the insect. 

2. spiteful. The long I was origin- 
ally written (di) in the cwl., and sounded 
to me rather (a'i) or (a>'i). But JGG. 
says the first element is " Scotch or 
German long (aa) gliding into a rounded 
(i) almost (y), lips as for (o)," that is, 
properly (o'y ) ; (dy) is here retained, 
because in JGG.'s very last hearing of 
the dictation, this still seemed to him 
the nearest sound, and he has also in 
correcting the proof introduced it into 
the cwl. See D 5, Andover. 

3. while. JGG. did not find a fully 
consonantal (w) or (j), but felt that they 
were really vowels, as in Welsh, and 
hence they are here written (u, i). 

6. Mrs. G. had (ay be'ant ufnaiy) a 
bii neR c wops, neR vlo'y)> as Mr. Aker- 
man's "I vears not bee" was not 
dialectal. But on the line thus becoming 
two syllables too long, the words bee nor 
have been omitted. 

8. look. The pron. (LW ! K) was obtained 
specially. "This (') is neither (u) nor 
(u), but an intermediate vowel," it 
bears the same relation to (w)as (i 1 ) to 
(i), see (ge^o) 1. 18. These differences 
are hard to catch in isolation, but make 
themselves generally felt in conversa- 
tion. In the proof JGG. introduced 
(K) generally. 

11. all (!,', BE!'). JGG. says, 
"I cannot quite make out what this 
vowel is ; it is not quite the same as 
the Cu. and We. sound, but seems 
more like (aese). I think it quite likely 
that I should write it (se) at one time, 
and (BE) at another. But I think the 
last is the nearest equivalent I know, 
unless we use (BE 86 ), which would ex- 
press my idea of it." This would be 
(BE) inclining to (), and might be 
written (EE^. 

14. bold. In this word (ba%LD) 
we meet (a 1 ) a higher form of (a). 
JGG. considers it the same sound as 
the s. Scotch (a) as pron. by Dr. 
Murray. It is a shade of sound which 
I cannot distinguish. See D 5, Andover. 

sting, will not rhyme with twindge 
Mr. Akerman implies by the spelling 

[ 1485 ] 



[D 4, V i. 

stinge. Mr. A. rhymes lines 7 and 8 
him dim, but Mrs. G. restoring the 
dialect has (ii, KLim) ; 1. 15 and 16, 
Mr. A. has Idaw, kladw, and Mrs. G. 
(Laa 1 KLEE) . The older sounds I heard 
from Mr. Law were (laa, klaa), the 
modern (!EE MEE). Lines 17 and 18 
Mr. A. has me, thee, Mrs. G. says 
dialectally (ay, dhii), and similarly 
lines 21 and 22. Lines 23 and 24 Mr. 
A. has lear, pair, which Mrs. G. reads 
(LireR , pirnij. Lines 25 and 26 Mr. 
A. has inclined, mind, Mrs. G. leaves 
out the last (D). Lines 27 and 28, Mr. 
A. has gwo, zo, Mrs. G. reads (go^a, zoo). 
This shews how dangerous it is to write 
dialect in rhyme. Mr. Akerman's 
stories have usually been considered 
first-rate dialect. I found dialectal 
construction frequently so violated in 
them that whole passages might be 
read off perfectly in rs., and I could 
not use them at all, for present pur- 
poses, especially as shades of sound 
were not distinguished. 

16. here (BBR O ) ; for the (i) in place 

of (j) see note 1. 3 while. For (BB) 
JGG. says, "as in the 'early bird de- 
serves the early worm,' but the tongue 
is raised more, I should say it is more 
arched" As I write the vowel in the 
above words in rs. (go), generally 
avoiding (e), except in weak syllables, 
this might be (so 1 ), but from the de- 
scription it is possibly a new vowel. 
shalt not, probably, though the form 
(shaex'nt) is very singular, but Aker- 
man's sha'sn't is quite unintelligible. 

19. yuckel, a Wl. name for a wood- 
pecker. Mrs. G. seems to have con- 
fused it with yokel a bumpkin. 

22. munch, with retracted or re- 
verted (N) and the corresponding (sh), 
not (maNTj). The word nunch lunch, 
or noon-food, seems to have been con- 
fused with the more familiar munch, 
which, however, is properly a verb. 
lear is used for empty, hungry, in many 

28. serve you so, the v is regularly 
omitted. The word (sail) is also com- 
monly used for to earn. 


From a complete wl., with the words from the Hornet, marked H, in the spelling 
there used, the whole taken down with scrupulous accuracy by JGG. from his 
stepmother's pronunciation, a work of great labour extending over many days or 
rather years, for the list was entirely gone over and retranscribed many times, and 
finally all doubtful points were re-examined. On the treatment of (T D N L R) 
see note to title of Hornet and Beetle. Here and elsewhere in future (R) and 
not (R O ) is written for typographical reasons. See also the same note for (aa) 
or (aa 1 ) and likewise for the use of (a) . Also for writing the diphthongal long i as 
(ay), see note to 1. 2 in the Hornet. The vowel iii) varied in speech as (ii 1 ) 
which is used in the Hornet, but I have here used (ii) only for convenience. Also 

!, e 1 ) occur, but are nearly identical, and were used by JGG. according as the 

sound seemed to incline to (i) or (e). The series (i i 1 

is practically con- 

tinuous from (i) to (e). On (B, ao, so 1 ) see note to 1. 16 of Hornet and Beetle, and 
on (ii, i) note to 1. 3. 


A- 1 zoo. 3 biiK [the rural form for all these (ii) is (e'V) nearly (fe)]. 
4 Tiix, H Tii J K. 5 miix, H mi^K. 6 miio. 7 ziiK. 9 bi;iiv. 10 aa 1 . 12 
ZEE zaa. 14 DREE. 17 Laa, H Laa 1 . 18 KUK Kz'aic [see 3]. 19 TW'L' [even 
accent, almost dissyllabic]. 20 Liim Le Vm [see 3]. 21 Niim N/a'm. 22 xiim. 
23 siim. 24 shiim she'Vm. niEENDzh. 27 N^ X V. 28 I^R. 29 [(bii) 
been used]. 30 KZ>R. 31 LiiT. 32 biidh. 33 [(ZMNB) sooner, used]. 34 
L838BST. 35 aa. 36 dha [(mi JL'T) melt, generally used] . 37 KLAA and H. 

A: 39 Kam. 40 siiam [not quite (kwam)]. 41 thEqK [(dhEqit) means 
think"]. 42 BN. 43 BBN'D. 44 LSBN'D. 45 iiaNT. 46 KaeND9L\ 47 [(STR^) 
stray, used]. 48 zoq\ 50 Toqzi x z. 51 m3N. 53 ka3N. 54 UONT. 55 
sez'^h^z. 56 uosh. 57 EES. 

A: or 0: 58 VRom. 59 Lami. 60 Loq and H. 61 amaq\ 62 STRoq\ 
64 Raq. 65 zoq\ 66 dhoq\ A'- 67 a'i gwa, H go^. 69 NOO. 70 TU'Q. 72 uu. 
73 zoo and H. 74 TUU and H. 75 sTR^'k. 76 TUQV, H Too l 8D. 77 Laa ! RD. 

[ 1486 ] 

D 4, V i.] THE MID SOUTHERN. 55 

78 aW. 79 [same as 78]. 80 ai^Dii. 81 LUN\ 82 USNS. 83 mwaN\ 
84 HIMB'R. 85 ZMB'R. 86 WETS. 87 KLZ. 88 TB KLaadh. 89 bwadh. 90 
bL. 91 num. 92 N. 93 SN. 94 kR. 95 DR. 96 zaa. 97 SE'WL. 
98 ii N##D, o'y did N#, NU'WN. 99 DRaaN. 100 Z##N. 

A': 101 aaK, <?<?Kaa l RN TRii. 102 BBKS. 103 seitst and H. 104 RD. 
105 RD. 106 bRaao [not ()]. 107 LOOV. 108 D#. 109 L#. 110 NEBT. 
113 iiaL [L is very vocal]. 114 ma'wL. 115 uam. 116 uu. 118 
119 T8 gwa. 121 gaax. 122 NOON. 123 Nadhiq. 124 sTwa'N. 125 
126 [(naa)tfn) rower, used]. 127 was. 128 dhz'az. 129 gasT. 130 
131 gwa'T. 132 OT. 133 RT. 134 wath. 135 KLaath. 

^- 138 fiidhB^ fEEdhB^. 139 DR^. 140 EE'aL se'iaiA 141 NEE'SL. 
142 sNEE'aL. 143 TEE'aL. 144 ag^'aN. 146 mae'/N. 147 bRse'iN. 148 
fse'iB'R. 149 bLu ! z. 150 L/asT. 152 uaaTB^. 153 Z^DE'RO^. 

-S3: 154 baek. 155 dbaexsb. 156 GLBSD. 157 Riiv'n. 158 eerm. 160 
B eg. 161 Dii. 162 TB mi. 163 [(L^D) laid used]. 164 mee. 165 ZCD. 
166 mse'iD [almost ima^o) witb (i) not (i). 168 tsela. 169 uen. H uops 
[wasp]. 170 aa^vijST. 171 baaRLij. 172 GREES. 173 uaaz, ii UBBR. 174 
ae'ish. 175 VEEST. 176 &T. 177 dhaaT. 178 N89T. 179 wax. 180 

M'- 182 zti 1 . 183 [(TB Laa T RN) used]. 184 tB i^ao. 185 RU'D. 186 
bR^Dtb. 187 Li ] av, H Li^v. 188 NEE. 189 WEE. 190 K.EE. 191 iiaL\ 
192 m/aN. 193 KLe'aN. 194 asN^. 195 msext!. 196 UBBR. 197 Tshiiz. 
198 TBLCT. 199 [(TB bEE)=baa, used]. 200 wiit. 201 iidhBN. 202 iiT. 

-5: 203 [(TEEk) =talk, used]. 205 DRED. 206 ii RU'D. 207 nD8L\ 
208 evBR. 209 NCVBR. 210 KLEE. 211 GREE. 212 UEE. 213 [(aaRN) =e'er 
a one, used], 215 [(ii Titi-skr) = he teacbed, used]. 216 DU'BL. 217 za'Tsb ON 
em, BBR B uaN. 218 B snip. 219 SLiip. 220 shepBRD. 221 viiBR. 222 BBR. 
223 dhBBR. 224 WBBR. 225 vLEsb. 226 md'asT. 227 ueT. 228 zuet. 
229 bREEth. 230 f?T. 

E- 231 [fdhiK, dhas) used]. 232 bRiiic. 233 spiix. 234 N/BD. 235 uivv, 
iiiiv. 236 viivBR. 237 Tsb/BL-bL83'iN. 238 EEDch. 239 ZEE'aL. 240 LEED. 
241 R83'iN. 243 pLEE. 244 iieBL. 245 m^BL. 246 kiiiiN. 247 U'IBN. 
248 mBBR. - - H bBBR [to bear]. 249 UBBR. 250 ZUBBR. 251 miiT. 252 
KijTaiA 253 NETaL\ 254 IsdhBR. 

E: 256 [(tB DREE a'wi) = to draw out, used]. 257 EDzh. 259 uiozh. 
260 L838B. 261 ZEE. 262 UEE. 263 BJUEE, ejuEE. 265 STRae'iT. 266 UEL\ 
- vi l aL\D [field]. 267 [(ia gi tN) used]. 268 a'wL^Dis. 269 zELf. 270, 
i. bi'LasijZ, ii. bEk. 271 TEL\ 272 ELm. 273 meN [not (HIEN)]. 274 bijNsh. 
275 STEqic. 276 dbEqK. 277 DRi^sh. 278 iiENsh. 279 UE'NT. 280 Leb'm\ 
281 Isqth LeNth. 282 STREqth. 283 maRi^ H meRBLii [merrily]. 284 
DR Eh. 285 kRiisez. 286 aRa. 287 bi^am. 288 LET. H zei [set]. 
H bE'sT [best]. 

E'- 289 ii [heard as (ii 1 )]. 290 ii [heard as (ii 1 )] and H. 291 dhii. 292 
[(a'y) used]. 293 uii. 294 viio. 295 bRijD. 296 bi^i^av. 298 vi'aL\ 
299 GRii ! N. 300 K^ap Kip. 301 ZBBR. 302 miiT and H. 303 ziiiiT. 304 
[(mahLaT) used]. 

E': 305 cry. 306 yth. 307 [(KLaas) used]. 309 spiid [(RUT) = rate more 
usual]. 310 iaL\ 311 TBN'. 312 /BBR, H tBBR ziBR . 313 aaRk'n. 314 
i. iuBRD. 315 viiT. 316 Neks. 

EA- 317 [(TB SKiN) used]. 318 LEET. 319 gEEp. 320 K?'BBR. 

EA: 321 ziiD. 322. LEE. 323 ii VS'MT. 324 ae'i'T. 326 a'wL\ 327 

, H ba 1 ML X D. 328 K.a'ML\D. 329 VB'ML\D. 330 a'wL\D. 331 
332 ta'wL\D. 333 KEEV. 334 EE. 335 EEL\ H aeaeL. 336 VEEL\ 337 
uhL\ 338 K383L\ eeeel&az [always]. 339 [fay bit-) used]. 340 Taa^D. 
341 maud. 342 aa'Rm. 343 uaa'Rm. H shaaR p [sharp]. 345 DBBR. 
346 geaT giiT. 

EA'- 347 eD. 348 o'y. 349 v,a. 

EA': 350 DEED. 351 L^D. 352 R^D. 353 bREED. 354 shfov. 355 Dtf. 
356 L/av. 357 dhaa dhoo. 359 NiibBR. 360 T/am. 361 b^'am. 362 ZLEE. 

. . . 

363 Tsh/ap. 364 Tshssp. 365 N/BBR. 366 gBBRT. 367 DRET. 368 oeth. 
369 SL. 370 REE. 371 STREE. 

[ 1487 ] 

56 THE MID SOUTHERN. [D 4, V i. 

El- 372 EE. 373 dhEE. 374 [(noo) used]. 375 Ta Ro'yz. 376 baj'tx. 

El: 377 STUK. 378 uiiK. 380 dhEE Bm. 382 dhae'mi. 

EO- 383 zeb'm. 384 eb'n. 385 [(bika-) = below, used]. 386 I's.'u. 
387 NIUU. 

EO: 388 mToL's. 389 jaax. 390 shun shao. 391 [(a'y bii) used]. 393 
bi;se-N v D. 394 ?feN v DBR. 395 taq\ 396 UBBRK. 397 ZMBBRD. 398 STaaRV. 
399 bRyT. 400 BBRNis. 402 laaRN. 403 VBBR. 404 STaaR. 405 BBRth- 
STwan, EE-, eef-STwan [always witb stone]. 406 BBRth. 407 vaaRD'N. 408 
[(ii NaaD) used]. 

EO'- 409 bii. 410 [(shii) used]. 411 DRii. - - H TRii [tree]. 412 sbii. 
413 D^vaL". 414 VLa'y, H vla'y. 415 Lay. 416 DIBBR. 417 Tshaa. 418 bRUU. 
419 IBBR. 420 va'uBR. 421 faaRTi. 

EO': 422 zik. 423 dha'y-boan. 424 Raf. 425 La'yr. 426 va'yT. 427 TI? 
bii. 428 TB zii and H. 430 VREND. 431 MBBR. 432 va'wmTh. 433 bResx. 
434 i b/'aT. 435 ?uu. 436 TRUU. 437 TRUuth. 

EY- 438 day. EY: 439 TRSDS. 

I- 440 iiik. 441 ziV. 442 ayvi. 443 TRay-vi^ 444 STa'yaL*. 446 Na'iN. 
H biL [bird's bill]. 447 BBR. 448 dhzaz. 449 geT. 450 Tshuuzm^ 45 1 
zaa [confused witb 76 to sow]. 

I: 452 a'y H a'y. 453 KWK [(VEEST) fast, used]. 454 mxsb. 455 Laese 
[confused witb to lay]. 456 af. 457 ma'yr. 458 na'yr. 459 Royx H Ra'yT. 
460 use'i'T. 462 za'yT. 463 TL\ 464 Wish. 465 zaTsh. 466 Tsha'yaL L D. 
467 ua'yaLLD. 468 TshiL ( DBRN. 470 [(ii) be used]. -- H klirn [climb] . 471 
timb^R. 472 shR^qk. 473 bLa'yN\ 474 R^yN . 475 wa'yN*. 476 ba'yN\ 
477 voyN\D and H. 478 GRa'yNYD. 479 ua'yN\D. 480 dhEq\ - H zaq 
[sung]. - II stE x q [sting]. 481 VEqgBR. 482 iz. 483 iz. 484 dhis, 
dh/az. 485 dhisaL 1 . 486 iasT. 487 isTBRDii- 488 ii. 489 ii [only (T) as an 
enclitic]. H zex zaT [sit, sat]. 

I- 490 boy. 491 zy. 492 za'yD. 493 DRa'yv. 494 Ta'ym. 495 a'yN\ 
496 ayBRN\ 498 Ra'yT. 499 bix'L* [originally, then as in] H bii'oaiA 

I': 500 La'yk. 501 uayo. 502 va'yv. 503 Lyf [but (La'yv) alive] . 504 Na'yf . 
505 uyf. 506 wmaN. 507 iiimeN. 508 ma'yaL\ 509 uo'yaL' H udyL\ 510 
ma'yn^ H m'yN. 511 iia'yN'. 512 spaym. 513 ua'yBR. 514 ays. 515 iia'yz 
[wiseacre (iiyziikBR)]. 516 iiizDam. 517 mu. 

0- 518 BflDix. 519 VBR. 520 \>aa. 521 VE'WL\ 522 aap'm. 523 aap. 

524 UBBRDaL\ 

0: 525 aai and H [for off}. 526 YaaL 526 bax. 528 dha^T. 529 
531 DeeTBR. 532 kl. 533 Dai,^ [a variant of (a) in direction of (o, o) 

or (a], ? my (a>)]. 534 acti?. 535 v00K. 536 gs'wi/D. 537 ma'L\ 538 MD. 

H OLB [bollow]. 539 fa'wL\ 540 OL'ij. 541 UONT. 542 ba'wL^T. 543 ON. 
544 dheN. 545 ap, op. 546 vaBR. 547 bwBRD. 549 WBRD. 550 UBBRD. 
551 staaRm. 552 kaaRN. - H sKaaR NVBLi [scornfully], 553 aaRN. 554 


0'- 555 shuu. 556 TB. 557 TUU and H. 558 LM'E: and H. 559 madhBR. 
560 sKuuaL\ 561 bLMMm. 562 HIMN\ 563 maND^. 564 zu^n. 565 xtaaz. 

GRaa'iN [growing]. 567 T3)dhBR. 568 bRadhBR. 

0': 569 bUiK- 570 TU^. 571 gi^D H gu l v [(u,, u l ) are practically 
identical]. 572 bLSD. 573 VL^D. 574 [(a a hatch, used]. 575 STWD. 
576 waeNZDij. 577 ba'w. 578 pLa'w. 579 L^nEf [([^) hardly audible] H Bnaf. 
580 Taf. 583 TwaL\ 584 siwaL\ 586 Dew\ 587 i)a)N. 588 NUUjN. 589 
spuu^. 590 VLOBBR. 592 ZUBBR. 593 masT. 594 bu x T. 595 VV^T. 596 
[(maa v R) used]. 597 ziijT. 

U- 599 boov. 600 Lav. 601 va'wL. 602 za'u. 603 kam. 604 zamiBR. 
605 zaN. 606 DMBR. 607 baTBR. 

U: 608 agrzj. 609 vaL. 610 uwaL^ [there seems to be a distinct separation 
of (Czi)]. 611 bwL8K. 612 zara. 613 DRaqk. 614 a'wN\ 615 paW. 616 
gRa'wN\ 617 za x UN L D. 618 UMN\ 619 va'^N\ 620 gRaW. 621 ua'N\ 
622 aNDBR. 623 VE'WN\D. 624 gRawN\ 625 Taq\ 626 aqgBR. 627 ZSND^. 
628 NaN\ 629 zaN\ 630 iiaN v . 631 dhozd^ dhBBRZD^. 632 ap and H. 
633 Kap. 634 DROO. 635 iiath. 636 VBBRDBR. 637 TasK. 639 Da'wsT. 

U ; - 640 xa'w. 641 a'w. 642 dha'w. 643 Na'w. 645 DOOV. 646 ba'w. 

[ 1488 ] 

D 4, V i.] THE MID SOUTHERN. 57 

647 a'wL\ 648 a'wm. 649 dhaWn\ 650 baVr. 651 mdha'wx 652 KMD 
653 bax. 

U': 654 zlma'wD. 656 Rz^m. 657 bRa'wN\ 658 da'N\ 659 xa'wN\ 
660 ba'e<BR [arbour]. 661 sha'wjR. 662 as. 663 a'ws and H. 664 La'ws. 
665 ma'ws. 666 sozbaN. 667 aVr. 668 pRa'era. 671 ma'wth. 672 zawth.' 

Y- 673 mroxsh. 674 mi>. 675 DRa'y. 676 Lay. 677 DRa'y. 679 xshBBRXsh. 
680 bmj. 681 biz^nes. 682 L*xaL\ H LixV. 

Y: 684 bRiDzh. 685 Riozh. 686 bcr'y. 687 VLa'yx. 688 zaxsh. 689 
b/aL^D. 690 koyN. 691 ma'yNLD H ma'yN. 692 iBqis. 693 zi,n. 696 
bBBRth. 697 beRv 698 niBBRth. 699 Rayx. -- H aaR Nax [hornet]'. 700 
iias. 701 vasx. 702 iit. 703 pix. 704 viKsh'N. 

Y- 705 sKa'y. 706 iia'y. 707 dhBBRxiiN. 708 

Y': 709 vaiBR. 711 Lays. 712 mays. 


A. 713 ba3D. 714 LSBD. 715 pa3D. 716 aoL'o Eg. H 

[caddling, quarrelling]. 718 XRUD. 722 DRas'iN. 723 dss'iRi. 724 _. 
725 r/iai/. 726 xaeaak. 727 ozhasm. 728 shsem. 729 frum. - - H 
[snapped]. 732 aspV. 734 Daa*RN. 735 smse'ish. 736 LEES. 737 miix. 
738 pRiix. 740 mv x uiiv\ 741 miiz. 742 Im;^. 

E. 743 sKRiim. - H LUBR O [lear = empty j . 744 miizaL^z. 745 xshiax. 
746 bRiidh. 748 iLeozliD. 749 Lefx, xa Lia'v. 750 baag. 751 P/BRX. H 
se'im [to aim]. 752 VRBX. 

I. and Y. 753 xiitaL\ 754 peg. 755 viLbBRx. 756 zhRi^p. 

t twinge]. 757 ta'yntj. 758 g83L\ 759 vit. 760 shivaL\ H 
mixen, dungheap]. 

0. 761 Lwac. 762 0-Kam. 763 [(noav) rove, used]. 765 :DzhaN. 767 
NE'iz. 768 KaK. 770 rxoniBs. 771 VON^D. 772 boNvoyBR. 773 DDNK^. 
774 poNij. 775 b^bij. 776 gw'D buay. 777 *hap. 778 BVM I -BRD. 779 
[(b'avinz) leavings, used]. 781 bodhBR. 783 pa'wL'xR^. 784 ba'wNS. 786 
Da'ws. 787 za'wz. 790 ga'wn. 791 buo'y. 

U. 792 skiiabe*L\ H ia^K'L[yuckel, woodpecker]. 793 ag. 794 Dzhag. 
795 shRag. 796 bi/ri l . 797 [(sKuAL v in) used]. 798 KUBBR. 799 SKEL\ 801 
Ram. 802 Ram. 803 Dzhamp. - maNsh [munch]. 804 DRa)q'K [as (-qk) 
often occurs]. 805 kRadz [BU UEE]. 806 vas. 807 pzi^. 808 pax, H pax. 


A-- 809 iibaL\ 810 fiis. 811 pliis. 812 Liis. 813 biiK'N. 814 miis'N. 
816 fiio. 817 Raecish. 818 iiozh. 819 RiiDzh. 820 gEE. 821 vilee. 822 masse. 824 x&hae'tBR. 825 uEEf. 826 iigaL. 829 gas'iN. 830 xRae'iN. 

- H bfegBNex [bayonet], 832 msB^BR. 833 pBBR and H. 834 shsz'iz, sh^z. 
835 Riiz'n\ 836 ziiz'n\ 838 XRU'X. - mi'aL [male]. 840 xsheembBR. 

- H viimas [famous]. 841 xshEEns. 842 plse'qk. 843 bR^Nsh. 844 xRBNsh. 
845 aeq.fliBNX. 846 xshEENBR. 847 D83NDzhBr. 848 xshas'/NDzh. 849 sxR83NDzh. 
850 DEENS. 851 ENX. 852 EE'PBRN. H KaaR ? K8s [carcass]. 853 baaRG/N. 
854 bR8L\ 855 xaRax. 856 PBBRX. 857 xiis. 858 bniis. 859 xshiis. 

- H paeaism [passing]. - H vii'x [fate], 860 piisx. 861 xiisx. -- H 
NiishaN [damnation]. 862 siif. 863 xshas'f. 864 bikEEz. H kEEz [cause]. 
865 vaax. 866 PMBR. 

E-- 867 xii. 868 DzhEE. 869 vt'aL'. 870 \)iuTi { . 871 agRii. 872 
xsh/af. 874 Raa'iN. 875 fse'iNX. 876 Dee'wxi!. 877 BBR. 878 saaLSR^. 
879 irmeeiS. 880 egzoempT. - - H xonshans [conscience]. 881 ZCNS. 882 
[ (Lava La'yD8L') used]. 883 dgeNDiLaiaN. 884 apReNxis. 885 veRip 886 VRO'VBR. 
887 kLBRDzhBmasn. 888 zaaRxV. - - H pBze-*haN [possession]. H zaaR 
[sieve]. 890 b/asx. 891 f/asx. 892 Nevi. 893 fLa'MBR. 894 dizii'v. 895 

l~ and?- 897 diLa'yx. 898 Nays. 899 Niis. 900 pREE. 901 vayN, 
H va'yN. tNKLayND [inclined]. 902 mayN. 903 DrfyK\ 904 vayLax. 905 
Rayai. 906 vaypBR. 908 BDvayz. 909 bRiiz. - - H spa'yxfeL [spiteful]. 
910 Dzhee'is. 911 ZSTBRN. 912 Ra'ys. 

[ 1489 ] 



[D 4, V i. 

0" 913 KflTh. 914 bRooTsh. 915 sTaf. 
viibaiA 919 se'iNTnreNT. 920 pa'ynt. 921 
922 bushel/. 923 mo'yst. 924 Tsh#'ys- 925 vys. 
[stomach]. 927 TRaqK. 928 NawNS. 929 Kwiunve 
935 KaNTRtf. 936 fa'wNT. H pRopim [proper]. 
940 KwaT H K008T. 941 v/i 1 !/. 942 bu^shim. 
945 va'w 1 . 947 buayaL\ 948 baeV. 950 ssopeR. 
953 kazV. 954 ktwh^w. 955 Da'wT. 956 kavtm. 958 KEB. 
961 GRM J 8L\ 963 Kwo'yaT. 964 shwaT. 965 ffi'iaiA 966 
968 ae'isTBR. 969 sha'weR. 970 Dzbas H Dzhi^. 971 

916 o'ymN. 917 Rag. 918 
H siuni [story]. 
926 spwoy'EL\ sxamik 
. 930 LaiN. 933 fR3NT. 
938 kaaRNBR. 939 
943 Taish. 944 
951 KapaiA 952 K8RS. 
959 kenvEE. 
967 S\LU I T. 

Phase III. Tilskead, 8 sse. Devizes, in the centre of "Wl. 

Tbeodulf's bide, Tydulviside, Tidulside, Tyleside, TOshead, called (rtsrlsed), 
as I was informed by the then Vicar's daughter, Miss Louisa H. Johnson, who was 
born and had resided there above forty years. She kindly wrote a wl. and dt. 
and on 6 Oct. 1879 called on me to work them over vivci voce. She also gave 
me the example of Hocktying or HocJctide. The custom about 1850 was that on 
the second Tuesday after Easter, the young men tied the ancles of any young 
women they could catch about ; and on the following Wednesday the girls re- 
turned the compliment. The following was the explanation given by old people, 
which I wrote from Miss J.'s diet. Probably every (t d n 1 r) should be (T D L N R), 
but I leave the transcription as I wrote it. 

1. The Peasants' account of the origin of hock-tying or hoctide in 
the village of Tilshead. 

wans dhim WBR ERD fook az ud. k^'p on v kamm ii'R, en 13 robm 
once there were red folk as would keep on a-coming here, and a-robbing 

dh):fqlBh fook, en ^t last dhai ap im set)^m, im ta'id)^m up 
the English folk, and at last they up and at them, and tied them up 

to pui3stez 'en kat dh^R DRots. 
to posts and cut their throats. 

2. Tilshead dt. pal. by AJE. from diet, of Miss Johnson. 

(1.) zoo a'i d^ ZEE, mfets, dhii d^ zii na'u, dh^t a'i bi ra'it 
dhk liit'L maid kamn vrorn dh-B skuu^L 

(2.) shii)z ^gwain da'un dh^ roo^d dhee'R, DRUU dh' 'BRD gfet on 
dh^ lih haend za'id ^dh^ wai. 

STRait ap t^ dh 

(3.) shuuR tmaf dh^ tjE'ild haev 
B)dhB roq ha'us. 

(4.) weeR shi)i3l mE)bi va'ind dhk DRaqk'n de'f shnv'ld 

(5.) wi)d 3333! naa)n VER WE!. 
(6.) wa)nt dh)aald tja3p zuun 

shi not te duu)t 



(7.) loks, [i 

t TRUU ? 
[ 1490 ] 

D 4, V i.] THE MID SOUTHERN. 59 

3. TlLSHEAD Cwl. 

Pal. in 1879 by AJE. from the diet, of Miss Johnson. 

A- 3 bisk. 4 tiBk. 5 miek. 6 m'red. 7 s'rek. 12 ZEE. 13 naa. 14 
DRaa. 171aa. 18 k'rek. 20 Hum. 21 n'nmi. 22 frem. 23 s'rem. 24 shimn. 
36 dhaa. 37 tlaeae. A: 40 kuuam. 41 dhEqk. 45 want. 55 eshez. 
56 waa'sh. A: or 0: 58 vrom. 61 Bmreq. A'- 67 guu. 76 tuuBd. 
81 lien. 83 muuBn. 84 muuBR . 85 SUUBR O . 86 wats. 87 klaaz. 89 
btiuBdh. 92 naa. 93 snaa. 95 DROO. A': 104 RtiuBd. 115 huuBm. 
118 buuBn. 122 nooBn. 124 stuuBn. 125 oni. 127 MUBRS. 128 [(dham) 
used]. 129 guuBst. 131 guuBt. 

M- 139 DRai. 140 haiL. 141 naiL. 142 snaiL. 143 taiL. 144 BgEn. 
145. slain. 146 main. 147 bRain. 148 fain. Emet [emmet more used 
than ant]. M: 155 dhastj. 158 a3t'R . 160 a3g. 163 lai. 164 [(mid) 
pi. (mid'n) used.] 165 zsd. 166 maid. 174. aish. 175 va3st. M'- 183 
tMj. 189 wai. 190 kEE [in East Lavington (4 s. Devizes) (koi), possibly (kai)]. 
192 miBn. 193 kliBn. 197 tjiiz. 202 hEt. M': 205 DREd. 207 nid'L. 
213 iidhBR. 218 ship. 225 fl?sh. 226 muuBst. 

E- 236 fEEVTJR. 237 tjilblain. 241 Rain. 242 twain. 243 plai. 252 
kit'L. 253 nEt'L. E: 261 ZEE. 262 wai. 265 STRait. 270 

284 DRaish. - bast [to burst]. 286 haRB. 287 bizem. E'- 294 viid. 
298 vii'ld [(vaa'LDiD), felt, as that something is hot]. E': 306 ha'it. 307 
na'i. 314 hii'RD, jii'RD. 315 viit. EA: 321 [(zid) see'd, used]. 322 
Iffiffif. 323 faut. 324 ait. 326 aald. 327 buuBLD. 328 kuu^LD. 329 
vtiueLD. 330 huuBLD. 331 SUUBLD. 332 tuuBLD. 333 kaea3f. 334 hffif. 
335 a3a3l. 336 va383l. 342 jaaRm. 346 giBt. EA'- 349 viu. EA': 352 
BRD. 355 dif. 359 naib^R. 362 slai. 370 R8B83. 371 sTRa3a3. El- 373 
dhai. 376 bait. El: 379 haiL. 381 swain. 382 dhaiR. EO: 
vaaRniBR. 403 VBR. 407 vaRD'N. EO'- 411 DRii. 413 divel. 420 vauBR. 
421 vauKTi. EO': 423 dha'i. 426 vait. 430 viRND. 

I- 447 heRN [hers, in Urchfont (4 se. Devizes) (shiiz'n) is used]. 448 dhii'z. 
I: 460 wait. 466 tjaild. 468 tjildimn. 481 viqgtm. 484 dhii'z. 485 
dhis'L. 486 [(baaRm) used]. I'- 499 bix'L [see p. 53, col. 2]. I': 506 
wnren. 507 winren. 

0- 522 oop'm. 523 hoop. 524 waRD'L. 0: TROO [trough]. 528 
dhaat. 531 da3a3t'R . 532 kAAl. 536 gumjLD. 537 [(d^RT) dirt, used]. 539 
bool. 545 hop. vaRk [fork, "the mouth must be elongated as for a grin"]. 
547 buuBRD. 548 vfiueRD. 549 IIUUBRD. 552 kaRN. 553 haRN. 554 
kRaas. 0'- 565 nuuez. 566 adhBR. 0': 577 ba'u. 578 pla'u. 579 
eno'f [(tma'u) not heard]. 580 ta'u. 582 kuu^L. 583 tuu^L. 584 stiiuBL. 
589 spuuun. 590 SUUBR. 592 SUUBR. 597 zut. 

II- 601 ve'uBL. 602 za'u. 606 duu'r. U: 609 VWL, VUUBL. 610 UU'L. 
TJ: 618 uund. 619 va'und. 634 DRa'u. 635 wath. 636 vaRDBR. U'- 
641 ha'u [approaching to (hou)]. 642 [(dhii) used]. U': 663 ha'us [pi. 
(ha'uz'n)]. 665 ma'us. , 

Y- 682 liit'l. Y: wast [worst]. 701 vasT. Y- 707 dh'RTiin. 
709 va'iR. 


A. 722 Duain. 723 deeRi. 742 liBzt. 

E. 743 skrmn. 744 m^z'lz. 745 tjiit. 748 [(flash) used]. 750 ba3g. 

I. andY. 754 pEg. 756 shRimp [= lollipop]. 758 gaR'L [rather a foreign 
word, used for a sweetheart]. 

0. 761 Mugd. 767 na'iz. 769 [(want) used]. 773 doqki. 774 puuni. 
778 BVUUBRD. 781 bodhBR. 783 pa'ui/TRi. 790 ga'und. - DRa'und [pp. 
(dRa' undid), drown, drowned]. 

U. 795 slmag. 801 Ram. 802 Ram. 805 kaRDZ. kaR'Lz [curls]. 
806 fas. 808 pat. 

[ 1491 ] 

60 THE MID SOUTHERN. [D 4, Y i, ii. 


A- 809 Jieb'L. 810 fins. 811 plm [pi. (pleez'n)]. 812 lira. 813 

b'njk'n. 817 REdish. 822. mai. 824 tjaiBR. 827 [(fEs) fierce, used]. 829 

gain. 830 TRain. 836 aeez'n. 840 tjamb'R . 841 tjans. 843 bRsentj. 
845 amshrat. 847 dffindjOT. 848 tjaendj. 849 STRsendreR. 850 deens. 851 

sent. 852 jsep^RN. 855 kaaRat. 856 pEERt. 860 peest. 861 teeat. 862 

sif. 864 koz. 865 fveeset. 866 puuR. 

E-- 867 tee. 869 viiBL. 874 nain. 875 faint. 876 dainti. 877 aiR. 

878 sffiluR*. 879 leemeel. 887 [(pasaes'n) parson used]. - faitjr [market]. 
890 [pi. (biiwstiz)]. 891 virast. 892 nEvi. 893 vla'ueR. 894 Aisee-v. 
895 nisee'V. 

I-- w^Y-- 900 pRai. ES [fierce; see No. 827]. 901 va'in. 904 
va'ilit. 910 diist [pi. djistiz]. 

914 bRUutj. 916 a'nren. 919 a'intnrent. 920 pa'int. 921 sekw&int. 
922 bwahel. 923 ma'ist. 924 tja'is. 926 spuuiL. 929 ka'ukemb'R. 930 
lain. 936 vont. 938 kaRntm. 939 [(knoft) croft, used for a close]. 940 
kuu't. 941 fuuBL. 942 bwtjeR. 943 tatj. 947 ba'iL. 948 ba'uL. 950 
sap^R. 951 kap'L. 954 k^<sbBn. 955 da'ut. 956 kivuR. 

U- 961 grinrel. 964 zuuit. 965 a'il. 968 a'ist'n. 969 sliuu'R. 
970 djtst. 


THEEE INTEELINEAE cs. marked Y, T, D. 

V marks the cs. for Vale and Town of Gloucester. It was first written in bis 
own orthography by John Jones, Esq., who had known the dialect for 50 years, and 
was afterwards corrected in pal. from his diet, by AJE. He gave U = (a) uniformly, 
but TH. in travelling over the district found the M. (u, u } with sometimes (o) 
and of course (a, a), not only in Tewkesbury, Ashchurch (8 n. Cheltenham), 
and Buckland (12 ene. Tewkesbury), which I place in D 6 = w.BS, but also frequently 
in Gloucester, Cheltenham, Bishop's Cleve (3 n.Cheltenham), Brockworth and 
Birdlip (6 se.-by-s. Gloucester), and even in Cirencester, Fairford (8 e.Ciren- 
cester) and Tetbury, so that it would appear that the whole of east Gloucester 
were in the mixed region. Indeed TH. heard (M O ) as far s. as Purton "Wl. 
(10 sse. Cirencester). It is evident that a mixture of (a, a, o, u, u ) for U 
does not interfere with the dialect, which is strongly marked. The oldest form 
necessarily had some variety of (u), and hence (u, u ) must in this region rather 
be considered as survivals, than as M. encroachments, see supra p. 17. Of 
course (a, a) are recent developments, that is, begun and developed within 
500 years. For (u ) see the introduction to the Midland division. 

T marks the Tetbury cs. It was written in io. by Miss Frampton, daughter 
of the then vicar, and was pal. by AJE. from answers to a very long series of 
questions which she kindly answered. There is, however, always room for some 
doubt where there has not been personal audition. As regards U, Miss Frampton, 
like Mr. Jones, apparently used (9, a), but TH. was informed in September 1885 
by two stonecutters from Tetbury that (u ) generally and a few (o) were the 
sounds there used. The (o) is one of the transitional forms, see Line 2, p. 17. 

D marks the forest of Dean or Coleford cs. It was written from the dictation 
of Raymond D. Trotter, Esq., native of jSTewnham (10 sw. Gloucester), who kindly 
spent many hours with me over it in 1873 in company with his sister, who gave 
phrases from Aylburton on the s. of the Forest. Mr. Trotter visited me again 
about it in 1878. This, and Mr. Law's from Christian Malford are the two best 
w. examples of D 4 which I have personally heard. 

0. Y Vale of Gloucester, wao'i :djon TB got miu' dao'uts. 
T Tetbury. wao'*' :djon 13)1113 doo'uts. 

D Forest of Dean. wao'i :djk doo)'nt dao /v ut. 

[ 1492 ] 

D 4, V ii.] THE MID SOUTHERN. 61 

1. Y WE!, nabBR, juu Bn ii mB buu'th laf Bt dhs 
T wal, naebBR, dhii Bn ii maY boo'th M Bt dMs M'R 

D ao' zdi neh'bBR, juu Bn im mdi bw'th on)i gRm BZ matj BZ 

Y niuuz B mao'm. huu kii'Rz ? dhat's nao'idhBR jaR nBR 
T niuuz B muGoVn uu dB kn'R ? dhaBt b00)nt J^''R nBR 
D dhii)st laoVk Bt dhs)j*'R- BZ eo'i)v bm B tElBn on)jB, uu 


D dh*qk ^d ke'R V'R dht ? t)V)'nt noo odz ! 

2. Y vi au vook d^ dao', bikoz dh-B bi laft)^t, 

T dh9R bi prEshas viii ez dao'Vz koz BZ ao'u dh^ bi laeaeft^t, 
D dh^R bw'nt mon^ 'BZ d^ dao'* V'R dha* bii'^n ma'd *'m on 

Y wii d^ nau, duu)'nt)as ? wot zhwd mk [mii'k] T?m ? t)ii)'nt 

T wii di3 nau, d^a)nt)as ? wot shwd miik ^m ? t)ee)nt 

D baoY dh^ lao'^'ks -B dhii, wii dB noow dhat, doo)'nt os ? 

Y vERi laoVkl* bii it? 

T leo'tklt ? 

D zhwd mee'k)Bn, m^n ? t)n)'nt Ree'z^n^b'l nas^w, /z it ? 

3. Y go'uwa'VBR, dhee bi dhB vakts -BV dhi3 kw's, zoo 
T UUST?;E-V^R, dhiiz bi dhB vaekts Z-B 

D SB juu djEst oold jiuu'R djAA, Bn hao^'sht B b't w^oo'wt B 

Y hao'u'ld JBR naiz, niB vREnd, Bn bi k^ao'f Bt tBl 8o')v 
T oo'wld JBR djAA, Bn k^'p kwao'i'Bt til 8o'V)v 

D ni'slEs-tBn B mii, til oo'i)v tEld)jB. nao'w ju aaRk'n B bt 

Y B)dan. aaRk)i. 

T dan. 

D Bn booVd k^ao'i'Bt, til soV B dan. 

4. Y a) Y be zaRtm znuu'R, BZ ooV n'RD Bm zae zam B 
T QD^^m zaRtm 20' i jii'RD Bm z&i zam B 
D aoV bi zaaRt'n zhuu'R, BZ 83^')v jii'RD Bm zdi zam B 

Y dhEm vook BZ wEnt DRGO'U dhB wal (w'l) dh/q vRBm dhB 

T dhee vaak BZ WEnt DRUU dhB wul dhEq vRBm dhB 

D dha dhBR vook BZ WEnt DRQO'W dhB oo'l on't dhBRZE'lvz 

Y vast dhBRZEivz, -dhat so'i dd zhww'r Bnaf ! 
T vast dhBRZEiz, -dhaat B did. zhww'R -nao'u ! 
D vRBm dhB vast, 'dht)s VBR zhww'R BZ ao'i d^'d ! 

5. Y BZ dhB jaqg^'st zan ezzE'lf, B gaoRT buoV B noo'm, nawd 
T dhB jaqgBst zan BzzE'lf, B gooRT busoV B nao'm, nood 
D BZ dhB jaqgest zan BzzE'lf, B gwdna'bBVB buoBnaoVn,n6owd 

[ 1493 ] 

62 THE MID SOUTHERN. [D 4 } y ji. 

Y iz vaadhBRz vais Bt wans, dhaw t)waz 

T iz vaeaedhBRz vais, dhoo t)waoR 

D iz vii'dhBRz taq BZ zuun az B oop'nd iz mao'wth dhoo t)wBz 

Y SB k#aoR Bn sk*0<?0kin, Bn ao'i)d TRast 'ii tB speek. dh.B 
T ZB kwii'R Bn skwirki lao'ik, Bn -ii-d tsl dhB 

D zatj B kweeR skweekBn vao'is, Bn ao'i)d b#k *ii tB speek dhB 

Y TRUuth oni d^^, A', -dliat * wd, 
T TRUuth -dhaet B wd. 

D TRu'th on* da*, a* *dhdt so* wd ! 

6. Y ran dhB eo'wld wmBn BRZEif B! tEl EH* on)i BZ iz A lafim nao'w, 
T BEL dhB so'wld wmBn BRZE-! wl tEL Em ov)i dhaet laef nao'w, 
D BH dh)'ld wm.Bn BRZE-lf Bd tEl QOR)B wan on)i BZ iz a giuulBn 

Y Bdheo'wt matj bodhBR, tun, if JB)! 

T Bn tEl)i slaep AAf widhoo'wt mun'R Bdnn*, f)i ul 
D Bn tEl)i Roo'et AA, tun, w^oo'nt mEtj wn'dBRmBnt, if dhii)lt 

Y oonli Eks BR, wa)nt B 

T oom seks shi oo' ! want shi? 

D oom Eks)BR, a* -dhat BI ud. 

7. Y l<?0st wa*z [En*')oo'w] BR tawld it ta so'* wEn eoV Ekst BR, 
T lV'st wa*z BR tElt '<so'i WEn ao'* sekst shi, 
D lii'st wa*z BR tsld it *8oV WEn eoV Ekst BR, 

Y tnu BR DRii tao'imz OOVBR, B d*d, Bn BR AAt)'nt tB bi 
T dun BR DRii tao'emz BR d*d, -QOR d*d)'nt AAt)B bi 

D duu BR DRii tao'imz 'BR moo'R, a* dhdt BR dzd, Bn'eoR AAt)'nt tB bi 

Y Roq on zatj B puao'int BZ dhis wAAt dB jun dbiqk [dhEqk] ? 
T Raq on -sitj lao'ik, wot d)jB dhsqk nao'w ? 

D noo waiz ao'wt on zatj a pao'int BZ dhik, wt)st "dhii dniqk ? 

8. Y wal, BZ ao'i WBZ B)zai'in aoR)D tsl)i ao'w WQOR Bn WEn aoR 
T wal, BZ ao'i WBR B)zai'in, sliii)d tsl)i ao'w wan Bn waoR BR 
D BZ ao'i WBZ B)zdi'Bn 'aR)wd tEl)i ao'w waR Bn wan BR 

Y vao'wnd dliB DRaqk'n b^^st BZ aoR dB kAAl aoR azbBn. 
T fao'wnd dhB DRaqk'n biiBst shii dB kaeael BR azbBn. 
D vao'wnd dhB DRaqk'n bi'st BZ 'R O kaa'ld -BR mee'stBR. 

9. Y aoR zwaoRD [ZOO'R] BZ ao'u BZ BR zid Bn wi BR awn ao'iz, 
T shi swaaR shi ziid im widh BR ao'*m ao'iz, 
D BR ZWOOR BZ BR zid Bn wi BR oo'n ao'iz, 

Y B)lao'i'in zDREtjt Bt val lEnth on dhB gRao'wnd, in iz gwd 
T B)lao'i-in ao'ut seael Bloq in iz bii'st 

D lao'i'Bn AA! Bt iz lEqkth Blaq dhB gRao'wnd, wi iz best 

[ 1494 ] 

D 4, V ii.] THE MID SOUTHERN. 63 

Y zandi kwat klooz tra dhra doo'E ra dhra ao'ws dao'wn rat dhra 
T zandi koo't ranao'r dhra dww'R ra dhra ao'ws dao'wn naoV dhra 
D zandi-gwam kwat on, djEst baoV dhra duu'R ra dim ao'ws, 

Y kaRnraR ra 

T kaaRnraR [ko'm] ra jon liin. 

D dao'wn dliao'R baoV dhra koRnral ra JONDERZ lee'n. 

10. Y ra wraz B)wa>'mtn rawAV, ^r zez, V^R AA! dhi3 WQDRLD 
T ii wim B)wao / mm BwaV, i WODR, fea aeael dht3 WQDRLD 
D 13 WBZ ^)8D'wlBn / BW6t dhaoR, V^R AAl dh^ WQORLD 

Y ^ z*k tjao^'ld, im ^ h't'l gjaoRL (wEntj) in ^ vREt, 
T ^ zVk tj83'*ld 'BR b't'l ma'd aeael -BV ^ VREt. 
D B dog kotjt in ^ trap, 13R B zk tjeo^'ld m 13 VREt. 

11. Y ^n dhat ap'nd BZ -QOR ^n 'BR daax^R in laa, kam 
T ^n dh's JBR aep'nd BZ -8DR 'Bn shiiz daaTBR-lAA, kEm 
D ran dhtft waoR djEst raz 'SOR ran BR dAAteR-LAA, kam 

Y DRao'u dlira bak jaRD vRram aq/n ao'wt dhra wEt klooz ts 
T DRUU dhB baek jaaRD VRBUI -B aeqm ao'wt dhra wEt kloo'z te 
D DRQO'M dhra JiaRD VRBHI 13 #<n ao'wt dhra WEt kloo'z te 

Y DRao'*', on 13 woshm d^<?. 
T DRao'*, on B waeshm dii. 
D DRaoV, on -B washran [wEshran] dch'. 

12. Y wao'/l dhra kstral WBZ ra bo^lm V^R iee t wan vao'in 

T ragEn dhra kit'l bao'eld VBR tee, wan fao'm aatBR nuun 

D wEn dhra kt'l wraz ra bao^'lran VBR tee, won varnish bRaoVt 

Y zam^R aatraRnuun oonli ra wk raguu"B kam nEkst dhaoRzdi. 
T ra zamraR ra w'k ragon kam dhaoRzdi. 

D zamraR aateRnuun, ra wk kam nEkst dhaoRzdi. 

13. Y ran dra Jii naw ? aoV nevraR jii'RD noo muu'R naoR dlis ra dhat 
T ran ra tEl)i wot, ra mvraR jii'RD tsl nra mww'R on)t 

D ran drast noou <&'i nEvraR laoRND noo muu'R nraR dh's ra dhat 

Y dhaoR bznes ap tra trad^, raz Z!IUU'R)Z mao' n^'mz 
T ap tra nao'w, raz DRUU raz maoV niim)z 

D dhraR djob raz zhww'R raz maoY nam)z 

Y :djon :zhEpraRD, ran OD' dwa)nt want tu naoVdhraR, dhaoR nao'u 
T :dpn :zhEpBRT, ran ao'e da)nra waent tra naoVdhraR, zoo dhaoR ! 
D :djon rzhEpraRD, ran aoV doo)'ntw^nt tra noou niidhraR. 

14. Y ran zoo aoV bi ra)gwam warn tra zapraR, gwd 
T zoo ao')m ra)gwam warn tra zapraR, gwd 
D ran zoo aoY bi ra)gwam ja'm tra a)mi ra bet ra zam^'t tra jat, 

[ 1495 ] 



V naoVt, i3n dwa)nt bi ZB kwik tu kiiaw OOVBE, V bodi i3g*'n, 
T nao'e't, im dwant) bii ZB km'k to ksaw OO'R B bodi i3gm, 
D naoYt)t),n3, isn doo'nt bii zoo zhaiip OOY^E 13 tjap, 

V wEn / B)Z e)tAAkm 13 dhe's dhat 13R t)adlreB, 
T WEH i di3 taeaek K dhe'k 13 dhsek. 
D wan 13 tAAks -B dh*'s 131 dhat. 

15. Y t)s 13 week vuul 13 z pr^ts 
T i3n dhEn WE! to it. 
D -B man ja)nt noo bEteR nBR ^ vuul i3z d^ tAAk w)oe'wt 

Y reezvn . ^n dliat)s mao'i last waofid. gwdbuao^. 

T gwd buao x e)te)i. 

D noo zEns, 13 dhat)s maoV l^^st wand, zoo gwd beo'i t)j^. 

Notes to V, Yale and Town of Gloucester. 

Mr. Jones considers his cs. to be a 
fair specimen of the dial, spoken about 
Gloucester in the Vale. In the town 
the use of z- for s- is not so frequent, 
and (th) generally remains as in rs. 
But in the town the sound of (ii) con- 
tinually replaces that of (ee) even 
among educated people. Mr. Bellows 
quotes from Lord Campbell's Life of 
Judge Hale, p. 230, to the effect that 
the judge's name was in Gloucester 
called eel (iil), and that Mr. Bloxham, 
Clerk of the Peace, born near Alderly 
(7 se. Berkeley), near the Judge's 
native place, in summoning the Jury 
in Court, called out (rdiivid :iil, -ev dhe 
siim pliis, biikeR), for David Hale, of 
the same place, baker, and Mr. Bellows 
recollects a farmer telling him that he 
heard Mr. Bloxham say : "Answer to 
your (niim) name, and (siiv) save your 
fine." In a paper called a specimen 
of the Vulgar Speech of the Town of 
Gloucester, reprinted by Prince L.-L. 
Bonaparte from the Transactions of the 
Cotswold Field Naturalists' Club for the 
year 1851, many such words occur. 
But they are by no means confined to 
the neighbourhood of Gloucester town. 
They will be found in Miss Frampton's 
Tetbury Specimen, and she gave me 
other instances. The following list 
contains all those in the above paper 
(unmarked), and those given by Mr. 
Jones (marked J), and Miss Frampton 

(marked F) . The words are arranged 
in the usual classes and in ordinary 
spelling, the letter pronounced (ii) being 

A- baker, drake, take, F taken, make, 
made, cradle, F tale, lame, 
J F name [and (naim) F], 
J same, game, F mane [are, 
fare, as inrec. sp. ware (warn)], 
bathe, rather. 

A'- lane. 

AE- blaze, hazle. 

AE: waken, day, F today [exceptional 
and not constant]. 

AE'- F stairs. 

EA- shake, shape. 

A. tradesmen, F trade, James, prates, 
potatoes [(tiiteRz)], wave, qua- 
vering, gaze. 

A - table, face and F, preface, place, 
bacon, paring, case, plate, sepa- 
rate, observation, narration, 
state, paste. 

As regards the series A-, A., A-- 
this reduction to (ii) is merely a variety 
of (ire, IB, i') common in other parts of 
D 4, itself a reduction of (ia), which 
came naturally from (a-), but (GE, ee) 
are also found more in Do. and Sm. 
The intermediate form is (e^a), which is 
given by JGG. as the rural form about 
Chippenham WL, where (ii, ii 1 ) are the 
town forms. 

C 1496 ] 

D 4, V ii.] 



Notes to D, Forest of Dean. 

0. why, doubts. I have throughout 
represented the first element of the 
diphthongs (a'i, a'u) hy (so) in this 
district. I am not quite satisfied. It 
may be (ao) . I long hesitated between 
(ah, (E) and simple (a), which in Do. I 
adopted ; all my hesitation arose from 
study of sounds heard from Mr. Potter, 
Mr. Law and Mrs. Clay-Ker-Seymour. 
The first element is often medial or long, 
but as I did not mark it at the time I 
leave the vowel short. 

1. say, distinctly (zdi], varying in 
direction of (zA'i), not approaching (zee) . 

neighbour, the (A'i) effect was very 
strong in this word. thou dost, the 
(st) is a contraction hereabouts. this 
here, the (j) is prefixed to (i'n) in this 
phrase only. - it is not, (t)ii)'nt) 
'tairi*t, is very common in this district, 
varies as (tjEnt), (it bii'nt) also used. 

2. their being made game of, (dha'i) 
for they not a common pron. in other 
districts but not unknown, they again 
is for their ; (maid) made is similar to 
(iia'im) name, par. 13, but (mi'd) is also 
used like the following (gi'm) game. 

- reasonable, the use of (R) initially 
was thoroughly settled with Mr. Trotter, 
who repudiated (r). is it, (bii-Bt) 
is not used. 

3. molesting of me, or (mEoTen wi 
mii) meddling with me. 

4. heard, (JU'RD), the effect of (R) 
on following or preceding (t, d, 1, n) 
converting them into (T, D, L, N) 
was carefully ascertained. - through 
(DROO'M), the (R) before a vowel being 
distinctly trilled, see par. 2, reasonable, 
(tliR-) could not be pronounced, and 
hence (TR-) or (DR-) became necessary. 

first (vast), the (R) is quite lost in 
this word, and in (bast, was, wast) 
burst, worse, worst ; can this arise from 
the retention of (s) instead of retracting 
or reverting it ? Thus (vaRST, vaRS,T) 
would be quite possible, and this (s, s,) 
would be distinct from (s), either would 
lead to (sh) as in Sanscrit. But if this 
ever existed, it has disappeared. 

5. a good knob of a boy. fathers, 

the first syllable varies as (vi', ve', 
vie'). I would back -he, the use of 
'he is conditioned by emphasis, other- 
wise (eo'i)d bk)im) with the S. hine. 

6. woman, emph. (Hhwrngn). e'er 
a one, any one. guling, the glos- 
saries give this as a He. word for 
sneering. wonderment, if thou wilt 
only ask her. 

7. leastways, the use of (a'i) in place 
of (ao'i) shows that the speaker con- 
sidered the termination to be ways and 
not wise. she told, when (BR) is 
used for her = she, the (R) is distinct, 
when for her (as usually written) = he, 
the (R) is lost, (B tsld, BR TEld) he told, 
she told, are thus kept distinct with- 
out emphasis, two or three times or 
more, in Aylburton (4 sse.Coleford, 
Gl.) they use (ene-nt) anent in place 
of 'or more,' meaning 'nearly, close 
upon,' but see anent in Murray's Dic- 
tionary. what dost, see (dhii)st) 'thou 
dost,' par. 1. 

8. drunken scarcely used, (fad' Id) 
'fuddled' sometimes heard, but if a 
man is not very drunk they say, (im 
B bin B #ven B DRp) 'he's been having 
a drop,' and if he's very drunk indeed, 
(im -B got)i3t on)^n te Rao 'its) ' he has got 
it on him to -rights,' but ' drunk ' itself 
is almost a tabooed word. beast, also 
^beest) . 

9. lying, they lie, and hens lay, (dha'i 
de Iso'i, ran EUZ de li) bring out the 
two diphthongs very clearly. coat, 
(kwat on) ' coat on, ' since the word 
runs on to (on) but in the pause it is 
(kwo't) in that 1 s my coat (dhot)s mao'i 
kwo't). yonder s, the phrase is used, 
but the grammar is not clear. 

10. hoivling, in the Forest of Dean, 
little babies even howl, and never whine, 
(but win-ikmi) is heard at Aylburton. 

11. clothes, Mr. Trotter thought he 
used (kloo'z), but on hearing the differ- 
ence, acknowledged (tloo'z). 

13. name, see made, par 2. 

14. and so I be a-going home to 
havejme a bit of somewhat to eat. The 
(a)mi) was nearly (ae)mi). 

E.E. Pron. Part V. 

[ 1497 ] 



Phrases from Forest of Dean from diet, of Mr. Potter and Aylburton 
from diet, of Miss Potter. 

1. (-ez aaRd 13 z nhao'r'BRN), as hard as iron [the first aspirate 

omitted as usual, the second introduced for emphasis], 

2. (ra b^'t rav -B mafcd), a bit of a maid [one growing up to woman- 

hood, a (gaRl is a maidservant of about fifteen, a (wEnsh) is 
a grown woman in a good sense]. 

3. (gaR)i3wa W-JB), get away with you, said to a dog [this con- 

version of (t) into (r) is very common with get before a 
vowel in numerous districts]. 

4. (a)z bm im JEt mi on dire jad), Forest ; (iiz bm -B)jat'm mi 

on dire jad), Aylburton ; he's been and hit [been a-hitting] 
me on the head. 

5. (oo'^ guu, n'p-i3R), how go (how are you), little fellow. 

6. (uu'z'n aowz'n bir)em), whose houses be them = are they. 

Compare Sh. 

7. (baRd-dab'm), bird-dubbing, walking down in two companies 

on each side of a hedge and pelting at the birds, which fear 
to leave the hedge on either side. 

8. (wn)z B propim Roq-k)'n), he's a proper rank-one (?), he's a 

regular deep one. 

9. (ooV)m gwam te aa)mi E)raoVd), I'm going to have me a ride 

[=to get a lift in a waggon]. 

10. ()t, Iwk)^), wilt thou, look-you. 

11. (*uu bfl'st 'dhii ^ dhao'u'an), whom art thou a-thou-ing [in a 

quarrel, Forest]. ( oo'i beent a gw ( m te bii dhiid ba' dhao'u) 
I am)not a going to be thee'd by thou [Aylburton]. 

12. (Q pool'tan ban'^ts), a-pelting walnuts. 

13. (13 woo)'nt aaR'k'n an'ta mii), he won't hearken to me, won't 

do what I tell him. 

14. (kp dham vts st'l), keep those feet still [that is, don't stamp, 

said at a public reading]. 

15. (HEft)'n), heave him or it, (HEft) weight or heavy load, both 

Forest and Aylburton. 


V Vale of Gloucester as in cs. 

T Tetbury as in cs. with some extras, 

C Cirencester from wl. given me w. by Miss Martin of "WTiitelands. 

D Forest of Dean as in cs. 

A Aylburton as in specimens. 

W Whitcomb (5 ese. Gloucester), wn. by TH. 
Unmarked words belong to the four first -named places and also possibly to A. 


A- 4 C t'njk. 5 C miek. 17 V laa, TD IAA. 18 kiuk. 12 V mmn 
neem, T niim, D naim, C nrem. 22 C ih\n. 24 C sh/um. 28 C ham. 
34 V last, D loost, T laest. A: 39 VTD [(kam) come, used]. 45 C ants. 
46 [(16it) light, always used]. 54 V want, T wasnt, D want. 56 V wosh wash, 

[ 1498 ] 

D 4, V ii.] THE MID SOUTHERN. 67 

T wsesh, C [(bak'n) a small wash]. A: or 0: 58 VT vRem. 60 sla-q. 
64 V Boq, T Raq. A'- 67 VTD tjgwain [a-going], D ao'u gnu [how do 
go = do]. 73 VT zoo, D zoo. 75 TD duu, V tuu. 76 C tfod. 79 V ami, 
T so 'un, D ooBn. 81 V leen, D lee^n, T liin. 82 wans. 84 VTD muueR. 
86 C tots. 87 V klooz, TD kloouz. 89 V buueth, D btfeth, T booeth.' 
92 VT nau, D noou. 94 VT Isx&tt. 97 sao'wl. A': 102 VD aks, T zeks. 
104 W rood. 113 V wal wnl, T wwl, D -OOB!. 115 VTC warn, D jam. 
118 C buen. 120 V vgiur*, T t?gon. 122 V nuuu. 124 stfhren. 125 
oonli. 129 C gtiuijst. 130 C bfitrt. 

M- 138 V vaadhtjR, T vaeae , D vi' , ve' , vie', C faaaBdhmi. 143 
tail. 144 V Bglm, T ugin. 150 V leest, T litust, D Hist. 152 C waaTtjR. 
M\ 161 V dee, T dii, D dai. 162 V iudee, T te dii. 163 16i. 166 T maid 
D mid. 168 C tajajhoi. 169 VTD wan. 170 C Eesevst. 172 C gRseses 
174 C eesh. 177 V dbat, D dhat, [T (dhak) used). 179 V wAAt, T wot, 
D wot. 181 C pseaeth. M'- 182 C see. 183 C ieeij. 190 kee. 193 
kWn. 194 VT mi, VD oni. 197 tjiz. 199 C \Aeei. 200 weet. 201 C 
mlh'n. M,': - sidz [seeds]. 207 nid'l. 210 kloi. 214 VTD nao'idhim. 
215 C taat. 218 C ship. 220 VD zhEphuRD, T T. 223 DC dhaoR dhtjR. 
224 VTD WSOR. 227 VTD WEt. 

E- 233 V sp^k, D speek. rat [eat]. 252 V fasti, TDC kit'l. 
E: 256 V ZDREtjt, T sTREtjt. 261 VT zai, D zai. 262 VTD wai. 265 
W strait. 276 VD dhiqk, VT dhsqk. 278 wEnsh [always used for girl in a 
good sense]. 281 V hmth, DT lEqkth. 284 DREsh. 287 C biz'm [common 
word for all kinds of brooms]. T bii'st, D best [best]. E': 313 DT 
aaRk'n. 314 V ii'RD, TD JU'RD. 315 D vits, C fit. 

EA- 320 VTD k/iuR. EA: 322 V laf, T Isef. 323 fao'wt. 326 VT 
ao'wld, D a'arald, W 6u\d awld. 330 V hao'wld, ao'wld. 332 V tawld, T t E lt, D 
tEld. 333 C ka3tef. 335 T sesel, DV AA!. 338 V kAAl, T kaesel, D kaa'l. 
aaRD [hard], 343 C waaRm. 346 D glut, W gJEt. EA'- 347 D jsd, 
C jad. 348 VTD so'iz, C 6i. 349 V viau. EA': 354 C sheet. 365 C ditrf . 
356 C \eei. 357 dhaw dhoo. 359 T naibuR, D nibR. 361 "been.. 366 VT 
gaoRT. 370 C Raa. 371 C sTRaa. 

El: 377 C st'rek. 378 T w^k. EO- 386 C JQO'W. EO: 390 V zhwd, 
T shud. 394 V J^NDBR, D JONDBRZ. 398 [C (klaem) used]. 399 VD bRao'it. 
402 D laoRN, T laaRN. EO'- 411 VTDC DRU. 412 [(am) her, used in 
nom., (shii) in ace.] 420 C VSO'UR. 421 C faRti. 421 vo'Rth. EO': 422 
W zik. 425 C loit. 435 [C (dhii) always used, even to superiors, perhaps 
from large quaker community]. 437 VT TRUuth, D TRMuth. EY- 438 VTD 
dao'i. EY: 439 V TRast. 

I- 440 C week. 441 ziv. 446 C noin. 447 V aoR [T (shiiz) she's, used]. 
I: 452 VTD ao'i, C 6i [evidently an error of my informant]. 455 VTD lao'i, 
C 16i. 459 C Roit [? Ra'it]. 465 sEti. 467 VTDC tjao'ild, W tja'il. 480 V 
dhiq, T dhEq. 484 VD dhis [T (dhik) used]. 487 Jisttmdi. jat [hit]. 
I'- 495 VT wao'in [D (a>'wl) howl, used]. 496 nha/iRN. I': 506 VTDC 
wnren. 510 V mao'in, T miiao'in [and generally (ao'i)]. 

0- 519 T sevBR. 524 VTD WSORLD. 0: 531 daa-nm. 538 VTD d. 
546 V'R. [C (pRaq) prong used for fork']. 547 buu'RD. 550 T WQORD. 
551 C staRm. 552 C kaRN. 0'- 559 C madh^R. 564 zuun. 0': 571 
V gud. 577 C boo. 578 C ploo. 579 VT trnaf. 586 V dwznt, T da)nt?, D 
doo'nt [don't], 587 VTD dan. 592 V ZWOORD ZOO'R [both used], T swaaR, D 
ZWOOR. 595 C fat. 

U- 601 fool. 602 zayw. 603 W ukamin. 604 VTD zamt?R. 605 VTD 
zan. 606 TD dwwjR, V doo'R, W du^R. U: 608 C [(oRneRi) ordinary, used]. 
610 C 1. 612 VTD zam. 615 C poond. 616 VDT gRao'emd. 619 VD 
vao'w'nd, T fa>'nd. 627 VTD zandi. 631 dhaoRzdi. 632 VT ap. 633 C kwp. 
634 VD DRQO'U, T DRUU, W thruu. IT'- 643 D na3 M u, W na u. U': 658 
VTD daj'wn, C doon. 659 C toon. 663 VTD ao'ws [pi. (ao'wz'n) C]. 665 C 
moos. 666 VT azbim [(mee'steR) used D]. 

Y- 673 T mati. 675 VTD DRao'i. 676 C 16i. 682 VT lit'l. Y: 690 
C koind. 691 C moind. 701 VTD vast. Y- 705 C skoi. 706 VTD wao'i. 
Y': 709 C foiR. 712 C mils. 

[ 1499 ] 



[D 4, V ii, iii, 

732 V ap'n, T sep'n. 738 T pRiit. 


A. 726 YD tAAk, T taBsek. 
749 W 

I. and Y. 754 C paeg [heard from the old man who called bacon (baik'n)]. 
758 V gja>RL, W gjaRL. 

0. 761 [(booRD'n) always used C]. 765 :dpn. 767 T naiz. 781 T bodhtjR. 
791 V buo'i, T buao't, D bu6. U. 804 V DRaqk'n. 

TJ. 804 V DRapk'n. 


A-- 813 C baik'n [heard from an old man]. 814 meesnaR. C [(bakit) 
bucket always used for pail]. 824 tjii'R. 835 Reez'n. 857 T kiis. 862 T 
siif. 864 koz. 

E-- 867 VC tee, TD tee. 878 soleRi. 887 [(paea3s'n) parson, used C]. 
888 VTD zaRtin. 890 YC bst, T birest, D bi'st. 892 C nEvi. 

I- and Y.- 901 Y vao'in, T fao'in. 904 voilet. 

() 916 C ahrenz. 920 YT piice'int, D pao'int. 925 YT vais. 929 
koo-kembtm. 938 YT kaRnim, D koRnd. 939 Y kfooz [T (snao'i) anigh, used]. 
940 YD kwrat, T koo't. 941 YDT vuul. 947 Y b6il, TD bae'tl. 950 YT 
zapaR. 955 YTD dao'wts. 

U-- 964 C suwjt. 969 YTD zhum?R. 


As we shall see, all He. is affected by the MS. dial., but the 
little slip which runs up from Gl. into He. is so strongly MS. that, 
although there seems to be a little falling off as we go on, I have 
found it necessary to place it in D 4. The w. b. of this slip is the 
w. b. of the S div. The e. b. is formed by the barrier of the 
Malvern Hills. The first considerable place we meet is Eoss on 
the Wye. About this dialect a correspondent signing himself W. 
H. Green, who said he was a native of Eoss, but whom we have 
been unable to identify, sent a letter in his own spelling to Prince 
L.-L. Bonaparte, from which, in conjunction with notes from Upton 
Bishop, and a very few words given to TH. by Mr. Joseph Jones, 
bookseller, Hereford, the following inferences are drawn : 

Hoss Pronunciation. 

is used for (s) in so see, some, said say, sow (pig) . 

is used for (f) in/rom/ind/olk/riend/armer/or/orty/orget q/ended (?). 
) is used in late, plagued, place master, translate quakers, implying the regular 
MS. change in A- words, but (asse) is found in clavey a local word = 

st) wilt, would' st, I be, they 

at) is used in say way straight neighbour. 
A'O) apparently is used in know and (iiA'i) in boy. 
(a) is heard in pwt. 
(dhik, dhak) are used, 
(bist) thou art, (KB im) she, he ; (dhii) thou, (ut, 

been't, I did want. 
All these are strong marks of D 4. 

Going further n., TH. got from Stoke Edith, (gram faiuR dai lai'^n) grain, 
fair, day, day, laying and "I told she." But in this latitude at Ledbury, and 
further n. at Much Cowarne and Eggleton, there are very distinct marks of the 
same dialect in the following examples. 

[ 1500 ] 

D 4, V iii.J THE MID SOUTHERN. 69 


L marks the cs. specimen for Ledbury (12 e. Hereford) written by Rev. C. 
Y. Potts, and the late Mr. Gregg, solicitor, both of Ledbury, and pal. by AJE. 
from the diet, of Mr. Gregg. 

C marks the specimen for Much Cowarne (9 ne. Hereford) written in phonotypy 
(see Part IV. 1183 c) by Mr. Joseph Jones, bookseller, of Broad Street, Hereford, 
from the diet, of Mr. Herbert Ballard, Leighton Court, Bromyard, and pal. by AJE. 
As the diphthongs were unanalyzed in phonotypy, I have adopted the forms (a'i, 
Q'U) heard by TH. when visiting Much Cowarne in 1881. Possibly Mr. Gregg's, 
which I heard as (ao'i, ao'w), were meant for the same. 

E marks the Eggleton (8 ne. Hereford), practically the same as the Much 
Cowarne, written by Miss Anna M. Ford Piper, of Blackway, Eggleton, for 
Prince L.-L. Bonaparte (who passed it over to AJE.), with an ingenious and 
exhaustive rhyming key to the pron., supplemented by long notes from Miss Mary 
E. Piper and her brother, who considered that the true He. speech began about 
Stoke Lacy, Pencombe, and Bromyard (9 ne. 10 nne. 13 ne. Hereford), slightly 
to the w. of Much Cowarne and Eggleton. From the key and the notes and TH.'s 
Much Cowarne words, the cs. has been pal. by AJE. The difference between 
Ledbury and Eggleton these informants considered to consist chiefly in the greater 
"gutturality" of Much Cowarne, adding that horse is (ans) at Ledbury, but (os) 
in Cowarne. 

The substantial phonetic agreement of all three renderings obtained from such 
widely different sources (notwithstanding some evident dialectal slips which are 
inevitable when writers have not themselves spoken the dialect naturally in their 
youth) shows that the correct pron. must have been fairly reached. 

Miss Piper added some further specimens which are given below with a trans- 
lation interlined. 

0. L Ledbury. waoV :djAAn 13Z noo dao'wts 
C Much Cowarne. waY :dja'k a x nt noo da'wts 

E Eggleton. waY rdjAAn o)ns got noo nw'sgmnz 

1. L wal, natbra, Juu vn im mat boo'th la j f rat dhis MR nmuz 
C WE!, naibeE, Juu -en tin ma* booth on)ji3 laaf nt- cUus MR niimz 
E weel, na'bi3R, bwath on dhi3 vook ma* lof vt clhik muuz 

L 'B mao'm. uu kjaRz ? dha't)s noo'tdh'BE M'R nim dhaR. 

C ^z a'rdB tEl JB. huu dt? keeR ? dhot)s niidh^R JSR nt?R dheeR 

E T?Z Q'I ^ got. uu kee^Rz ? dhot jant Jii-BE n^ 

2. L V!A'W mEn dso'i kAAz dha)B la j ft Bt, 

C f JQ'U f?aks d^ da'* kos dhee d^ gEt $ la'ft nt, 

E dhii^R jant bat via'w menkja'md 'BZ da'e'z koz dhaY bi loft ^t, 

L wi DA'WZ, doo'nt os ? wAAt sh'd meek ^m ? tiant VEE 
C wii d^ naw dan T?S? wot shud. miak ^m? it jsnt VEB 
E wii nA'wz, dwant)es ? wot shud. mi^k ^m? *t bjant VEB 

L laD^'kh', iz it ? 
C la'tldi, biift? 
E la'tkK, biitt? 

[ 1501 ] 



[D 4, V iii. 

3. L AAsmnE-vtm dhiiz bii dhi faks -B)dhB kees, zoo djast A.'ud JER 
C -liist)aiz dhiiz)jer bEnt noo laVz, zoo juu djEst a'wld JBR 
E a'wsmnE'rBR t WEZ ateR dh*k waY, soo djast a'wd dhB 

L na*'z, BU bi kwoo'^t t*l ao' B dan. Iwk **'R nao'w! 
C RaX a'wld bwA'i, en juu aVsht til a'* B dan. aaRk)* ! 
E naYz, men, -en haVsht til Q f i bi dan. AARk'n ! 

4. L so V bi zaRtm m'i ii'fid ^m zai zam V dh.Em vooks t?z 
C 9 r i bi shuiiR a'/ jeRd en sa sam o dhEm tjaps az 
E Q'i bi shuu^R 'BZ a' hii^KD Bin za zam 'e dhaY vook BZ 

L wEnt DRGO'W dn-e wal dh/q vRom dhi? vaRst dh^RZE'lvz dha^ 
C nawd AA! ^ba'wt it vRom dli-B vEst, did. <d'i shuuRla'r. 
E wEnt DRa'w dh^ WE! dhe'q vRam dh^ vast dhii3RZE'lvz dhot 

L eo' did zeef 


E Q f i did aee'i 

5. L dh-Bt dhi8 jaqest zan zzE'lf, B greet bwAV ^ noo'm, nA^d 
C ez dli^ Ktlest bwA' e'zse'l, ^ jaq)^n o nao'm JBR a'wld, nawd 
E dhot dh^ jaqest bwA'e ^'zze'lf, B gReeet bwAV ^ na'm, 

L iz vee'dhBRz va*'s Bt wanst, dhoo it WBZ zoo 

C iz fiadhBRz VA^'S Bt wanst, A! ram* Bn 

E h*mz v00dhBRz va*s Bt wanst dhoo B WBZ BOO k#e'0BR BU 

L skwiiki, BU aD')d TRast 'im tB spiik dliB TRuuth Eni 
C sk^iikfa'*'d, Bn *'m wd)nB tEl noo la'iz ta noobodi, 
E sk^iBkm, Bn a'i ud TRast 'im tB spiiBk dhB TRwth an* 

L da*, a*, fyud. 
C noo B wd)'nt. 

E dai, a*, aY i ud. 

6. L Bn dhB AAd wmBn BRZE'lf ul tEl En* on ju BZ la j fs noo'w, 
C BU dhB a'wld wmBn BRsei ul tEl Eni o ju tjaps ez iz [wot)s] 
E dhB a'wld wmBn BRze'Lf ul tEL En* on dhB BZ lofs na'w, 

L ^n tEl ju sTRut of, tun, ^dhoD'wt matj bodli^R, iv Ju)l 
C Bgrrmn, widho'wt noo fas UAR bodh^R, *f juu 

E Bn tEl dhu BTRait of, tuu, wdhaVt matj booth^r, if dnii)dst 

L ooni a ! sk BR want 

C ooni aks^z BR, a*, -BR ul 

E onl* a ! ks BR want BR, ma* bi? 

L liistwaYz B toold it 'mii WEU aoV a ] kst BR, tuu BR DRII 
C liistja*'z BR d*d tEl)mi WEU a'* akst ^R tuu AR dhcii 
E lEstwa*z BR tEld it maa WEU a'^' akst BR, tuu AR 

[ 1502 ] 

D 4, V iii.] THE MID SOUTHERN. 71 

L tooYmz OOVBE, BE did, Bn -aE AAt)'nt tB l>i rAAq on dha't 
C taYmz a'wver, Bn -aB dB naw BZ WE! BZ moost, 

E taVmz OVBE, dd BE, im -aE ad)'nt AAt tB bi raq in dhk 

L pao'mt, wAAt d)ji dln'qk ? 
C wot d>B theqk? 

E jiiBB kfiBS, wot dast dhii dh^'qk ? 

8. L WE!, BZ ooV WBZ Bzafm, 'shii)d tEl)ji, go'w waE ^n WEn 
C WE!, "BZ a'e w^z i3zarm, as wd tEl)j^, a^ 

E we'd, BZ a'^' WBZ -ezafm, an ud tEl)dhB, a'w wii^E ^n wzn 

L BE fand dh^ DEaqk'n bii'st BE kAAlz BE azbBn. 
C BE fa'wnd dhB DEaqkBn biast BZ BE dB kAAl azban. 
E BE vand dhB DEaqkBn bjast BE kAAlz BE mon. 

9. L BE zoos BZ as zm *m adh aE a 7 on oo'/z BlaD'rm 
C BE did sweeB BZ BE did sii *'m w*d BE a'wn a'e'z, 

E BE sdoBE BZ BE sii im wth BE a'wn a'e'z 

L zDEEtjt a^ val lEnth on dhB grA'ond in iz zand<? 
C Bt iu\ lanth on dhB gra'wnd in iz sand* 

E sxEatjt a'wt Bt val lEnth on dhB jaasth in dhot dhiiBR gud 

L kwoo't, klAAs b* dhB oo'ws doo's dao'wn Bt dhB kAAEn'l 
C goo-in koot, kloos BgE'n dhB dooE ov iz a'ws BZ dB stand 
E zandz' kiiuBt B z'n, klos BgE'n dhB duuBr B dhB a'ws, da'i 

L B dha't lee'n. 

C Bt dhB kosnBl ov dhat dhees leen. 

E Bt dhB kaaBml B jandBE lam. 

10. L B WBZ BwaoYmh Bwa, zEz-as, VBE AA! dhB wasld I&'ik B 
C *'m WBR Bwa'mm Bwai', aE dB sa*, VAE A A! dhB wanld la'^'k B 
E B WBZ BjaVlm Bwar, SEZ aE, fas AA! dhB uuBEld la^'k B 

L z*k jaq)Bn AE B lt'l wEnsh in B vEEt. 

C jaq)Bn az iz bad, AE B lit'l wEntj B a'wlm. 

E se'k jaq)Bn AE B h't'l WEntj BZ WBZ frEtjet. 

11. L Bn dha ! t a a p'nd BZ -aE Bn)BE dAAtBE IAA kam 
C Bn dhat dheeE dd ap'n BZ as BU)BE dAAtBEmlAA did kam 
E Bn dhot WBZ djast BZ aE Bn)BE dAAtBE IAA kam 

L DEac/w dhB ba ] k jasd VEBHI & l q_'tn ao'wt dhB WEt klooz 
C dsa'u dhB gjaEd'q aatBr aq-m a'wt dhB klwaz 

E DRQ'U dhB bok JAAED WIIBP ad bm B a*qm a'wt dhB waeaet klooz 

L tB DEooV on B wEshm dae, 
C on dhB la'mz on B woshm da*', 
E tB DEaY on B wEsh2ii dai. 

[ 1503 ] 

72 THE MID SOUTHERN. [D 4, V iii. 

12. L wa>'l dhB kst'l WBZ ^baoflm VBR tii wan vao'm 

C WEn dhB kst'l WBZ Bba'*lin BR tii, wan fa'*n 

E dhB wa'*'ld dhB k*t'l WBZ Bba'*l*n IBR tii, wan fa'm 

L zamBR aatBRnuun ooni B w*'k Bguu* kam nEkst thazd<?. 
C zainBRZ aatBRmiun a'wnl* B w*k Bga'w kam nEkst thaazd*. 
E zamBR atBRnuun anl* B w*k Bguir kam nEt dhaazd^. 

13. L vn d)ji nA 1 ^ ! <so'i nEVBR laRnd noo moo'R n^R 

C 'en duu j^ naw ? eV nsv^R iiRd noo mooR 

E 'en dast dli^ IIA'M, "BZ a^' nEv^R laRND am HIUUBR n^R dh^k 

L ra dha't *biznis ap te dim da*, 'BZ zhuu'R BZ mas' 

C on)t ap tv dMs UR da*, 'BZ shuun raz 

E 'B dhot cUiireR b*z m n*s til tBda*, "BZ shunBR 'BZ 

L nee'm)z :djAAn ishEp^Rd, ^n m'i doo)'nt wont tu 

C ne^m)z rdjak :shep^t 'Bn a'i da)na wont tu niidlrBR, 

E niiBm bi rdjAAn ishep^Rt, "Bn d'i da)nB wont t 

L dhaR noo'u ! 

C ZB -dhEt bi dhB End on)t. 

E dhiiBR na'ti. 

14. L i?n zoo QO'*)R -Bgwee'n warn tB sap^R gwd nao't, Bn 

C Bn zoo d'i bi Bgwm warn te av zam zap'BR gwd no'*'t, Bn 
E Bn sot? a'*' bi gw&i'in warn tB zapBR gwd na'*t Bn 

L doo'nt bi zo vaast tB kRA'w OOVBR B bod* agja*n, wan 

C da)nB bi ZB anko-mBn k*^*k tB kok a'wvBR B felBR Bge'n, wEn 
E da)nB dhB bi' so kw*'k tB kRA'w OVBR B bod* Bge'n, WEn 

L B tAAks B dm's dha a t B tadhBR. 

C m dB tAAk ov dh*'s JBP AR dhat dheeR. 

E B tAAks B dh*'k dhot AB, tadh.BR. 

15. L *t)s B puu'R A'wf BZ pree'ts BdhaoV't Riiz'n. Bn dha 1 t)s 
C *m bii [*'z] B baas BZ bii liAAl*s B djabBrm Rab*sli. dhot)s dhB 
E *'t)s B dAAndBR*q a'wf BZ preeBts wdha'w't zEns. Bn dhot 

L mao'i laast waRd, gwd 

C best muuz a'* B got fBR ja, a'wld bwA 7 *' ! na'w a'i mBn t^^k ma'* 

E bii maV lAAst UUBRD, gwd ba*. 


C dan*Bk, AR a'*' sha)nt av noo sapBR wk it I 

Notes to Z, the Ledbury cs. 

1 . neighbour, not used in this way in latedly (dhrao'u) is used, but here he 

the dialect. said (drao'w) not reverting (d r), a mere 

4. through. Mr. G. said that iso- accident, few gentlemen learn to revert 

[ 1504 ] 

D 4, V iii.] 



(B) before a vowel. As to the th, Mr. 
Gregg gave, through (dhrao'w), throw 
(thrA'u), thistle (diz'l), thin (dhtn), thief 
(thif), thick = that (dhik), which 
indicated an inconsistent usage. safe 
(zeef) meaning sure, but a (zee'f) for 
meat ; the word ought to begin with 
(s) theoretically. 

5. aye I would, I becomes (i} under 
such circumstances, the pron. varying 
with the construction. 

6. won't her, her is used for she, and 
the (K) is felt distinctly, as (want Q) 
would = won 1 1 he. 

9. own (a'on) has a glide from the 
open to the rounded lips, (a) to (o). 
ground, at first I wrote (A'A O ) con- 
sidering the glide to be merely in the 
rounding, as in the last case, but sub- 
sequently (A'O) seemed to express it 
better, the position of the tongue being 

also changed. Similarly growth was 
called (gRA'oth), nearly (gRA'wth). 
that lane, (jon) is found in the dialect 
and might have been used here. 

12. afternoon, Mr. Potts says evening 
would be used, Mr. Gregg just the 

13. shepherd as a name has (sh), as 
an occupation (zh). 

14. / are, this is rare, I be is com- 
mon, he are, he be are never used, Mr. 
G. said that " be is invariably used by 
uneducated people with each of the 
personal pronouns both in the sing, and 
pi.," this is probably too wide an as- 
sertion. In this case (ao'i bii Bgwee'n) 
would be more usual, the (B-} is pre- 
fixed only to the present, not to the 
past participle. Thou is not found, 
but thee bist, thee wust are constantly 

Notes to C, or the Much. Cowarne cs. 

15. He is an ass as be always jabber- 
ing rubbish. That" 1 s the best news I 
have got for you, old boy. Now I must 
take my danniok or I shan't have no 
supper. Hook it ! The word danniok 
was not explained, it may mean gaiters 
for which dannack is used in Nf . 

Mr. Hallam obtained in 1881 from 
Mrs. Sarah Griffiths in almshouses at 
Hereford, b. 1816 at Much Cowarne, 
where she lived till 7 and afterwards 
from 10 to 20, the following words, 
which are very fair D 4. 

A- 21 nem. A: or 0: 64 roq\ 
A'- 67 d'i bi gwain worn [I am going 
home]. A': 106 bRAAd. .2E- 138 
teedbxR. M:~ 161 da"i, mid'l d&. 
M'- 200 wit'. M'- 218 ship', 
223 dheBR, 224 witJR. E- 233 

spiik. E: 261 sa 1 *, 262 wai, 
fild [field], 279 WEnt. E'- 290 i, 299 
gRiin, 314 STRD. EA: 322 lof , 
324 tt', 326 Swld. EA'- 347 Ja'd. 
EA': 350 dTa'd [approaching (dTad)l. 
El- 373 dha ! i. EO': a'* sid tm [I 
saw him]. I: 452 e'i, 458 na'it', 469 
o'i u)na [I won't]. I'- 494 ta'^m. 
0: 531 dAAteR, 538 ud, krop [crop], 
552 kA^Rn. 0'- 555 shuu, 559 madh^R, 
562 muun. 0': 587 da'n. U- 603 
eka-mm [a coming], 605 sa'n, 606 do^R, 
653 bat'. U': 663 sW. IT. med' 
[mud]. A- pla'imsh [plainish], 
841 tjA v ns, 851 ne^nt [aunt], 
gjRd'n. E-- 892 nEvTu. I- 899 nis\ 
btf [beef], naqk'l [uncle]. 
TH. considers that unaccented (i) should 
be written (i,) here and elsewhere. 

Notes to E, or the Eggleton cs. 

Miss Piper seemed to have no rule 
for (s, z ; f, v) initial and said they 
were used " indiscriminately." She 
wrote with (s) sick, swore, see [=saw], 
swite [blow], spittal [= spade], swill, 
so, sure, safe, and with (z), say, some, 
-Sunday, sumer, sense ; and sometimes 
with (s) and sometimes with (z) seed 
and zeed, to sow and to zough, cider 
and zider, summut and zummat. Again 
she wrote with (f) from, far, /rechet- 
like, for, fine, /urther, /ot [ = fetched], 
and with v few, father, voice, found, 
full, fallow, field, vetches, fill, feet, 
victual, /our. Miss Mary Piper found 

these usages correct. If they were, 
they shewed that at this distance from 
the centre the instincts of the dialect 
were no longer felt. 

In the same way in construction Miss 
Piper used hims for his, which seems 
a late development, and Miss Mary 
Piper said was rare. Again him had 
nearly superseded un for the ace. hine. 
Although in the examples, /, he are 
never used for the ace. emphatic. Miss 
Piper considered it common. Miss M. 
Piper, also said that think, thing had 
(dh) and sure, sheep had (zh). 

[ 1505 ] 



[D 4, V iii. 

Miss Piper's extra specimens for Eggleton, with her translation 

1. meestvR, bii <d'i ra gwafen te orB dhra pfiBs Bnant 
master, am I a going to harrow the piece (of land) opposite to 

dha vole veld? 
the fallow field? 

2. a'e ko)nB tfiek dham dhiiBR osez DRB'W dhat dhiiBR jat. 

I cannot take those horses through that gate. 

3. dhi'iBR bjant zed-vat jez imaf [imaV] te ZA'W dhi3 veld tmant 

there are-not seed vetches enough to sow the field opposite 

dh^ plok -en ii -BR WBZ AA! DROsht 'BZ bii in dh^ 

the plock (small field) and if they were all threshed that are in the 

bARn, -laRd ! a'e da)na dhe'qk raz dhae)d vl t? w^'sk-Bt val 
barn, Lord ! I do)not think that they-would fill a basket full 

'w] te jap m ap faRd^R n^R dhB 
enough to heap it up further than the brim. 

4. -BZ i WBZ Bgwaon do'wn dh^ lain, d'i sii dh^ bwae at dh^ 
as I was a going down the lane, I saw the boy at the 

gafi3Rz op'lz wth dliB bRod-ak, 'Bn, ba' gom ! ae dd 

gaffer's [master's] apples with the broad-hook, and, by gom ! I did 

gV hrai ie swa't wth dh^ spitel Ra^'t on iz- jad. 
give him a blow with the spade right on his head. 

5. dhirBR ^m waz ^lai' 'Bmoq dhB dad-dak im malok djast 'BZ if 

there he was a-lying among the dead-wood and dirt just as if 

13 w^z djad. 
he were dead. 

6. ^ WT?Z bad, noo VI'IBR, B WOR)XT jab'l te jat, 'Bn <d'i trJd Bn 137 
he was bad, no fear, he was) not able to eat, and I told him that 

f em ud. gu ran swl mz yfi^s m dhB brak 'BZ 'B kwd go 
if he would go and swill his face in the brook that he could go 

attm dliB sti'iimz im foDBR ^m. 
after the steers and feed them. 

7. BOO is got on imz tuu vet im s'i pat m in dh^ 

so he got on his two feet and I put him in the cart, 

gEn em B ksk tB st/k m dh^ so'id^r [z 
gave him B keck to stick in the cider 

[ 1506 ] 


soo TSZ V 
keg, so that he 

D 4, V iii, iv.] THE MID SOUTHERN. 75 

kwd gEt zamot tB r>Rqk atoR iz 

could get something to drink after his food [victual]. 

8. me'i umvn iivnv BbaVt it, dhB waVld Br WBZ sa'rm dhB im'lk, 
my wife heard about it, the while she was straining the milk, 

Bn, ha'* gosh ! shi d*'d gu on ; SR)Z AA!*Z fsetfetla'tk. 
and, by gosh ! she did scold ; she)s always cross. 

9. Q'I mEt DRii wmBnvook Bnant dhEm dhiiBR e'wz'n B JUURN ; 

I met three women [woman folk] opposite those [there] houses of yours ; 

dhai WBZ B-magm im BmiiBkm IHUUBR naYz UBR VO'WBR wndBRT 
they were a chattering and making more noise than four hundred 

monka'md wd. 

men [man's kind] would. 

10. :tpRLz WBZ Bla'q, im BE AA! ta:RND mtu dhot dhii^R va'wld 
Charles was along, and they all turned into that [there] fold -yard 

B fc'z'n, Bn DRSV dhB ship mtu dire Tnuzi uth a' 
of his, and drove the sheep into the shed with ours. 


Proceeding s. wards from "Wl. we come to Do. The dialect is 
essentially the same, but at the e. end the (v, z) are less used for 
(f, s), a matter of education. The (ai) varies much as (EE'*) and 
occasionally even (ii). The A- is rather (era, ee') than (IB, i') and 
falls into (ee) rather than (ii). The first example, a dt., was kindly 
given me w. by Mrs. Clay-Ker-Seymour, to whom the dialect was 
very familiar, and represents the pronunciation of her own district, 
Hanford (4. nw.Blandford). The same lady had also assisted Rev. 
E. A. Dayman of Shillingstone (5 nw.Blandford) to fill up a wl., 
which she subsequently went over with me vv., see p. 80. 

A cs. was obtained from Mr. Clarke, native of Cranborne (12 
ene.Blandford), and was pal. by me from diet, of Major-General 
Michel, being subsequently corrected in a few points by corre- 
spondence with Mr. Clarke, who was Master of the Schools at 
Ringwood, Ha. (19 wsw. Winchester), the dialect of which place he 
found to be the same as his own. This was confirmed by a few 
words I obtained vv. from a carter, native of the place, and from 
a wl. furnished by Mr. W. W. Earr from the comparatively dialect- 
less district about Christchurch (20 sw. Southampton), and other 
indications, so that this strip of Ha. is reckoned dialectally as e. Do. 

Finally the late Rev. W. Barnes, Winterborne Came, well known 
through his Do. poems, took great pains with a cs., which he wrote 
in a systematic orthography (see p. 80), and kindly explained by 
correspondence where any difficulty occurred. He also filled up a 

[ 1507 ] 



[D 4, V iv. 

wl. for me, which is given on p. 80, embracing also the most 
important words in the Cranborne, Hanford, Shillingstone, and East 
Lulworth (12 se. Dorchester). The Cranborne and Winterborne 
Came cs. are given inteiiinearly for more easy comparison. 

dt. pal. by AJE. from diet, of Mrs. Clay-Ker-Seymour. 

1 . zoo ooV dra ZEE'*', m* laedz, juu di3 zii na'ow dhset ooV bi BhaoVt 

ba'owt dhe'k dheeR Kt'l ma'd konrrai frem dh^ skuu'l ap 

2. shii bi go'n da'own dim nhood DRUU dhi3 RhEd gii^t on dht? Ih^ft 

hsend zaoVd i3v dire wai. 

3. shim'R tmaf- dhra tjaoYLD hw e)go'n STRHait ap tu dhi3 dooBR 

-BV dh^ Rhaq ha'ows. 

4. weeR shi md tjaans te vao'md dh*k dheeR DRHaqk'^n dsf 

shRHaBmd WSLD tjsep bao'* nee'm -BV :Rh'tpd. 

5. wii d^ aal noou ^n taRb'l WE!. 

6. wnt dht? WSLD tjaep suun laRn shi not te duu t -eg/'n-, puu'R 

szoowl ! 

7. lwki dheeR ! ed'nd-e't TRHUU ? 

Notes to Hanford dt. 

1. Say, not (z&i). The words in 
^G wl. 139 to 148, 160 to 166, EG 
237 to 243, 257 to 264, El 372 to 
382, and EY 438, 439, are very 
variously treated in this form of the 
dialect ; see these numbers in the fol- 
lowing cwl. But in thus pronouncing 
disconnected words some errors may 
have crept in. Mates not used ; (im/zan) 
is a common address even to an old man. 
Now, the diphthong sounded between 
(a'w) and (6u) and I think the effect 
was produced by commencing the first 
element without rounding, producing 
(a'o) and then running on to (), giving 
(a'ow), at least I thus imitated it to 
Mrs. CKS.'s satisfaction. 

2. Road, the (R), not (r), at the be- 
ginning of a syllable, was aspirated; 
when I used (rh) it was recognised as 

incorrect. Left, the voiceless (Ih) was 
distinct and insisted on. 

3. Going, the sound was rather un- 
certain ; I wrote both (go'n) and (gA'n). 

3. Strait and 4. Drunken, the aspira- 
tion of (R) was apparently shewn by 
jerking out the following vowel, other- 
wise Mrs. CKS. seemed to say 
(TRhaqktm) . 

4. Shrammed, properly starved with 

5. Know, the (00} was long and dis- 
tinct and almost (oo), the (u) was a 
fiill (u) ; the effect (oott) was therefore 
different from the usually (o'oV) where 
(u) is not completely reached. Ter- 
ribly, i.e. very ; common in all South- 
ern dialects. 

11. Soul, the word begins with (s) 
on to which the voice is gradually led. 

Two INTERLINEAR EAST DORSET cs. (see p. 75). 

0. C Cranborne. 

"W Winterborne Came. 

wa' :d.pon got noo da/uts. 
whooV :djon h^ nuu da'wts. 

1. C WE!, nEEbim, juu im ii imd buuisth laa a f i3t dhi'rez niunz 
W WE!, naibfcR, Jim -en hii imd bu^th la T f -et whot &'i 

[ 1508 ] 

D 4, V iv.] THE MTD SOUTHERN. 77 

C v ma'm. uu cb knm ? dha't)s nadh^r *'R m? 

W dB tEl)i. Bn whot if ja 1 duu ? dha^s nao^'dhBR WBE HER 

C dheE. 
W dhiBE. 

2. C viuu mEn du da 7 *, biko-s dhe bi laa'ft Bt, wii dra noo, 
W viuu vook di3 doo'i 13 bi"Bn laa'ft a% wi dra noo, 

C do)'nt os? wot shiu^ld mfek^m ? t)*d)'n VERI la'ikb', 
"W doo'nt wi ? whot sh^d miek^m ? tid'n vEfii lao'ikli 

iz it? 
*z t ? 

3. C uuzurvBE dhiBz bi dh^ fa^s ^)dh^)ki's. zuu dJ^'st 
"W ao'ws^mE'v^R t)*z djfl'st i?z oo'i shBl tEl)i. zuu dj'st 

C whoold dha'i taq, mtet, ^n bi kwa'i-^t til a'i)v e)dan. 
"W hoold J^R na ] iz, gud ma'n, en be kua'i-Bt t*l 8o'i)v ^)dan. 

C nhaa 1 Rk)i! 
"W ha ! Rk)i ! 

4. C a'i bi saRt'n so'i jfeKD)vm za, zam vooks dh^t 
W ao'i). sa'Rten oo'i hiBEd^n zV, zam 13 dhEm vook dliut 

C wEnt DRUU dhn wul dhq vRom dh^ vast dh^RZE'lvz, 

W zid dht? huT3l a)t VRBIH dh-B vast te laa'st. dhaM; 

C a'i did, SIB! i3na'f. 
W ao'i d*d, sief ranaf . 

5. C dh^t dhra jaq^st zan tzzE'lf, B gaRT buoi ^ na'in, nood h*z 
W dh^t dh^ jaqgest zan htzzE'll, B gaoRT buo'i 13 nao'in, nood h'z 

C fEEclhtJRZ vois 'Bt uuns, dhoo t waR za k^E-BR -en 

W faa 1 dhBRz va'is 'et uuns, dhoo t)wa)R ZB kue'^R im skiiiiki, 

C "Bn a'i)d TRast)'n te spiek dht3 TRUuth Eni dai. aai, 
W ^n ao'i)d ttek hiz WQORD mi dii. -dha't 

C a'i ud\ 
W oo'i ud ! 

'. C im dhB woold wm-Bn h^RZE'lf il tEl Eni)^v)i dn^t di3 laa ! f 
W ^n dhi? uoold um^n hi?RZE'lf ul tfil ni}B)i dhu siem, dhoo 

C na'w, t?n tEl)i sTREE'it oof, tuu, 

"Wjuu d^ laa'f na/u, n tfil)i ao'uTRSo'i't, tuu, va'st 

C matj bodh^R if juu)l ooni a j ks hBR, oo wo)'nt "BR ? 

W una-f. if. mu)l oonli a ! ks BE, aa l , ao'i 'bliiv shi ul ? 

[ 1509 ] 



[D 4, V iv. 

7. C 



8. C 

li'stwEE'iz shi timid it mii, wEn a'i a'kst^R, tuu BR 

Bt Ifest shi tumid 'mil, whEn a'i a'kst^uR, tuu BR DRii 

ta'e'mz OOVBR, shi dd, -en 'shii dd)'n AA'^t to bi raq on 
tao'imz AAVBR, shi de'd, ran 'shii AAt)n to bi matj oo'ut 

setj V puomt BZ dhe's, wot^z -dhii dhe'qk ? 

s&tj 13 puao'int BZ 'dha 1 !:, whot d^ -juu dhqk ? 

WE! BZ a'i wez 'e)za 1 rm shii)d tEl)i, a'u 
WE! BZ oo'i w^R i B)zn'"Bn, shii)d tEl)i hao'u 

WEn shi va'und dire DRaqk'n bfes shi 
whm shi vao'un dh^ DRaqk'q biust 'BZ shi 



kaa 1 ! 

9. C 

shi ZOO'R shi zid)'n we 'BR oon a'iz B)lEE*m sTREtjt 

shi ZUBR dh^t shi zid)'n we 13R oon oo'iz B)loo / i'Bn 

'Bt vwl lEqkth on 

oe'ut "Bt vul la x qth 

dhi3 gRa'un, m he'z be'-Bs zande 
dhe gRSo'un, eh he'z bEst zandi 

kuu^t, klims, bii dh^ du^R 'B)dh^ a'us, da'un 'Bt dh"B 
ku^t, klu-Bs bii dh-B duBR ^)dhB hao'us, dao'un ^t dJiB 


C -B)dh^ Iten 

10. C 


hii wim wa'inen ^wEE'i, ZES shii, VBR A A! dh^ waRL 
hi W^R, shi zEd, B whemp^RBn, VBR AA! dhu WQORL 

la'ik 'B zek tja'ild 'BR)^, lit'l mEE'id 'B)vREt'n. 
lao'ik 'Bn aHlran tjao'il, 'BR)^ frstvul b't'l maid. 

11. C aal -dha't W^R when shii -Bn 
W ^n dha a t ha^'md 'BZ shii en 

dAATBR-n-lAA wi?r 

kam DRUU dh^ ba'k ja^RD vrom aq^n a'ut dhi3 wEt 
DRUU dliB ba^ ia j RD vR^m ha j q^n oo'ut B dh^ WEt 


12. C 


13. C 

kldoi3z te DRa'i. on 
klooz te DRQo'i 

TB wEEshBn 

wosh^n dn. 

wa'el dh-B ked'l WBR bo'ilm &R teV uun bRa'it 

whoo'il dh^ ket'l WBR B)buao / ilT?n yr teV uun fao'in 

zamBR aateRnuun, ooni ^ wiik vguu kam nsks dhaRzdi. 
zamBR a^^Rnuun, oonli B wik Bguu kam nEks dhaRzde. 

Tsn dast dhi noo? a'i neytm la^^T Eni moo'r dhen dh^'s ^ 
d)i noo ? dha ! t)s aa T l)z eVtrn oo'i hi 

[ 1510 ] 

D 4, V iv.] 



C dha a t djob ap te tedEEH 13Z shuw?R)z ma 1 ! m'mn iz 

"W dha't dpb VRBHL vast te laa'st, TJZ TRUU)Z moo'i niem iz 

C :d_pn :shpi3RD, en a'i do')nt wAnt te 

W :djon :shEpBRD, im a/i doo)nt wont to hrBR mi mibr o)t 

C nadhBr. dheeR nau. 
"W nadlt^R. dhier nao'u. 

14. C ran zuu a'i bi v^gw^ivn wu^m [hu^m] tra zapar. gwd 
W Bn zuu ao'i)m i3)guu"Bn nibm to sap^R. gud 

OOVBR B bodi -egfen 
AAVBR ^ bodi 

C na'it 'en do')nt)i bi zuu km'k te 
"W nao'it Bn doo)nt)i bi SB REdi te 

C wEn hii d^ taa'k ^ dhs, dha j t or 

W 'f hii d^ spnk WQORD -B dhs, dha x t ^r t)adhi3R. 

15. C t)^'z 'B week fuuel dht tja ! ts 'Bdha'ut r^z'n. 

"W t)iz V mm dhist d^ tAAk ^dhao'ut *ni gRao'unz yaR)T. 

C 'en dha 1 t)s nr/i laeaest waRD. gud. bua'i. 
"W ^ dha^Js AA! ao'i haV te zii. gud buao'i. 

Notes to W, or Winterborne Came. 

1. at what I do tel ye, or, (ao'i)m 
e)guirtm te tEl)i) ; h aspirated in what. 
This variant occurs in another copy 
which Mr. Barnes sent to Prince L.-L. 
Bonaparte. These variants will be 
marked LLB. in future. 

2. very (OOVBR) LLB. 

3. ' is just as I shall tel ye, (dhiz iz 
djist hso'u t)wson) LLB. good man, 
(ma/i gud SAA!) LLB. hark ye, (hank'n 
te whot so 'i d^ zii) hearken to what I 
do say, LLB. 

4. certain, or (shmrraB,). say, Mr. 
Barnes says Do.(zn), not (zai). Gen. 
Michel gave (ZEE'!) which Mr. Clarke 
corrected to (zai) . safe (sref) LLB. 

5. great, or rather (ha 1 RD) . father's, 
or (fmlh'BRz). squeaky, or (skuiik'n- 
Iso'ik). I would take his word for it, 
(oo'i)d TRast hii v^r spuken dhe TRUiith) 
I would trust he for speaking the 
truth, LLB. 

6. laugh, (glim zuu) sneer so, LLB. 
Mr. B. says he did not catch the mean- 
ing of the original. fast enough, 
(widhaoVt ini shtli sha 1 !!) without any 
shilly shally. Gen. Michel said that 
bother was used in the country. Ah, 
I believe she will, (-dha't shi wal) that 
she will, LLB. 

7. at least (inihao'u-) LLB. told me, 
" (tumid) is nearer than tuald," says 
Mr. B. (tfold it so'ut te -ao'i) told it 
out to me, LLB. She oughtn't to be 
much out. (kaa^nt bi matj ao'ut) can't 
be much out, LLB., or (vERi Roq) very 
wrong, not (Rhoq), which is the rung of 
a ladder, upon such a point as that, 
(in sitj a dhiq uz dhis), LLB. What do 
you think? (d)xe dhiqk shi ka : n ?) LLB. 

8. as (dhrt), LLB. 

9. swore, (veo'ud) vowed, LLB. 
stretched out (sTRa'it ao'wt) straight 
out, LLB. close by the door, (Rao'it 
ap agi^n dhe dueR) right up against 
the door, LLB. Of yonder lane ()dhe 
li^n so'ut JOUDBR) LLB. 

10. world, (waoRel), LLB. ailing, 
(zik) LLB. fretful (fREtvul) with (f) 
not (v), or (B lit'l ma ! id e)fREt'n) a little 
maid a-fretting. 

11. daughter, or (deeiis'R). were a- 
coming, (kam) LLB. 

12. that's all that ever I heard of 
that job from first to last, (ao'i nev^R 
hierd ini muim B dhi^z dpb, dh^n whot 
a>'i)v Btu^ld) I never heard anymore of 
this job than what I've a-told you, LLB. 
true as (shuu'R BZ) , LLB. I don 1 1 ivant 
to hear any more of it neither, there 



[D 4, V iv. 

now, (ao'i doo)nt wont te MBR ini HIUBR 
nadhBR, zuu dhitJR noo'u) I don't want 
to hear any more neither, so there now. 
14. if he do speak, (whin hi de taa*k) 
when he do talk, LLB. 

15. ninny, soft poll, LLB. that do 
talk without any grounds for it, or (dra 
1st hiz taq Khan BVOO'R hiz nit] do let 
his tongue run afore his wit. 

EAST DORSET cwl. combined from several sources. 

C Mr. Clarke's Cranhourne (12 ene.Blandford), pal. hy AJE. from diet, of 

Major -Gen. Michel. 

II Hanford, from Mrs. C lay -Ker- Seymour, from diet., rather refined. 
L East Lulworth, (12 se. Dorchester) from Rev. Walter Kendall. 
"W "Winterborne Came (2 sse. Dorchester) from Eev. W. Barnes, his wl., cs. and 

phonetic part of his Grammar, translating his systematic orthography of 

figures thus : 

5. It. a long It. a short (aa 1 a 1 ). 

6. awe dot (AA, o). 

7. rope Ml (oo, a). 

8. rood It. u short (uu u). 

long short 

1. sheep pity (ii i). 

2. Dorset e ship (ii i} , this (ii) has hardly 

heen given me by any others. 

3. mate bet (ee E). 

4. Fr. le long Fr. \e short (a> B). 

Diphthongs 4. 1. (ao'i), 5.1. (ai), 6. 1. (o'i), 4. 8. (a'u), 1.4. ('B, re). I never 

had the advantage of hearing Mr. Barnes read. 
Note. The pron. is said to be smooth, clear, and up and down in pitch. 


"When C is placed only after sounds, Mr. Barnes agrees with Mr. Clarke. "When 
C is placed before sounds, it gives Mr. Clarke's pr. only. 

A- 3 WL biek, H beeek. 4 L tick, H teeuk. 5 "W miek, C mink, 
H mee^k. 6 W mied, H meesd. 7 H seesk. 10 L aa. 16 H daa j n. 17 W 
IAA, CL laa. 18 W kiek. 19 WL trel, H tail. 20 L Hem, H lee'm. 21 
niem, C nrem, H neeum. 22 H tee-em. 23 H see^ni. 24 H sheeBm. 25 W 
main. 34 W lest, la j st, laa^t, C Ia383st, H lae'est. 36 H thoo. 37 L klaa, 
H tlaa. 

A: - W ka'g [keg]. W Rha'm [a ram]. 39 C kam. 41 W tha x qk. 
43 H hfend. 45 L wa'nt. 48 W za'q. 50 W toqz. 52 W won. 54 W 
wont, C wAnt. 55 H ees. 56 W wosh, C wEEsh, H wooshi. 57 W a's, H seses. 

A: or 0: 58 W VB/BHI, C VRom, H frem. 64 C raq, H Rhaq, Rhoq. 

A'- 67 W t?)guu-en, C t?)gzfa'in [going]. 69 L nuu. 70 L tuu. 72 LC 
uu. 73 zuu H and C, H zoo. 74 tuu. 76 W tfied, H to^d. 77 IIL laRD. 
79 oon C. 81 W Ihm, C li'n, H lain. 82 uuns. 84 W muuR, C mooBR, H 
motjR. 85 W ZUTJR. 86 W urcts, L woots, H wots, wtots, wets [different 
appreciations]. 87 W klooz, C klo'ora. 89 W btoth, C buuBth. 92 W noo 
and C, H noou [with (oo) and (u) distinct, not a vanish]. 94 kroo C. 97 H 
szooid [the word begins with (s) on to which the voice is led] . 

A': 101 W iiook, uek, L wook, H 6k. 102 W a^s, H aa ! sk. 104 W 
Rood, H Rhood [(rh) was recognised as wrong]. 106 bRood. 108 W doo. 109 
W loo. 110 II not. Ill W AAt, C AA't, H aat. 113 W MB!, C wwl. 115 
W hut?m, C wu'm, hu'm. 117 WC uun [Mr. B. also writes woone'] . 118 W 
buan and L, H bo'n. 119 H go'n, gA'n. 120 W Bguu, C Teguu. 122 nuu, 
C noo [no], nuen [none]. 124 L sttren, H sto'n. 125 W oonli, C ooni. 126 
W oor. 127 W hoo-es. 128 H [(dhik, dlw) used]. 
[loth]. - - W Rhoo [a row or rank]. 137 WC 

M- 138 W faa'dh^R, feedhm*., LC fEEdhtjR. 
140 WL ha'itjL, H hail. 141 W n^tBL, H nail. 

129 H gost. W Itmth 

139 W dra'i, H DKEE'I. 
142 W sna'iBL. 143 W 

ta x iT5L, H tail. 144 WH Bgnm, C Bgt'n. 145 sla'in and H. 146 maHn and H. 
147 bRa'in and H. 148 fEER. 149 H blaiz. 150 W liBst, L and C 
W siit [a seat]. 

[ 1512 ] 

D 4, V iv.] THE MID SOUTHERN. 81 

M: 154 WC ba^. 158 W eefTun. 160 W a'g, H ceg. 161 W dii, C dai, 
CH dBB'i, L dai, foe. 163 W lit, H lai. 164 HC [(mid) more used], H mai. 
165 WH zEd. 166 WL ma'id, C mEE'id, H maid. 169 W whin whEn, HC 
WEB, H whan. W whiq [a wing]. ha'ps [hasp]. wa j ps [wasp], 
171 W beeRlao'i. 175 W va'st. - W I'ret [late]. 177 H dha3t [(dhik) also 
used, Mr. Barnes says, for shaped objects]. 179 W whot, C wot. 180 H bee^th. 

M'- 182 W sit, L see. 183 L teetj. 185 W siid, H Rhiid. 191 W hiil, 
H hirel. 192 L meen, H miren. 193 W klhm, L klcm. lira. 194 W ini, 
C Eni. 195 W mini. 199 W bliit. 200 W whiit, L wed. 201 W hiidh'n, 
L mlh'n. 202 L het, H lust. 

M': 203 L speetj, H spiiiitj. W mirjd [mead]. 205 W DRid. 206 H 
RhEd. 208 W ivBR. 209 C nevE. 210 W klii, H klai. 211 W gEti. 
212 W whit. 213 WH a'idlreR. 214 W nao'idhtjR, C naidhtm. 215 H taat. 
216 H diiul. 217 W iitj, L eetj. - - W gliim [gleam]. 220 W shEpmD, C 
ship^RD. 221 H fee'R. 223 "W dhhm, C dheii, H dhee'r. 224 W whm?R, C 
waR, H wee'r. 225 L vlesh. W sTRiit [street]. 227 WC wBt. 

E- 232 H bR<?k. W bRiitj [breach]. 233 spiik, C spiek, H spek. 236 
H fiivim. 237 W bla'm. 239 W sa'iuL, H &il. 240 W la 1 in. 241 W 
Rha'in, L Ram, II Rhmn. 243 WL pla'i, H plai. -- W stiil [to steal]. 245 
W miil. 247 W wiin. 248 "W m'reR, H m^'R. 249 H W^'R. 250 H SW^BR. 
251 W miit, H mtBt. - - W tit [to eat]. 252 W kit'l kit'l, C kid'l, H kit'l. 

E: _ W hiiv [heave]. 256 W sTRaHrt, C sTREtit [stretched]. 260 H lai. 
261 W zti, C zii ZEE'!. W trai [a tray]. W lag [leg]. 262 W waH, C 
WEEI H wai wEB't. 263 CW BWEE'i. 264 W tfil. 265 

II STRHait [(EH) after (ST) replacing (sh)]. 266 H WE!. 269 
[dhemselves]. 270 H i. bElas, ii. b^eli. 271 W td. 272 W ELi?m. - W 
helm [the helm]. 273 W mm. 275 H stinsh. 276 W dhiqk. 277 H 
DRinsh. 281 W la'qth, C Isqkth, Hlfeqkth. 282 HsiREeqkth. 284 LH DRash. 

W bast [to burst] . W zEt [to set], W SEt [a set] . W bsst, btBs [best] . 
E'- 293 W wii. 294 H spiid. 296 W bliiv, H biliiv. 298 W fii'L. 300 

HL kip. 302 H miret. 303 H swiiet. E': bfiiitj [breech]. 305 H 

hao'i. 307 H nao'i. 308 H niit. 309 HW spiid. 310 H hii'L. 311 W 
tEn. 312 W hnm, C tBE, H hireR. 314 W MBRD, C JIBRD, H haRD. 315 H 
firet. 316 W nEks. 

EA- 317 W fla 1 ;, H flai. rel [ale]. 320 C kit?E. 

EA: 322 W leef, la 1 ^ C laa a f. 324 W a'it, H ait. 325 H waak. 326 
uoold, LC woold, H wald. 327 W biioold. 328 W kiioold, H koold. 329 W 
viioold, vuueld. 330 W hoold, C whoold. 332 CW tfild. 333 L kEBf, H 
kaaf. 334 W h^f, L h EE f, H haaf. 335 WC AA!, H aal. 336 W VAA! [the 
fall of the year is (fAAlU H faal. 337 H waal. 338 W kaa'l, C kaal. 340 W 
ia ] RD, C ja'RD. 342 W iuRm, H jaoRm. 343 LH waaRm. vimN [fern]. 

reRN [earn]. 346 W glut, LH gii^t gee't. 

EA'- 347 W hid h E d. 348 W ao'iz, C a'iz. - W biwt [to beat]. 349 
WC vmu. EA': 351 W lid. 352 W Rid, H RhEd. 353 W bREd. 355 
W dif, L diif, H ds'f. 357 W dhoo. 359 W naibuR, LC nEEb^R. W siim 
[a seam]. - - W sTRiim [stream]. 361 WL bren. 364 H tjaep. 365 W niim. 

- W niit [neat, cattle]. 366 W gaoRT, HC gaRT. 370 H Raa 1 . 371 W 
STR^, H sTRaa 1 . 

El- 372 W a'i, C aai, H BE't. 373 L dhai, H dhEE'i. 374 na\ H 
375 Rh^z. 376 ba j it, H bait. El: 377 H stee'k. 378 W wtik, C 
H wh^k. 379 W h^il. 381 W sw^in, H emeea. 

EO- 383 WzEv'nzEb'n. EO: 388 H m'Lk [as nearly as I could 

appreciate, same as D 10]. 390 C shield. 394 WCH JONDTJR. 402 W 1'reRN, 
C la'RN, H laRN. 405 W haaRth. 

EO'- 409 H bii. 411 WH DRii. 412 WH shii [emphatic]. 413 W div 1. 
416 H dii^R. 420 W VSO'UBR, H foo'E. 421 H faati. EO': 424 H Rhaf. 

- AV wiil [a wheel]. 427 H bi. 428 WH zii. 430 W fRind, H fRiind. 
431 H birBR. 433 W baist. 436 W TRUU, II TRHUU. 

EY- 438 W dao'i, C da'i, H dai. EY: 439 TRast. 

I- 440 W wik, C wiik. 444 W stao'iBL, H stao'tl. 446 W nao m and H, 
C na'in. - - W tm [him, ace.]. 448 II [(dhfoziuE, dliiiz'm) used]. 

E.E. Pron. Part V. [ 1513 ] 97 



[D 4, V iv. 

I: 452 W and H a>'i, C a'i. 455 II Iso'i. 458 W nao'it, C na'it. 459 H 
Rhao'it. 460 wa'it, H wao'it. 465 L sitj. 466 tjao'il, C tja'ild, H tjao'iLD. 

[in the Yale 
H timbuR. 474 


nrl)]. _ WL Rhim [a rim]. 471 H timbR. 474 H Rhao'ind. ' 475 H 
wh^nd. 477 H vao'itmd, H vso'ind. 480 C dhiq. W Rhiq [a ring]. 481 
H viqgBR. 484 C dhirez, H [(dhis-iR) used]. - W kRips [crisp]. - W 
ziks [six]. 

I'- 490 H bao'i. 491 H sao'i. 492 H zao'id. 493 L DR^V, H DRHao'iv. 
494 WHtao'im, C ta'im. 496 H ao'iuRN. 497 W tmhao'iz. 499 L bit'l. 

I': 500 W lao'ikli, C la'ikli. 501 H wao'id. 502 WL vso'iv, H fao'iv. 503 
H lao'if. 504 H nao'if. 505 H wao'if. 506 WL unren, H wimm. 507 H 
wimin-vok. - W hai. 508 H mao'il. 509 WH whao'il, C wa'il. 510 C 
ma'in. 511 H wao'in. 512 H spao'i^R. 513 H weo'mi. 515 H wao'iz. 

0- 519 W AAVBR, C COVER. 520 H Wou [see 643]. - - W booRD [bored]. 
524 W waoRL, C waRL, H waRLD, [(waRD'L) not known]. - W DRoot 
[throat]. 0: - W gospel [gospel]. 525 C oof. 526 H kaaf. 531 W 
dAATBR, HC daateR. 534 W hool. 535 W vook. 536 WH g^LD. 537 W 
muoold. - - W boom [a holm island]. - - W horeR [hollow]. 541 C wo)'nt, 
H unt. 546 WC VBR. ORtred [orchard]. 547 biiooRD, H boBRD. 548 H 
fo'tjRD. 550 CH waRD. 551 WH staaRm. 552 WH kaaRN. 553 WH 
haaRn. 554 H kRa's. 

0'- 558 H \uk, Iw^k. 559 WH mw^dheR. 560 W skuu'l. 561 [L 
(bluuth) used], H bl^m. 562 H m^n. 564 H suun. 567 W t)adht?R C. 

0': 569 W bwk, H bw^k. 570 W tuk, H t^^k. 571 W gwd. 572 W 

bkd. 575 H stwjwl. 576 W whwzdi. 579 WH t?naf. 586 WH duu 
[(doo)'nt, C do)'nt) don't]. 587 W ^)dan. 588 WC nuun, H ne^tm. 589 H 
spw^n. 590 H flw^R. 591 H m^uR. 592 W Z^R, C zoo'r. 594 H bw^t. 
595 H fujjA. 596 W Rhuut. 

F- 601 W vao'ul. 603 W i3)ksmen [a-coming], H komen. 604 Wzamtm. 
605 W zan. 606 CW dutm, H doouR. U: 609 C vwl, fuul. 610 H uul. 
612 W zam. 614 H nhao'^nd. 616 W gRao'un, C gRa'un. 619 W vao'un, C 
va'und. - - W Rhoq [rung of a ladder]. 625 C taq. 627 WC zandi. 629 W 
san, H zan. 630 W won, H whon. - - W hantsnren. 631 WC dhaRzdi. 632 
H ap. 633 H kap. - - W VSORZ [firs]. 634 WHC DRUU. 639 WL da'ust. 

U'- 641 hao'w, C a'u, [and] ao'us^mE-vBR, C uuzu)rvBR [howsoever]. 642 
[not used generally, except to children or when wrangling]. 643 nao'w, C na'w, H 
nz'ou [the diphthong seemed to be made into a triphthong by beginning with the 
mouth open and the tongue in the position for (o) and closing up to (u\ this is 
what (a'ow) implies ; and so in all other cases ; this triphthong was heard only 
from Mrs. Clay-Ker- Seymour]. 646 H ba'ow. 647 H aowl. 648 H [(aWn) 
used]. 650 H baWt. U': 655 W fao'ul, H fa'owl [see 643]. 656 Rhuum 
and H. 658 W dao'un, C da'un, H da'own [see 643]. 663 W ha/us, C a'us, 
II ha'ows [see 643]. 665 H ma'ows. 666 W hazben, C azbtm. 667 W so'ut. 
671 H ma'owth. 672 H sa'owth. 

Y- 673 W matj. 674 W did. 675 W DRao'i, H DRnao'*, C DRa'i. 676 H 
la>'i. 679 W tjEtj, H tjatj. 680 H bazi. 682 WH ltt'1, C lit'l. Y: 684 
H bRHijdj. 685 W Radj, H Rhi^. 686 H bao'i. 687 H flao'tt. 688 W siti. 
693 H SEn. 696 WH baath. 698 WH mERth. 699 W shao'tt. 700 uus, 
H was. vaz vaz'n [furze]. 701 WL vast. 704 W viks'n [female fox]. 
Y- 705 WHskGo'i. 706 WH whao'i, C wa'i. 707 WthaRtiin. 708 H heo'i'B. 
Y': 709Hfao'i'R. 711 WH Iso'is. 712 H meo'is. 


A. 714 H Ised. 718 W TRied. - - W ba 1 ^! [bail or backet]. - Ra'il [a 
rail]. DRa'i^l [the drail or iron for hitching on the horses to a plough]. - 
:ka4n [Cain], 725 zrel. 726 tAAk, C taak. - H shRham. 732 W ha^'md. 

- W haaRL, haaRD'l, ha T Rl [to hurl, entangle]. - W kla^ps [clast]. 

737 C mist, H [not used, replaced by (mi zan) even when addressing an old 
man]. W fyee [jaw]. 

E. _ W kriik [to creak]. W tiil [a teal]. 744 H msez'lz.. 745 W 
- W pttt [peat]. 746 W bRiidh. 747 H tnd^-vBR. 748 flidjd. 

[ 1514 ] 

D 4, V iv.] THE MID SOUTHERN. 83 

W AAVBR whElBm [overwhelm]. 749 H Ihift. 750 WL ba'g H bseg 

WL pa'g [peg]. 752 frEtvul [fretful], C t?)vREt'n [a fretting]. 

I. and Y. - W rRhitpd [Richard]. W smao'iBl [a smile]. 758 H 
gaRL. W tuaoRD'l, tiiiRBl [twirl]. 

0. 761 L lutjd, H lo'Bd. 765 W :dpn, C rdpon. 767 WL na^s, H nao'iz. 
776 W gwd hiiao'i, C gwd biia'i. 778 'W avuBRD. 781 C bodhBR. 791 W 
buo'i, C bu6i, H boi. 

TJ. 797 W skuiiki, C skwi'kin. 798 W kiimm, C k^-E'R. 799 L [(pool) 
used]. 801 and 802 Rham. 804 DRaqk'q, C DRaqk'n, H DRHaqkBn. - W 
kaoRL, kaoRD'L, kaRBl [curl]. "W pa>RL, paoRD'L, paRBL [purl], 808 H pat. 


A 810 W fies, H faa's. 811 W plies, H plaa's [pi. (plaaVn) not heard]. 
814 W mies'n. W baHul [bail in law], W ma 1 ^!, [a mail or bag). 

W pa 1 ;! [pail]. W vla'il [flail]. 819 H RhaaMi. 820 W ga 1 *. 821 
W dilai. 822 TV ma*. 823 W bai. - W pa 1 * [pay]. 824 W tjee'a. 826 
"W iig'l. 827 W iigBR. - W TRa ! il [to trail]. W Rhiim. 829 gaHn. 
830 H TRain. - W a^R [air]. 832 W mai/BR. 833 H peeBR. 835 

W RttVn, H Rh^z'n. 836 W sttz'n, H siiz'n. 837 W lush. 838 W 
TRnt. - "W pi^l [pale]. 841 H t;aas. 847 H deendrer. 849 H sTReendR. 

W ki^n [cane]. 850 L d^ns, H daans. 851 H aant. piepBR 

W dja'iel [gaol]. 852 H eepBRN. W ghmc'N [garden]. 
tinmm [charm]. - W kreRD [card]. 857 L kii?s, H kaa ] s. 858 H braa"^. 
859 H tjaa l s. 862 "W sief, C si'f. 864 C bikos. 865 H faa'lt. 866 H PUUBR. 

W staH [stay]. 

E-. 867 WC tti. 868 WH dja ! i. 869 W vtil, H vibl. W s*tl 
[to seal]. 874 W Rha'in, H -Rheen. W pa^nt [paint]. 875 H faint. 
- W pul [peal of bells]. 881 sans. 885 W vam. 886 H frao't'R. 887 
H klaRdji. H taRb'l [terrible, extremely]. vas [verse]. 888 W sa'RTen, 
C saRt'n. 889 stis. 890 W btest, C bi's [H pi. bi^-stesiz]. 891 H fi'st. 
894 WH dtsnv. 895 WH Risiiv. 896 bttVBR. 

I-. andY- 899 W ntis. 900 H puai. W nini [ninny]. 904 HW 
vao'iret. 905 Rhao'ret. - W &'il [isle]. 909 W bRwz. 910 H djoo'ist. 
912 H RhaD'is. 

917 H Rhoog. 920 W puao'int, C pu6tnt. 922 H bashi?!. 924 W 
tja'ts, H tjao'ts. 925 W va^s, H vaa'is. 926 W spuao'il, H spail. 929 W 
kao'ukimreR. 930 H la'in. - W fuoos [force]. 938 WCH kaRmm. 939 
W HUBS, C klu's. 940 W kuut, w^stket [waistcoat], C kuu't, H kw,Bt. 941 
C fuu'l. 942 W batpR. 947 buao'il, C bo'il, H bail. W tiiao'il [to toil]. 
950 W zapuR C. 955 W da'uts C. - W kRaust [crust]. W Ra'ut 
[rut, route]. 957 H emplai. 959 W kunva'i. 

U-. 961 HgRUul. - W wa j it [wait]. 963 H kwao't-et. 965 H ail. 
968 W oo'isteR. 969 HC shuu'R. 970 djist. 


A few words from Whitchurch Canonicorum, noted by N. W. Wyer, Esq., 
originally written in Glossic. With the exception of (kuut) cut, the words 
are unimportant, but they serve to continue the Dorset dialect up to the 
Axe-Yarty form, p. 87. 


A- 5 makin [making]. 14 DRaad [dra wed = drew]. 17 1&. A'- 67 
goou. A': 110 nat. 122 noon. 124 stooen. 

M- 142 snail, SUEE!, meel. prwt* [pretty]. M\ 166 maaid. 

- hapsiz [hasps]. 173 WAAZS. M': 209 narewan [never a one]. 

214 nedheR. 

E- 243 plat. 251 meet. E: 269 mize-1. EA: 324 a'it. 326 woold, 
wol, wool. 338 kaal. 346 gjet, gjeei, gJBBt. EA'- 347 hid. EA': 
359 neeTovR, neibBR. 363 shiip [cheap]. 371 sTRaa. EO: shaRT [short]. 
EO'- 411 DRii. 

[ 1515 ] 


[D 4, V iv, v. 

I- in [bine, him ace. also for hit (ai ken pwt in iin) I can put it in]. 

biret [bit]. I: 467 wiild. iin [in]. viniid [mouldy]. I'- 
490 baimbai [by and bye]. 494 taiBmz. shim [shine]. * - sa'ivz 
[scythes]. I': 502 va'iv. haa, hai, hee, haagh, haai [hay]. 

0- smo'owk [smoke]. 519 OVBR, areR. 0: ta?p [top]. 551 staaRm. 

maRnin [morning]. 

U- 606 doR ( . U: murerfwl [wonderful]. 631 YBRzdee. 632 (Ep ap. 
634 DRUU. 
Y: - hiil [hill]. thiren [thin]. 


I. and Y. 758 geRL. 

0. stakiq [stocking]. kaRk [cork]. 

U. kuut [cut]. 1 


A.. a3kta'i-v. flail [flail]. - plaag [plague]. 820 gee [bright]. 
822 man?. -- paai [pay]. 845 anshint. 

E-- 885 vaRi. - teReb'l [terrible]. saaRvin [serving]. 
! andX 900 te praiji. 
moov [move]. 


The Elizabethan English writers, when they want to indicate 
a S. peasant, continually use ich, cham = ich am, chill = ich will, 
chud=ich would (see supra, Part I. p. 293 i, 0). It is also found 
in D 1, p. 30^. For the existence of this form of the personal 
pronoun I, search was made in Sin., and at last it was found as 
(atj atjir) in a very small district, which I have therefore called 
'the Land of Utch.' Through Prince L.-L. Bonaparte and the 
late Mr. Pulman, I found that utch was certainly used in Montacute 
(:ma*nekiu), (4 w-by-n.Yeovil, Sm.), and I was fortunate enough 
to be directed to Mr. George Mitchell, then a vestryman of 
Kensington, marble and stone mason, of 166, Brompton Road, S.W., 
with "manufactories in Belgium, France, Italy, and Walton Street, 
Brompton, estab. 1851," but a native of Montacute, and unable to 
read or write till he was 23 years old, together with Mr. Stephen 
Price, son of a dissenting minister and schoolmaster at Yeovil, Sm., 
where he was born, but who had lived at Montacute from 10 years 
old, and had acted formerly as Mr. Mitchell's secretary. On 17 
Aug. 1880, both of them came to my house and gave me the 
following information. The Land of Utch occupied the angular 
space between the two railways which have their vertex at Yeovil, 
Sm., on the b. of Do. The following villages were named as using 
utch, proceeding from Yeovil to ^ the w., all distances measured from 
Yeovil Station. East Coker 2 ssw., East Chinnock 3 sw., Mid 
and West Chinnock 5 wsw., Merriott 7 wsw., Chisselborough 5 
w-by-s., Montacute 4 w-by-n., Martock 6 nw., Norton 5 w., South 
Petherton 7 w-by-n., and possibly Kingsbury 8 nw. In the same 
region (as) is also employed, which Mr. Price thought to be a 
corruption of (atj) ; (iis) was not known except as meaning yes. 

[ 1516 ] 




There was no knowledge of ice (a'*s?) mentioned by Jennings in his 
Glossary as " common." The ice in Shakspere's King Lear 4, 6, 
240 ice try, one of Edgar's Kentish speeches, is prohably I shall, Ivr 
which it is not an uncommon abbreviation. 

Mr. Price gave me the following joke on (atj) which passes 
current in the district. In the Montacute dt. however neither he 
nor Mr. Mitchell used (atj) at all. Another version of this joke 
was given by Miss Ham, a native of Sin., in a letter (dated Clifton, 
30 Jan. 1825) addressed to Jennings, who prints it in his 
glossary ; this I interline in her orthography. 

brEd)n tjiiz, atj)i3v)^)a-d 
bread and cheese, V have a had 

>n)wot atj)a-d, 
that V had, 

V have a eat 

'n muuR Btj^-d, if. 
more 'ch wou'd, 


had it 

Mr. Price's version seems more trustworthy and is certainly more 
intelligible. Observe the S. past part. ('Bja'd, i B;eet) = a-had, a-eaten. 
Prince L.-L. Bonaparte heard (atjir) from a man of 94 at Cannington 
(3 nw.Bridgewater, Sm.). 

Pal. by AJE. from diet, of Messrs. Mitchell and Price. 

1. zuu aY dt?)zee, man, dhii do)zii na'w dh^t aV hi EaVt 
dh/k k'd'l mEEVd ^ko-mm vRom dhk)dheeR skuul. 

2. aR)z < B)gwEE / m da'wn dhi3 Rhood dheeR DRUU dht? shad 
on dhra lEf an zaVd ^ dim wai. 

3. shuu'R mia'f dhe tjiil hav 'Bgo'n STREE'/t ap te dh-B dooi3R v 
dh^ Roq ha'ws, 

4. waeR aR)l ma)bi va'md dhk DRaqkm dsf skRamd tuu'd 
nEEm 13 :toni9s. 

5. as di3 aal noo)n vERi WE!. 

6. uu)nt dh^ woold tjap zuun t00tj shii not te duu it 
PUU'R dh/q \ 

7. lok)i ! 'd)'n it TRUU ? 


I. I (a'i) analysis adopted with hesita- 
tion. I seemed often to hear (ao'i) and it 
may have been (aj'i). say (zai) also 
used. mates (mEE'its) according to 
Price, scarcely used, (sooz) hardly 
known, (tjaps) common. now, Price 
said (nia'w, dla'tm), but Mitchell would 
not hear of it ; the diphthong was often 
(ao'w) to my hearing, and may have been 
(H>'). right, a strong tendency to 

(ah) initial in all cases of r. that, 
Barnes's distinctions of (dhiuz, dhik). 
= received this, that, ' ' personal, ' ' that is, 
for things having a definite shape, and 
(dhis, dliat) "impersonal," for other 
things (Dorset Grammar, p. 21), was 
recognised, although never thought of 
before. maid, (mBB'td, maese'id) both 
said at times, but (ma'id) was not 
admitted; no distinction in meaning 

[ 1517 ] 


[D 4, V v. 

recognised between maid and girl 
(gaRL), which was (wEntj), not an in- 
sulting term. come ultimately sounded 
(koni), but I thought (kam) was meant. 
thick there, (JEND'R, JBBND'R) also 
used, but more Do. 

2. her's, always (an) before (z), but 
(shii hi) used. road, the (nil) distinct, 
but a difference of opinion about (oo, 
oov, UUB), (Rhuued) seems to me most 
correct, and Price said it would be used 
by the old people. there, to say (dhaR) 
would be "bad." red, (haRD) not 
admitted. gate, (gJEt) distinct, (giiet, 
giEt) not admitted. left, (lif) also used. 
left hand (Mt hand) also said, the 
vowel (a) throughout varied as (ah, a'), 
but did not reach (se) ; it was generally 
my (a). 

3. child, (tjiil) always used by old 
people, (tja'ild) "not so natural." 
gone, (egwon) also used. straight, 
(sTRsese'it STRait) also used. door, 
(duueR) not used in Montacute. wrong 
(raq) has been used. 

4. maybe* chance is not used. 

drunken, there was a difference of 
opinion, as to ('n, in, 'q) in the last 
syllable. deaf, (dif) not used, M. pre- 
ferred (e aRD B ireRin tuued) a hard of 
hearing toad, but P. said (e fEreR BZ iz 
aRD B iiuRin) a fellow as is hard of 
hearing, would be more regular. name, 
(nEEm) for (neem) was emphatic, (ni^m) 
was not admitted. Thomas = (:tomes) 
at Montacute, but (.-tamos) at Bradford 
(3 wsw.Taunton, Sm.) in D 10. 

6. won't, (want) also used. old 
chap (woold VE!BR) also used, with (v) 
after (d) but (Mvn) with (f) is the 
common form. teach, this word is 
used, and not (laRN) as I expected ; 
in Sunday schools (wtjWB.) is always 

Notes on other words, dictated by the 
same : (s)noo, s)iiaR) doest thou know ? 
doest thou hear ? Alphabet, (seas bii 
sii dii eei Ef djii setj djaa ksea3 aL Em 
En oo pii kid aaR ES tii jiu vii dab'L-JiT 
Eks wa'i zad se'mpas-sii). Names of 
places : Montacute (:manikiu), Tintin- 
hull (6 se.Langport, Sm.) (:ti-qo). 

From diet, of Mr. George Mitchell, native, and Mr. Stephen Price, as above. 


A- 8 hav. 21 nEEm [not (nimn)]. A: 43 an. 51 man. A: or 0: 58 
VRom. 64 Roq. A'- 73 zuu. 76 tuu'd. 84 muuR. 94 noo. A': 104 
Rhood, Rhooed, Rhtiued [(Rhuu'd) from older people]. 110 not. 119 BgWEE'in 
egwon ego-n, [a-going, gone]. 

^1- 144 Bgii'n. JE: 166 mEE'id msese'id [not (maid)]. 177 dhet [weak 
form]. 179 wot. M'- 183 teetj. 197 tjiiz. M': 223 dheeR. 224 wseu. 

E- 231 dh [weak form]. B;eet [have eaten]. E: 261 zee, zai. 
262 wai. 265 STREE'it. 266 WE!. 

EA: 326 woold. 335 aal. 346 gjut. EA': 352 Rh.Ed. 353 bREd. 
355 dEf [not (dif), but (aRD ^ ii'Rin) hard of hearing is used]. 364 tjap. 

EO'- 412 shii. EO': 427 bi. 428 zii. 436 TRUU. 

I- Bn 'n [him, ace. form]. 447 aR [her, for she]. I: 452 a'i 3)'i, 

atj, atjii-. 459 Ra'it Rha'it. 467 tjiil. 477 va'ind. 480 dhiq. 482 id)'n 
[is'nt]. 484 (dhiez) [this, for a shaped object]. I'- 490 bi [weak], 492 za'id. 

0: 525 v [weak form]. 538 wd. 541 uu)nt want. 543 on. 0'- 556 te 
[weak form]. 558 loks)i [lookest thee?]. 560 skuul. 564 zuun. 0': 579 

af. 586 duu. 

U- 603 Tsko-mm [a-coming]. 606 dooBR. U: 632 ap. 634 DRUU. 

642 [(dhii) used]. 643 na'w nao'w na)'w, nia'u. 


da'wn, dia'wn [see 643]. 
Y- 682 lid'L. 


II': 658 

662 as. 663 ha'ws. 


E. 749 lif M lEft. I. and Y. dhik (that, for a shaped object). 
770 tomas [(.-tames) at Bradford in D 10]. U. 804 DRaqkin, k'n. 


A- 866 puuR. E-- 885 VERI. U- 969 shuu'R. 

[ 1518 ] 


D 4, V vi.] THE MID SOUTHERN. 87 


The late Mr. Gr. P. R. Pulman made a certain small portion of 
Sin., Dv., and Do., his own dialect ground. He called it the Axe- 
Yarty district in his ''Rustic Sketches" (3rd ed. 1871) and his 
"Book of the Axe," because it is watered by the rivers Axe and 
Yarty, the latter flowing from n. to s. and joining the former about 
Axminster, Dv. 

It forms a little subdistrict, which is not very clearly defined, except on the w. 
Beginning at the mouth of the Axe, it follows the w. h. of D 4 through Dv. to 
Buckland St. Mary, Sm. (7 sse.Taunton), and then turns e. to the n. of Yeovil, 
passing which it turns suddenly s. between Yeovil and Sherborne (5 e. Yeovil), 
in Do. and passes sw. between Mosterton (8 n-by-e.Bridport) and Beaminster 
(5 n.Bridport) to the sea just s. of Charnmouth (6 w.Bridport). This district 
was constantly perambulated by Mr. Pulman, who lived at Crewkerne, Sm., for 
fishing and archaeological purposes, and thus he learned to give great weight to 
a few peculiarities which do not seem to have the importance he attributed to 
them. Thus he distinguishes the district from the rest of Do. by its not having 
(uuu, laeg leeg, uup) one, leg, up, which he spells oone, lag or laig, and oop, of 
which Barnes gives (la'g, uun), but (uup) has not been found in any part of Do., 
the nearest approach to it being Mr. Wyer's (kuut) cut (p. 84, 1. 13). Mr. P. 
seems, from his communications to me, to have heard the word specially from an 
ostler at Henstridge, Sm. (11 ene. Yeovil) ; and this may have been in saying 
(kup) come up to horses, as I heard a farm labourer say in Bu. In going 
through the list of "chief peculiarities" of the district in Rustic Sketches, 
p. xxxiii, I find they represent general Sm. and have been localised in this 
district apparently because Mr. P. was familiar with it and wished to confine his 
information to the places to which he knew it applied. As I give specimens of 
this general dialect, I omit Mr. P.'s list of peculiarities. 

Mr. Pulman was kind enough to give me a cs. and dt. for the 
Axe-Yarty district and cs. professedly for Merriott in the Land of 
Utch, Yar. v., which was only 3 m. from his residence at Crewkerne 
(19 sse.Bridgwater). This Merriott cs. was full of utehj whereas 
the dt. given me from Montacute (p. 85) had none. All three 
were written in the orthography adopted in his Rustic Sketches, and 
unfortunately Mr. Pulman died (3rd Feb. 1880) before I was able 
to go over these versions with him. In this case I think it better 
to omit all three than merely to give my own conjectures. But 
Mr. P. had previously written me a wl. for Merriott which I 
had the advantage of correcting from his diet. (Nov. 1877), 
and this follows. Singularly enough it contains no (atj) at all. 
Moreover Mr. P. said that in Merriott the final (R) became a mere 
vowel, while at Crewkerne it was distinct. In dictating, however, 
he pron. a genuine (R), as I also heard from Montacute. He also 
said that the intonation at Merriott was almost unintelligible beyond 
the parish itself. There was nothing of this in his dictation. 
Hence I attribute his wl. to the whole of his district, and thence 
practically to the whole of Sm., from which he gave no lines of 

[ 1519 ] 


[D 4, V vi. 


Representing e.Sm. generally, pal. by AJE. from diet, of G. P. R. Pulman, author 
of Rustic Sketches. 


A- 3 beek. 4 tsk. 5 mEk. 6 meed. 8 IIEV. 12 zaa 1 . 13 naa 1 . 14 
DRaa 1 . 17 laa 1 . 18 ksk. 20 li^m. 21 ni,em. 22 ti^m. 23 si^m. 24 
shEm. 33 [(zunduB.) sooner, used]. 34 las. 37 klaa 1 . A: 39 [(kam) bsed]. 
40 kwam. 41 (tha'qk). 43 an. 46 ka l n'l. 48 [(ziqd) used]. 54 wont. 
55 eeshez [Crewkerne (ashez)]. 56 Vfeesh. 57 a ! s. A: or 0: 63 DRoq. 65 
zaq. 66 dhoq. 

A'- 67 guu. 70 tuu. 72 uu. 73 zoo. 74 tuu. 75 sineek. 76 too'd. 
77 laRD. 80 o-redee. 81 li^n. 84 muuR. 86 wats. 87 tlooz. 89 buu'th. 
91 moo. 95 DROO. 96 zoo. A': 101 wak. 102 aks. 107 loov. Ill AAft. 
113 wl. 115 warn. 118 bo'oen. 122 nooim. 123 UAART. 124 sto'oim. 125 
oni. 126 waR. 127 humms. 130 b6(mt. 134 wath. 135 klaaHh. 

M- 138 va'dlren [sometimes with f]. 140 ha 1 !!. 141 na'il. 142 sna il. 
143 ta'il. 144 egEn. 146 maa^nd. 148 fa^R. 150 l^st. 152 WAADBR. 
153 za'TBRdi. paRti [pretty]. JE: 155 dhaHi. stidi [steady]. 158 
a K DBii. 160 ig. 161 dee. 163 lai. 164 [(mid) used]. 165 ZEd. 166 maa4d. 
168 ta l laB. 169 WEU. 170 hanv/s. 172 gRa's. 173 wiz, woz [strong]. 181 
pa'th. JE!- 182 see. 183 teet}. 185 R^d. 187 IB. 189 wi. 192 meen. 
193 kkm. 194 Em. 195 mrni. 196 weeR. 199 bleek. 200 weei. 202 JEt. 
M': mied [mead, meadow]. 205 DREd. 207 niiLD. 213 edh^R. 215 
[(teetit) used]. - JE! [eel]. 217 eei$. 218 ship. 219 sleep. 221 nn?R. 
223 dheeR. 224 weeR. 226 mAAst. 228 zwEt. 230 fa't. 

E- 233 speek. 239 saHl. 241 ra l in. 243 p!6t. 250 zweeR. 252 kid'L. 
253 ntt'L. E: 260 zaH [rhymes 262]. 262 waU. 265 sTRgese'it. 270 
bElis [bellows], 273 m^n. 280 lEb'n. 281 liqkth. 282 sTRiqkth. 
gaRN [grin]. 283 maRi. 284 DR^sh. 285 kRiis. E'- 296 bUiv. 300 

kip. 301 haR. 303 swit [not (i)]. E': 306 ha'ith. 311 teen. 312 haR. 
314 jaRD. 315 vit [not (i)]. 316 nsks. 

EA- 319 ga3gep. EA: 321 [(aid) used]. 322 laf. 324 eei. 325 wsek. 
326 wal. 328 kuireLD. 300 hool. 331 zwoold. 332 twald. 333 k^aav. 
335 sesel [sometimes]. 336 vool. 337 wol. 343 wseaeRm. 346 gEt. 

EA'- 347 heed. 349 viu. EA': 351 lid. 352 aRD. 355 dif. 358 
na'ist. 361 b^n. 366 gaRT. 367 DRet. 370 Raa 1 . 371 sTRaa 1 . 

El- 372 BE 1 !. 373 ee. 375 Raiz. 376 boit. El: 377 eteek. 378 week. 

EO- 383 ZEb'n. EO: 388 rn'Lk. 390 shuud. 393 bijE-nd. 402 laRN. 
403 vaR. 406 e'th [rhymes 696 and 698]. 407 vaRd'n. 498 [(nood) used]. 

EO'- 411 DRU. 413 div'l. 414 vla'i. 417 tjAA. 420 va'wR. 421 vaRti. 
EO': 425 lait [instead of (la'it) this exceptional pronunciation prevails for 3 or 
4 miles from Crewkerne (19 sse.Bridgewater). It is properly Do.] 428 zei. 
430 faRnd. 433 baist. 434 bii't. 

EY- 438 da'i. EY: 439 taRst. 

I- 440 wik. 441 ziijV. 442 iijvi. 443 vRa'idi. 449 git. 451 zoo. 
I: 452 a'i. 460 wait. 465 zitj. 466 tjii^d. 467 wi^ld. 474 Ra'in. 
477 va'in. 478 gua'in. 481 viqgBR. - haRN [run]. 484 dhi-z. haRsh 
[a rush]. 485 dhis'l. 487 jEsAee. 488 it. 

I'- [is generally (a'i)]. 496 a'iR. 499 bii'L. I': is generally (a'i). 502 
va'iv. 504 na'iv. 505 wa'iv. 506 amen. 507 wimin. lain [line, Crew- 
kerne exceptional pr., otherwise (la'in)]. 513 wa'iR. 

0- 521 vool. 522 oop. 524 waRD'L. 0: 531 d^seTBR. 538 uud. 
aRtjit [orchard]. 547 buuRD. 549 waRD. 551 staRm. 552 kaN. 553 

564 zuun. 565 UAAZ. 0': 592 [ZWCCRD) 

haRN. 0'- 55( 
used]. 593 mas. 
U- 601 va'wl. 

602 za'w. 605 sin. 

U: 609 VUU'L. 610 UU'L. 611 

balik. 612 zam. 615 pa'un. 619 va'wn. 620 gaa'wn. 621 [(winded) used]. 
629 sin [see 605]. 630 [(wind) used]. 631 dhazdi. 634 DRUU. 636 
U'- 640 ka'u. 646 baVi. 652 kuud. U': 670 buu. 

.[ 1520 ] 

D 4, Y vi.] THE MID SOUTHERN. 89 

Y- 674 did dEd. 675 DRa'u. 682 ltd'L. Y: 684 bandi 685 asdi 

690 ka'in. 691 ma'tn. 696 b E 'th [I think I heard (bE L Rth)]. 698 m E 'th 

[rhymes 696]. 700 was. 701 fast. daush [a thrush] Y- 707 
dhaRTiin. Y': 709 va'iR [but see 772]. 


A. 725 zaeael. E. 744 m^z'lz. 745 tjeet. 747 indivtjR. 751 piuRT. 

I. and Y. rantrit [Richard]. 755 vilbad. 

0. 761 Iw'd. 772 banfa'iR [but see 709]. 773 Daqki. 778 EVUURD. 779 

Ts. 790 ga'und. 791 bwoi. 

U. - - kaRD'LZ [curls]. 808 pat. 


A-. 809 jseb'l. 818 seaedj. 822 maoae'i. 824 tjaR. 827 eegrm. 828 
ee%\. 835 Reez'n. 836 seez'n. 838 TReet. 840 tjimeR. 842 pla'ntj [a 
flooring, not a single plank], 845 a^slient. 847 da'ndjBR. 848 tp^ndi. 849 
sTRa'ndjBR. 852 sep'Rn. 853 baRgin. 855 kaRT. skss [scarce] 856 
peeRT. 862 ssesef. 864 kAAz. 865 fAAt. 

E-- 867 tee. 868 djseee'i. 869 vcd. 874 raain. 878 seeltHii. 879 ieemeel. 
883 dsendila'i-imt. 888 saRt'n. 890 beest biBst [s. and pi. alike]. 891 ieest. 
892 nsvi. 894 des^v. 895 RBS^V. 

! awrfY- - 904 la'i- ant [lion]. 910 dja'ist. 

0-- 916 a'injra. 920 p^oint. 923* mM;6isti. 926 spwoil. 929 kja'ubmreR. 
938 kaRnBR. 940 kwnm't. 942 buutjBR. 943 titj. 946 mw6il. 947 b^'oiL. 
950 sap^R. 952 kuus [coarse]. 954 kashin. 

U-- 967 suut. 969 siutjR. 970 djist. 

For the remainder of e.Sm. (excluding D 10), JGGr. made a com- 
plete wl., from the diet, of a native of Wincanton (13 ne.Yeovil), 
who, however, had resided long in Cu. After many trials and 
much correspondence, I relectantly found his memory of the dialect 
not sufficiently accurate to be accepted in its details. The other 
contributions I have received were in io., but they are quite sufficient 
to shew that at Langport, Castle Carey (16 ene.Langport) and 
"Wedrnore (7 w-by-n. Wells), the pronunciation differs insensibly from 
the Axe-Yarty ; while at Combe Down (2 s.Bath) it seems indis- 
tinguishable from Wl. The following examples from Wedmore 
shew the nature of the dialect in the m. of e.Sm. 

WEDMOEE, SM. (18 ssw.Bristol). 

Specimens sent by Mr. C. A. Homfray, Manor House, and pal. rather 
conjecturally by AJE. 

1. (mtesTKR, aV biimt E-gwarn DEUU dh^ mak.) master, I be-not 

a-going through the muck. 

2. (ta'm dh^ duim, ut ?) shut the door, wilt ? 

3. (duus)^n dhi UAA dhk dhan hos ?} dost-not thou know that 

there horse ? 

4. (cas)'en ha'm ?) canst-not hear. 

5. (dhi3 lam)z ^-va'^R.) the chimney's on fire [I only knew lum as 

a JS". or L. word]. 

6. (dhi? gseaakom* tu^d i3v -B hos ^ gsek'd a', :gwd)naa.) this frolic- 

some toad of a horse has frightened me, God-knows. [I do 
not know the word ' gaacomey ' so spelled, see No. 18.} 

[ 1521 ] 

90 THE MID SOUTHERN. [D 4, V vi. 

7. (gii "s.'i dh^ slab's.) give me the fire-pan [or fire-shovel]. 

8. (dhe bask* kr^tj i3z on dhe klaevfl-task.) the tobacco jar is on 

the mantel-piece. [The last word is given as clavel-tack in 

9. (haest dhi Iwkt in dhB krok te zii if. dire t<^t'z bi dan ?) hast 

thou looked in the pot to see if the potatoes be done ? 

10. (wtfdheR jft?)nt kam wh6i3m ft.) father is)not come home yet. 

[I doubt (>h)]. 

11. (baV eno-n.) by and bye. 

12. (dhii)z nAA dhast s)la'e'k.) thou) dost know that, (it) is like 

[probably] . 

13. (t)waR dhi zfl'sreR, t)waEd)^n :zsel.) it) were thy sister, it)were) 

not Sail. 

14. (a^')l zii if shaed^n duu i3t ; ut)^n ?) I'll see if (thou) shalt)not 

do it ; wilt)not ? 

15. (iiz, a'* ul, maeae-bi.) yes, I will, may-be. 

16. (waY duus)im dof dh* klAAdz t?n mEnd dh/k Krap ?) why 

dost)not doff (take off) thy clothes and mend this tear. 

17. (!AA ! waet 'e lamp^u,!) law! what a stumble [or noise of 

falling, also (lambeR)]. 

18. (git ap, ji DRaeaekonw AAld gaesek^m.] get up you stupid old 

frolicker [to a horse, but the words ' dracomey, gacome ' are 

19. (duu)^nt i taeaek on zoo, zoos.) don't ye take on [trouble your- 

selves] so, companions. 

WORLE (:wan'L, :waRD'L), 16 w.Bath, cwl. 

"Written by Rev. "W. F. Eose, vicar in io. and subsequently pal. by AJE., serves 
to show how the dialect is preserved to the Bristol Channel. 


A- 3. bisk. 5 mrek. 6 mi^d. 8 eev. 14 Duaa. stag [stack]. 21 
nrem. 22 trem. 23 siem, s^m. 24 shlem. 25 mren. 28 ii^u. 32 bredh. 
33 R^dh^R. A: 43 ban. 44 Ian. A'- 77 laRD. 81 Him. 84 mum*. 
93 te snoo;i. 95 DROO. A': 101 wok. 104 Ro^d. 128 dho^z. 130 boot. 
M- JEk [ache]. - IffidhtJR [ladder]. blaedh^R [bladder]. 144 
Bg'nm. 146 m^n. 149 bli^z. 150 li-es. 152 WAADOT. - panxi [pretty]. 
155 dhEtj. 166 mred [probably confused with made}. 170 hseRest. 172 

gRffiffis. 181 pa38eth. JE'- haRDi [ready]. 187 lEf. 192 mren. 193 
kliBn. 200 wi^t. M 1 : bliit [bleak]. 207 mid'l. JE! [eel]. 218 
ship. 224 wreR. 

E- - liit [leak]. 248 mlra. 252 kit'l. E: 261 zee. 284 
E'- 298 viil. 301 ha'iR. EA: 326 ool. 327 bool. 333 \eei. 334 \\eei. 
335 seael. 336 vaesel. 342 jaKm. 343 waum. 346 get. EA'- 347 hiid. 
EA': 355 diif. 363 tjip. 366 gaRT. El: 378 wiek. EO- 383 zEv'n. 
385 binE-th. EO: SHIERT [smart]. 407 vaRD'N. EO'- 411 DRii. 
EO': 423 dha't. 428 zii. 

I: 477 va'in. bBha'i-n [behind]. 485 dis'l. I'- STRik [strike]. 
T: 502 va'iv. 

0: 534 hAAl. 547 bu^RD. 551 stanm. 552 kaRN. 553 haRN. 554 
kRaas. 0'- 564 zuunder [sooner]. 0': 579 ina'u-. 

U- 605 zon. U: 610 wl. 612 zam. 629 zaii. 631 dhazdi. 634 
DRUU. 635 wath. 

[ 1522 ] 

D 4, V vi. D 5 .] THE MID SOUTHERN. 91 

Y- piil [pillow]. 682 ld'l. Y: 685 Rhadi. 686 baRdi. 691 
ma'in. 700 was. 701 fast. 


A. 718 tired. 741 mrez. E. zim [seem]. 0. aoog [soak]. 
laKT [a loft]. poog [poke]. II. kuiid [cud, compare a quid of 
tobacco]. 805 knaoz. 


A- 811 plres. fa3kat [faggot]. 833 preR. maenduR [manner]. 

852 j<?<?pBRN. - kaR [carry]. kuaR [quarry]. E-- 888 saRt'n. 

saR [serve]. 890 bias. ! and~Y > haRVBR [river]. 0- 938 
kaRNBR. U-- stad [study]. 

D 5 = e.MS. = eastern Mid Southern. 

Boundaries. Beginning at the w. b. of Ox. just opposite Moreton-on-Marsh 
(19 e.Tewkesbury) and go along the w. b. of Ox. and then of Be. as far as 
Hungerford (24 w.-by-s. Reading) and then continue in a n. to s. line through 
Ha. passing just w. of Andover, to Nursling at the n. point of Southampton 
Water and then to the sea by Lymington (10 e.Christchurch). Cross the Solent 
to the nw. corner of Wi. (and not just e. of it as appears on the map). Eun 
along the coast of Wi. to the ne. corner of it. Then again cross the sea to 
Selsey Bill, s.Ss. and continue along the s. coast of Ss. to the mouth of the 
E. Adur. Then sweep ne. through m.Ss., e. of Bolney (8 se.Horsham) and w. 
of Cuckfield (9 ese.Horsham) through East Grinstead (15 ene.Horsham). Then 

C through the extreme se. corner of Sr. and proceed in a ne. direction to 
ckholt (14 s.Woolwich), which is a conjectural point from which no in- 
formation has been obtained. Dialect speaking now ceases on approaching D 8 
in the Metropolitan Area, but we may sweep sw. w. and nw. through n.Sr. keep- 
ing probably s. of Croydon and Leatherhead (12 ne.Guildford), n. of Stoke 
(1 n.Guildford), w. of Sandhurst (10 se.Eeading) to Eeadiug. Then proceed 
along the w. b. of Ox. to the projection of Be. into Ox., which cut off, passing 
s. of Cumnor (3 wsw. Oxford) and n. of Appleton (5 sw. Oxford). Then enter 
Ox. and pass w. of Ensham (4 nw. Oxford) and of Handborough (6 nw. Oxford) 
and then go nearly n. to the e. of Charlbury and Chipping Norton (12 nw. and 
17 nnw. Oxford) to a point just e. of Moreton-on-Marsh, the starting-point, to 
which proceed. 

Much of this line is very uncertain for at least a few miles on each side of it. 
The division between Be. and Ox. is altogether uncertain. The sweep through 
n.Sr. may be considered almost conjectural, so great was the difficulty of obtain- 
ing any satisfactory evidence of native dialect. The population is shifting and 
seldom native. But Stoke (1 n.Guildford) was well marked. The e. b. through 
Ke. presented insuperable difficulties, but the line between the mouth of the 
Adur and East Grinstead is tolerably clearly denned. If in the most uncertain 
parts the line be taken 5 to at most 10 miles wide, it may be accepted as a very 
fair boundary. 

Area. Most of Ha. and all Wi., much of Be., s.Sr. and w.Ss., 
and a small portion of w.Ox. 

Authorities. See the Alphabetical County List for the following places where 
prefixed marks show * w. per AJE., f per TH., || in so., in io. 

Be. Bucklebury, Cholsey, Coleshill, Denchworth, East Hendred, ||Hamp- 
steadNorris, Kintbury, Shefford, || Stanford in the Yale, ||Steventon, Streatley, 

Ha. ||Andover, Corhampton, East Stratton, West Stratton, *Winchester to 

_ZT<?. No information. 

Ox. Alvescot, Charlbury, Chastleton, fDucklington, fLeafield, fLew, 
tMilton, 5 HfWitney. 

[ 1523 ] 

92 THE MID SOUTHERN. [D 5, V i. 

Sr. Charlwood, Elstead, Ewhurst, Godalming, Godstone, Haslemere, 
Leatherhead, *0ckley, *Stoke, Weald of Sr. 

Ss. Bolney, Compton, Ertham, Kirdford, Twineham, West Wittering, 
Wisborough Green. 

Wi. "Northwood, Shorwell, "whole Isle. 

The district is not so well represented as the last. The greater 
number of notes are meagre and imperfect. There were only three 
vv., from Winchester Ha., Ockley and Stoke Sr., a pal. transcription 
of part of a cs. by Prince L.-L. Bonaparte from Hampstead Norris, 
Be., a pal. specimen and cwl. from Andover by Prof. Arnold 
Schroer, a few notes by TH. in Ox., and some in Glossic by Mrs. 
Parker in Be. and Ox. But these are sufficient to understand the 
notes of the other informants. 

Character. The (R) remains generally quite distinct, the (z,v) 
for (s, f ) initial die out eastward, the (ai) for JEG-, EG is uncertain, 
/ be remains, but the a- before the past participle becomes lost. It 
will be most convenient to consider four varieties or forms, Y i. w.Ox., 
Yii. Be., Yiii. Ha. and Wi., and Yiv. s.Sr. and w.Ss. There is no 
special information from the very small portion of Ke. involved, the 
dial, of which, being so near to the metropolitan area, is probably 
very slightly marked indeed, but does not shew the characteristics 
of I) 9. These different varieties cannot be distinctly denned by 
any clear characters, but still there is some amount of local 

YAH. i. Ox. FORM. 
WITNEY, dt. 

Originally written in gl. by Mrs. Angelina Parker, then pal. by TH. from her 
diet, and finally corrected by TH. from information obtained by him at Witney 
Sept. 1884. As the pronunciation of this district is thought very strange at 
Oxford, great pains have been taken to represent it correctly. See the following 
cwl. embracing words from Witney, Ducklington, and Leafield, another primitive 
place, all of which were well examined by TH. This form of D 5 shews the 
transition from D 4 very clearly. The reverted (K) was distinctly noticed by 
TH. after a vowel, but before a vowel he seems not to have felt its difference 
from common English (r, r ), and he also did not notice its assimilating effect on 
adjacent (t d n 1), which is inevitable when (R) is used. But he noted how much 
more marked the reversion was in w. than in m. and s.Ox. I have therefore re- 
tained his notation. There is a great peculiarity in this district. As far s. as 
"Witney there is a plentiful sprinkling of (u , o) in place of (a), but at Ducklington 
(:dak'lten) only 1 s. Witney, this entirely ceases, (a) alone being heard. In other 
respects the dialect at Ducklington is identical with that at Witney. This shews 
that the incursion of (u ) into the n. part of S. should not be considered to affect 
the dialect district. (See also D 4, Var. ii., Gl. Form, p. 60. The symbol ( ), 
a variety of (), is especially considered in the introduction to the M. div.) 

1 . $6 [saw] Q f i sa, meets, JE s*z na'w iaz d'i bi ra^'t 'eba'wt dhat 
dhaR b't'l gjaRl [gjaT] 'Bka'mm fram dh^ skuu'l jandra. 

2. aR)z T3gwa'm pBgwe'tiil da'wn dim rood [rawd] dhBR r 
thruu dire red gJEt" [gJEtJ i3)dlre [an)dlre] left and saVd u 

[ 1524 ] 

D 5, V i.] THE MID SOUTHERN. 93 

3. shireR tmw f dhB tjaVl)z gAAn strait w p 
roq a'ws, 

4. wim 3R)1 mwast k''kK fa'md dhat dh^r' drw qk''n dsf 
li3 ( o)dh^ n0<2m 13 :tonres. 

5. wi AA! n00z [nauz] i vEri [? varf] WE!. 

6. want dim owld [awld] tjap' swn laRn sta nat te dw)t T?g]Vn, 
BR th/q ! 

7. kk' ! JEnt t trim ? 

WEST Ox. cwl. 
From the following sources : 

B. wn. by TH. from Mr. James Brain, native of Ducklington, aged 81. 

M. words given in io. by Rev. W. D. Macray, rector of Ducklington, also chiefly 

taken from Mr. Brain, and pal. rather conjecturally by AJE. 
L. Leafield, wn. by TH. from natives of 87, 84, and 74 years old. 
W. Witney, wn. by TH. 


A- 12 M saa. 14 M draa. 21 BLW neem. 23 BL seem. 24 M shEm, 
shi^m. 33 L rEEdh^R. 37 M thaa. A: 39 M [(kam) used]. A: or 0: 
58 B fran, W fram. 64 BL roq', W ro'q. A'- 73 W so saw. 81 L \een 
[so all his life, 84 years old]. 84 L muim. 85 M SUUR. 86 W wats. 89 M 
bo'udh. 92Lnahu. A': 104 B rood, W rood, rawd. 115 BL com. 118 
W bwan. 124 M sto'im, stan. 130 M bo't?t. 

M- 138 LWfaadhBR. M: 154 B bak 1 . 155 M thatj. 158 L aa-ter- 
nuun. 161 B dai, LW dee. 171 W baRl*. L kjahfit. M'- 192 L meen. 
197 L tjiiz. 200 LW weet. M': 223 L dhreR. 226 BW mwast, M 

E- 233 B sp^k, dhe speks [they speaks], W speekm. 241 L reen, W r^in. 

- B liB'zin [leasing = gleaning], L leezin, liBzin. 252 L kjit'l. E: 261 
BW sai, L sa 1 *, sai [new form (sei)]. L Isg [leg]. 262 WL wdi wsi l 'i, 
B wdi wai. 265 L stra'it [old form (strait)], W strait. 266 WWE'!. - - W 
fi'ld [field]. 276 W thiq y . 278 L wEntj [used when young, now (gjaRl)J. 
E'- 299 L griin. E': 314 L ieRd. EA- 319 M g'rep. EA: 324 
L aitiin, W aiti. 326 BW owld, W also awld. 328 M kould. 329 M 
fowld. 335 W AA!. 346 W gJEt, L gJE\ M. gi^t. EA': 350 L djs'd. 
352 W rEd. 355 W dsf . 359 narbt?R. B bjE'm [beam]. 361 W 
bjan. 363 L tjap. 364 W t;ap. 371 B straa, L strAA [old form (straa)]. 
El- 373 L dh-cu, W dha'i. EO- 383 W SEv'm. EO: 394 W jandi3K. 
395 W jaq. 396 B waRk. 402 W laRn. EO'- 420 W fouR. 421 W 
fa'Rtt. EO': 428 W si. EY- 438 L da'*. 

I- 440 B wik. 446 na'm. W peez [pease]. I: 452 W d'i. 458 
na'it. 459 BW ra'it. 465 stttj. 466 B tja'ild. 468 B tiild^RN. 477 
W fa'md. 488 B jit. I'- 492 W sa'id. 494 L ta'im. I': 500 B 
la a -kli. 

0- L drap [drop]. 524 B wi?Rld. 0: 531 BL daa-teR, W 

dAAteR. 538 B wd. 543 BLW an\ W kraps [crops]. 551 L st^Rm. 

- B as' [horse]. 0'- 559 W madhtjR. 560 W skuul. 562 B muun. 
564 B sun. 568 W bradhra. 0': 578 L pla 1 '^. 579 W vnu L 586 L 
dwant [don't]. 

U- -- L ud [wood]. 603 B kam, W t?ka-nwn. 604 W sw nreR. 605 B 
sa'n, L s^ n, W sa'n. 606 BW duBR. U: 612 W su m, som. 613 L drw qk. 
619 L fu n. 629 B san' [compare 605], W su n. 632 LW u p, ap. 633 
k^ p, kap. 634 W thruu. 636 L fardw. U'- 643 WB na'w. 650 L 
[between (t?ba"wt) and (b6wt)] W sba'wt. U': 658 W da'wn. 659 W ta'^n. 
663 BW aW. 667 L a'wt. 

Y- W ltt'1. 

[ 1525 ] 




A. 737 "W meet. E. 749 W lift. I. and Y. 758 W gjaul, gjaT. 
0. 761 M loud. L :lM mm [new form (:l ndim)]. - - W la'st. 791 L 
bwA"i, W b6i. U. - W tw b, tob [tub]. W dak [a duck]. 794 
W djw g, djog. 803 W dj mp, dpmp. W gan [a gun]. 804 W drw qk'n. 


A" 828 M eegvR. L pla'in [plain, unadorned]. - W pleez [please]. 

"W saasBR. 862 BW seeL E-- 867 W tee. 885 B vari, W vari, vari. 
890 L bJEst [now (best)]. 891 L fJEst. W pomp, pM mp [pump]. 

nm ni [money]. 935 L kw entri. 938 BL kA'nn^R. - "W impahsBb'l 
[impossible]. 947 L bwoi'l. - W kelBB, [colour]. IT-- 970 W dp st. 

Examples. B (a'i si dhe)6wld tjap 1 i-sterd^), I saw the old chap yesterday. 
L (a'i bi egwa-in com te)E' mi saypisR). W (am\ am 1 , bsutifwl am 1 ! dhEm 
Bs)kant iit it A't te klam') [ham, ham, beautiful ham ! them as can't eat it ought 
to clam (starve)]. 


Although I have been quite unable to obtain .vv. communications 
from Be., and the information I have received leaves much to be 
desired, it is sufficient to shew the continuation of practically the 
same dial, as in w.Ox. throughout Be. 

Beginning in the n. I have a dial, test obtained by Mrs. Parker 
for Steventon (5 ne Wantage), and I had others from Stanford in 
the Vale (5 nw. Wantage), which I could not sufficiently trust. 
The short list of words from Wantage, corroborated by those from 
Denchworth (3 n-by-w.Wantage), and Cholsey (11 e. Wantage), con- 
tinues the information through the n. of Be. From Hampstead 
Norris (11 se. Wantage) I have a considerable portion of the cs. 
written from diet, by Prince L.-L Bonaparte, from which the 
general character of the dial, can be safely inferred. It will suffice 
to give the Steventon, Wantage and Hampstead Norris specimens. 

a. STEVENTON (5 ne. Wantage, Be.) dt. 

"Written in gl. by Mrs. Parker from the diet, of Mr. Leonard, both of Ox., and 
pal. by AJE. Mrs. Parker has not marked the reverted, or, as she considers it, 
retracted (R), but I have supplied it to the same extent as before. 

1. S00 's.'i sai, AAl)8en)i, j^ siz na'w sV biraVt eba'wt dhaet BE b't'l 
gjsel 'Bka'mm from dhG skuuld jaend^n. 

2. shii)z !3gwAA*m da'wn dh^ rAA^d dhaE thruu dhe red gfet a 
dhi3 left and saVd 13 dh^ WAA^'. 

3. shuuR imaf dhB tja'fl'ld 13 v gAAn strait ap te dire duuE ^ dhi3 
roq a'ws. 

4. war shii)l tj0<?nts te fa'md dhget -BE draqk'n def, sr/v'ld fels t? 
dh^ n<?^m B : tomes. 

5. wii AA! nAA'wz)n VCE* WE!. 

6. want dh)AA'wld tjap swn laEN -BE naet te duu)t ^gja-n, puuE 

7. lak! jantfttruu? 

[ 1526 ] 

D 5, V ii.] THE MID SOUTHERN. 95 

b. HAMPSTEAD NOBKIS, BE., part of cs. 

Written by Prince L.-L. Bonaparte in his own letters from the dictation of 
W. B. Banting, Esq., hon. sec. of the Newbury District Field Club, by whom it 
was approved when read out; translated into pal. by A.J.E. Most probably 
I should have appreciated some sounds differently, as shewn by the notes, but I 
have thought it right to retain the Prince's own spelling, translated into pal. It 
shews a strong D 5 dialect. 

0. wv'i :dpn aez mm dawts. 

1. WB!, naarbai, J^ 1 aend Mi maa bi^Vth laa'f set dim njuuz 
OA mra'm. h? 1 ki'js ? dhaet iz nadlri Him HAAI dhri. 

2. fjuu men da'* kos dhaa* b* laa'ft aet, wii nvu'u, du)nt wii ? waat 
^d meek am ? t-Bnt vee'ri iB^'klt, iz at ? 

3. aersamde'vaj dbi's aaj dhaaj vaeks d dhaaj ki's, zoo djest 
nhu'wld jer na'iz, frend, aend bii kwsVt HI 13'i aa don. aaj-kn ! 

4. v'i bii zej'tm 13 V b^id am zaa^ zam ov dhem vok 1 went tbr^ 1 
dhaaj uu'l dhq vrom dhaai vast dlwsel'z, dhaet d'd v'i zi'f enaf. 

5. dhaet dhaai jaq-gest zan tssel'f, se> g^'it bw^'e o n^'rn, n^^'wd 
iz fee'dbaiz va's set w^ns, dhWw et wez zoo kwo>i aend skwek'an, 
83nd iz'i wad drast en t^ 1 speek dhaaj druuth en^' daa/, aa, ^'* wed. 

6. ae'nd dhaaj 'e'wl-d-um'asn nh^isel* w^l tel eni o-n- dhaat laa'f 
nau, aend tel ii straatt ^'^'f, t? 1 , w)awt' matj bodh-ei, ii j^ 

aeks yi, ^ x ! waent shii ? 

7. Ii'stwi3''z shii te'wld at mee, wen B' aeksd yi, fe 1 AAJ drii 
oo'vai, did shii, aend shii d^'d'nt AAt t^ 1 bii roq on sek aaj pa'mt 
eez dh^'s, waat d^ 1 ii dhe'qk ? 

8. WB! aez v'i wa3z 83 zaa^'n, shii ad tel ii, ^V, w^i aend wen 
shii veVnd dhaaj draqk'n bi'st shii kAAlz ^T az'baen. 

Notes to Hampstead Norris. 

0. ivhy, the usual MS. diphthong, Mr. B. has whoo. neither, here again 
differently appreciated as (a'i ao'i a'i (2) is doubtful, Mr. B. has nuther. 
di^. Mr. Banting wrote whoy, as 2. should, (^ l ) doubtful. 

usual. 7^s, this is the strong form. 3. these, the final (s) probably an 

doubts, analogy would have required error for (z) . the, this (dhaaa) is 

(de'wts), see 8 (ve'md). difficult to understand, Mr. B. writes 

1. neighbour, the final (i) or glottal th'aii thae vacks ov thau keas, which 
r, which is sometimes written (i) or (r ), is equally puzzling. noise, Mr. B. nais. 
followed by permissive r, was evidently 4. heard-who-through,^l?.J$.hurd- 
at that time the Prince's appreciation oo-throo, the (&} is doubtful. 

of (R), the only real r of this district. 5. trust, truth, Mr. B. writes dtrust, 

you, the appreciation (j^ 1 ) is very dtruth, which were probably his errors, 

doubtful. Mr. B. wrote yough, perhaps (TRastTRUuth) might have been expected, 

(ja'w). both, Mr. Banting writes boweth 8. how-found by the appreciation 

perhaps (boudh) was intended. I do (e'^ 1 ) the diphthong in these words is 

not attribute much importance to Mr. made to resemble the Dv. diphthong. 

Banting's approval of the Prince's Mr. B. writes simply oiv. If the Prince 

reading, for as Mr. Banting was not heard him correctly, he must have had 

used to phonetic appreciation, and the a very peculiar pron. of (uu, oo, a'u) not 

Prince was a foreigner, Mr. Banting belonging to the district. The Prince 

would be easily satisfied with a rough was not able to finish writing the whole 

ipproximation to his own sounds. who, cs. from dictation, 
he appreciation (h;? 1 ) is very doubtful, 

the appreciation (h;? 1 ) is very 

[ 1527 ] 

96 THE MID SOUTHERN. [D B 5, V ii, iii. 

c. WANTAGE, BE., cwl. 

"Written by Mr. Davey io., rather conjecturally pal. by AJE. The reverted (11) 
not before a vowel has been supplied, as it was certainly pronounced. I had also 
a considerable number of words from the Vicar of Denchworth (3 nnw. Wantage), 
which so far as they go confirm this list, and a dt. from the schoolmaster of 
Cholsey (12 e. Wantage), which has a suspicious number of initial (z) and other 
doubtful points, hence I can only use these as confirmations on the whole. 


A'- 92 nau. A': 118 bura. 

M- 148 fair. M: 158 eeftm aaten. wops [wasp]. M'\ 208 SDR 

B- [e'er a, any]. 209 nsen u- [ne'er a-]. 218 ship. 223 dhaR. 

E: 261 zai. 263 BW&-. 265 straiT. - uthaKt [athwart]. E': 312 
jaR. EA: 324 ait ha'it. EA': 366 gaRt groT. EO: em [them]. 
shaRt [short]. 407 faRdhiq. 

I'. _ gii [give]. I': - hai [hay]. 0: 538 d. 552 kaRn. 
maRuen [morning]. 0': 586 duu)t [do it], dun)njm [don't know]. U: 
612 zam)^t [somewhat, something]. 


A. Railz [rails]. maRk^t [market]. 

iii. ROMANCE. 

A" pai [pay]. 890 brest. PUURTBR [porter]. 

Sentences : (doBnt)i) don't you, (weet)s waent te gRa'ind ii foR?) what dost want 
to grind he (=it?) for ? (jB)nt it, bE)nt it) is not it, be not it, (ankid) dreadful. 

YAE. iii. HA. AND "Wi. FORMS. 

The dialect at the north of Hampshire cannot differ much from 
that of Hampstead JNorris, Be. The late Dr. Burnell, a native, 
writing from West Stratton (7 ne. Winchester), says that the r final 
is fully reverted, that (z) for s initial is very rare, (v) for / he had 
heard in 535 (vooks) folks; (h, wh) initial were used, 553 morning, 
87 clothes, were (mannm, klaaz), and 304 beetle a mallet, was (baYt'l), 
which is singular, 394 yonder (jandi3R). In grammar / be, he be, 
we am, they am, are heard, not / are. I lives not / do live, he live, 
we lives. The dialect seemed already (1879) much altered, and so 
many inhabitants had been in service in London and elsewhere, or at 
sea and about, that Dr. B. doubted the value of what they told him. 
The man he had reckoned on as his principal authority was ill. 

From East Stratton, which is close by, I got (gwm, emnr, gfet) 
going, enough, gate ; Dr. Burnell repudiated the last. 

Towards the s. of Ha. the great towns of Winchester, Southamp- 
ton, and Portsmouth have acted seriously on the dialect, which 
however crops up again in Wi. 

The Rev. T. Burningham, when Rector of Charlwood, Sr. (6 ssw. 
Reigate), a Hampshire man, said that in his younger days (b. 1808) 
the labourer alway put v for /, and z for s ; a fallow would be 
a roller (vore ?), and gives the following examples of Ha. at that 
time (I preserve the spelling), "I was a gwine (gwam) hoh-um 
(hdoism) to git my kawfee, but set doun under the hullumun 
(ha'lBmBn=elm) tree to git out o' th' rah -in (ram). Terrable 
watchet (tanub'1 watjet) a gwine acrass that air veeyuld (vireld)." 

[ 1528 ] 

D 5, V iii.] THE MID SOUTHERN. 97 

Here watchet is wetshod, wet for the feet. He notes waps wapsen = 
wasp wasps, een amoast=eveu. almost, on-emp=un-empty,= empty 
"on-emp that air payul," leer= hungry, empty, = German leer, but 
not derived from it, mid. Eng. laer. (See D 4, p. 52, Hornet, 1. 23.) 


This cs. was written from the dictation of Mr. Percival Leigh, 22 March, 1876, 
who was born in Scotland in 1813, but Avas taken to Hampshire when a month old 
and had been there constantly since, so that he had known the dialect all his life. 
Mr. Leigh did not use (R), but pronounced in the usual received manner, initial 
(r), final as (B). I have used final (R), because from other sources I know that 
it prevails in Hampshire. Mr. Leigh was also strict in not leaving out (h), but 
admitted that it was sometimes put in. Altogether it seems that this version 
gives rather a refined form of speech, with occasional outbursts of real dialect. 
Towards Portsmouth Mr. Leigh considered the speech as finer still. 

0. waoV :djon haeaent got noo doo'wts. 

1. WE!, naibeR, dhii tm hm med buu'th laa*f at dlu's hii'r niuz o 
maoVn. huu kee'Rz ? dhaet cent nadhaR hii'R ni3R dhee'R. 

2. fiu tjaeps daoVz kAAz dhee bi laeaeft set, wii nooz, duu'nt)as ? 
wot shwd mii'k -em ? -ot beent veR laA'kh', bii)et ? 

3. haD'tts-BmdEVUR dhiiz hii'R bii dhe raoVts o dire stoo'rii, zoo 
diEst dhii hoold dhe naoVz, vrend, un baoVd k^ao'r^t t*l QO')V ^dan. 
dhii b's-n ta mii. 

4. oo'e bii saaRt'n ooV hii'Rd 'em zee zam o dhEm fooks 'BZ went 
druu dh^ hool dhq frem dire vast dlreRZEl'vz dhaet d$'d ao' zeef 

5. dlret dh^ jaq-gast zan he'ssEl-f, -e gaRt buo'i o naoYn nood h'z 
vii'dhaRz vao'^s 'et wans, thof twi?z zoo kwee'R en skweek'^n, "end 
so'*' ud trast *hii te speek dhe TRuuth En - dai, iis, 'dhoet ao'e 'ud. 

6. en dh)0ol;d)wnren heRZElf 'l)tEl EnV on)i 13Z Iseaefs noo'w, tm 
tEl)i strait oof, tuu, widhao'wt matj fas, if juu)l wan-U' aeaesk im, 
oo, want shi ? 

7. leestwa/z shi toold ^t 'mii, WEU zo'i ceaest OR, tuu'eR driitaD'f'mz 
waav^R, d/d)shi, ^n -shii d/dn't AAt tu bi roq on se'tj t? pao'mt T?Z 
dhe's, wot dost "dhii thiqk ? 

8. WE! i8z aoV w^z TB zaron -shii wd tel)i, hao'w, wee'R on WEH shi 
vao'und dhi draqk'Bn bii'st shi kiAlz hi8R haz'b^nd. 

9. shi soor shi SAA en we "BR oon QO'Z, "e-laron strstrt nt ful lEqkth 
on dhe grao'wnd, in e'z gwd zan-de kwuu't kloos bi dhe duu'R o dh 
hao'ws, dao'wn -et dh^ ksegeRn-BR o dire leen jaeaendaR. 

10. aR WEZ skwm'ten -ewae, sez shii, fim AA! dh^ ward'l laoVk 12 
zek tjoo'ild, 'BR 'e b'ti gaRl vrEt"en. 

11. -en dhaat hosp-'nd -ez shii T?n h'BR daeae'taR m IAA kam druu 
dire baek kuu'rt frem haeq-en so'wt dh^ wet klooz ta draoV on t? 
wosh'en da. 

12. wao'e'l dha kit'l woz 'ebao'z'ren feR tee wan bRao'et zanrim 
aaaeteRnuun wan'le "e week, ^gmr kam nEks dhaRZ'de. 

13. aend dast 'dhii noo ? ao'e nevaR laaRnt noo muu'R nim dhes 
hii'R -e -dhaet bez'nas ap te te-da, BZ shuu'R ez mao'e nii'mz :djon 
:shep*T3Rd an aoV duu'nt wAAnt te, eedher, zoo dhee'R ! 

14. -en zoo ao'* bi gwao'ran whoo'm te zap-eR. gwd naoVt, tm 

E.E. Pron. Part V. [ 1529 ] 98 



[D 5, V iii. 

duu'nt bii zo kw*ck tra kroo waavi3R 12 tjaep rcgm, wsn 13 tAAks o dh/s 
dhaet BR tadheR. 

15. Bt)s a week fuul BZ SEZ muu'R m?R i niid. an dhaet-s maoV 
last wafid. gwd baoY. 


0. hasn't got no doubts, or simply has 
no (TB noo) or has not got (Q not got). 
The vowel (o) was Mr. Leigh's ordinary 
(o) and was not (o) . 

1 . neighbour, Mr. L. gave both (nai-) 
and (naoi-) . thee-him ; thee is used for 
both nom. and ace. ; him is nom. and 
(hii) emphatic, (en) regular unemphatic 
S. ace. 

2. ain't is most natural, but (beent) 
is also used. feiv w r ith (f) not (v). 
chaps, Mr. L. varied, apparently un- 
consciously, from (a?) to (a 1 ) wherever 
the short sound occurs. what, simple 
(w) no (wh) . bain 1 1 or (bii'nt) . The use 
of be in the third singular here and 
elsewhere is doubtful. 

3. rights of the story, for facts of the 
case, which is not a dialectal expression. 
thy (dhao'i) emphatic, (dhi) unem- 
phatic. -friend, the (v) is doubtful. 
adone, the use of (e) before the past 
participle is more frequent than not, 
among the regular old-fashioned people. 

4. say sometimes (zai). through as 
dictated, but this change of thr- to dr- 
im plies that the real change is into (DR-) 
and this is doubtful in Ha. thing 
(dhiq) is only occasionally used for (thiq) 
from is more naturally pronounced 
with (f). 

5 . voice is not a regular term, perhaps 
(vais) would be said. though (thof) 
was so dictated, but the (th) is doubtful. 
The word was said to be not common 
but still used. he, emphatic form of 
ace., (tm) unemphatic. any (Eni), never 

(sen-i). day (dai) is heard, but not so 
often as (dee). yes (iis) is the regular 
form, but (yaRs) is also used. 

6. old woman, the (d) of (ool) is per- 
ceptibly made the beginning of the 
word (wnren), as common in S. on-ye, 
tell ye, sometimes (JB) is used in place 
of (-i), but this must be a modernism. 
fuss is the common word, not bother. 
only (oo-ni) is also used, but (wan-li) i# 
more frequent. 

7 and 14. over (waavaii). 

8. saying, also pronounced (see -en) or 
(seen). found generally with (v), (f) 
sometimes among the younger. beast 
or (beest), plural (bii'stiz). husband 
or (az-bend, azbun), not man. 

9. saw or else (sa3a3, zaea3, sid, sin, 
sii) might be used. a-laying, a general 
error for a-lying, which would be 

10. world, this pronunciation is not 
very common now. girl or else (maid) . 

11. law is generally (Ia3a3), but in 
this connection may be (!AA) . 

12. week uncertain, Mr. Leigh at 
first wrote week (wiik), I expected (wik, 
wik), but both wicu and wuce are found 
in Ws. 

13. name's, or (naBaemz). shepherd, 
(ship) is used for sheep. 

14. a-going (gao'ren) is probably an 
error for (Bgwaran). this, no (dhik) 
is used in Hampshire, but (dhik-^n) is 
said in the plural. 

15. says, the word prates is not 
used, (reez'n) is said. 

, HA., specimen and cwl. s 

Prof. Dr. M. M. Arnold Schrb'er, from Vienna, of the University 
of Freiburg-im-Breisgau, Baden, Germany, who had studied pho- 
netics under Dr. Sweet, and had had much experience in observing, 
analysing, and criticising differences of speech in various parts of 
Germany, and speaks English with an excellent pronunciation, 
having spent the summer of 1887 near Andover, Ha., exercised him- 
self in writing Ha. speech from dictation. His two chief authorities 
were Mr. Benjamin Manning, of Appleshaw (4 wnw. Andover), 
between 40 and 50 years old, who had lived all his life in the 
county and been in constant communication with farm-labourers, 

[ 1530 ] 

D 5, Vjii.] THE MID SOUTHERN. 99 

and Mr. Archard, a native of Ha., educated at Winchester, then 
national schoolmaster at Andover, and consequently in the constant 
habit of hearing dialect, to whom Prof. S. had been recommended 
by Canon Collier, the vicar, as the very man he wanted. Of these 
Prof. S. considered Mr. M. as his chief authority. The number of 
points, however, in which he differed from Mr. A. is considerable. 
Prof. Schroer selected as an example a letter originally published 
in Punch (vol. ix. p. 264, 1845) and reprinted in the Eev. Sir 
William H. Cope's Ha. Glossary, p. xii. This was read to him 
by both Messrs. M. and A., and their pronunciation most carefully 
analysed in Dr. Sweet's revised Eomic spelling (Sound Notation, 
Trans, of the Philological Society, 1880-1, pp. 177-235), with 
which Prof. S. is perfectly familiar. These versions, transliterated 
into pal. from the references to Mr. Melville Bell's notation and 
other indications given in the paper cited, are here annexed, with a 
translation. In the cwl. Mr. M. has been generally followed, and 
some words in his own orthography have been added. In a few 
cases Mr. A.'s pron. is specially noted. 

Prof. S. considers that the Ha. dialect 

"is rapidly dying out, and has been so for the last two generations. Even the 
oldest farm-labourers are so much accustomed to educated (London) pronunciation, 
that this certainly influences their natural speech. I attended," he adds, "a 
harvest-home festival at Longstock House, Fullerton (4 s. Andover), and waited 
upon a poor blind old man of 80, who, owing to his blindness, could not always 
know that I was near him or within hearing. Still, though I spent almost the 
whole afternoon in his company, always listening and secretly taking notes, I did 
not find more than a very few peculiar pronunciations, except the general tendency 
of influencing vowels by the reverted r." 

There are several points which will strike the reader in the following spec. 
Prof. Schroer having been, as already stated, a phonetic pupil of Dr. Sweet, his 
appreciation of sounds, as referred to Mr. Melville Bell's scheme, seems to differ 
in some respects from mine. He has been before all things anxious to make the 
most accurate transcription possible of the speech actually under consideration. 
Mr. M.'s own spelling in the cwl. will shew that the speaker evidently thought 
he was saying (ii, ee), while Prof. S. heard only (yy, BE). The (so) which con- 
stantly occurs corresponds in unaccented syllables to my (B), from which, and also 
from (ah), which sometimes occurs, the audible difference is small, though the 
difference of the position of tongue and lips, which determines the symbol, is often 
considerable. Probably most of the words written with (yy'ao), I should have 
heard with (fa, fa, iv&}. Those written with (oh), considered as Fr. o in homme 
and answering to short u, I should probably have heard as (o), but both Mr. M.'s 
(oh) and Mr. A.'s (u) in (pohntj, p^nti), punch, in place of (a), are extremely 
strange to me. As regards I' words having (y), I may refer to JGG.'s use -of 
the same symbol at Chippenham (supra p. 51), which I then thought very remark- 
able. The symbol (ao'oh), which is the pal. rendering of Dr. Sweet's sign for 
received London ow, is intended to imply that in Ha. Mr. M. used that sound, 
beginning with (a>) and ending with the rounded form of the same vowel, that is, 
not coming up to (u) or altering the position of the tongue at all, but merely 
partly closing the lips while saying (so). I am accustomed to analyse my own 
utterance of this sound as (blu), and do not hear (so) at all ; in fact, when I first 
heard initial (so) from Mr. Trotter (supra p. 60^), it had an extremely strange 
provincial effect to my ears. This (a/oh) is, however, not universal. In count 
both M. and A. give (kwont), which I might have heard as (kwmit), a very 
singular form. This (ua, nua) is the common form of what I, perhaps, should 
have written (th, UK, tiuis), as (btiuak, stuuad} book, stood, which I should 
probably have heard and therefore written (bwek, stwud). Some other usages 

[ 1531 ] 

100 THE MID SOUTHERN. [D 5, V iii. 

also seem strange, as the diphthong in (nEEVz), noise, the advanced high (a) in 
(v,aa l *B), for, the accented use of (a>) in (paogz, :s/'aomzh'R, haost, yoo'bl), pigs, 
Hampshire, hast, able, the use of (oe) in (zcens), sense, the double form of 
(paVl, ^a-a 1 !), oil, where (^aa-a 1 ) seemed to be an advanced (aa) ending with 
a slight motion of the tongue into the position for (a 1 ) ; the hyphen merely 
separates symbols, so as to form a kind of (a'i) diphthong. 

These observations of Prof. Schroer are, I think, very valuable 
as shewing almost personal varieties of nw.Ha. pron. differing so 
widely as Mr. M.'s and Mr. A.'s, and analysed with the greatest 
minuteness and conscientiousness. I feel greatly indebted to him 
for his kindness in sending them, with long explanations, although 
it was extremely inconvenient for him to do so in time to appear 
in this place. 


Written in Dr. Sweet's Eomic by Prof. Arnold Schroer and translated into pal. 
by AJE. All the (t, d, 1, n, r) both here and in the sentences and cwl. on 
p. 104 should be (T, D, L, N, R), and hence (tj, di) should be (TJ, DJ, = Th, 
Dzh) as at Chippenham (p. 51), but as this was not known till the proof was 
corrected, I considered it safer to let them remain as they are with this 

M. From the dictation of Mr. Manning. 

A. From the dictation of Mr. Archard, when the same for any word as in M., only 

(,,) is written. 
T. Literal translation, not the original in Punch. 

1. M myst'R :pohntj, Z'R, yi jah'R [jao'oh] p?yy'aoz, Z'R, ay by)ao 
A pwntj, yi J'R ,, 
T Mr. Punch, sir, if you please, sir, I be a 


T Hampshire farmer. 

2. M ay rayts too jao'oh kaoz ay nao'ohz jao'oh uant maynd may 
A ,, ,, tu jua \^ l 'az ,, nuaz ju wont ,, ,, 
T I write to you because I know you won't mind my 

M nuat by'aon ao zgolao'Rd aon w'l a^ske^'z by^'aod zboslaon 
A ,, ,, ,, ,, 6al [VI] ykskjwwz ,, ,, 

T not being a scholar[d] and will excuse bad spelling 

M am EE'! dhEE'aot [dhy/aot]. 
A ,, CE'^I dhyy'aot. 

T and all that. 

3. M Itmkaon ao'ohvao dhao pyy'aopao taodh'r myy'aoRkaot dtday 

A Iwkaon wavao ,, ,, tw^dhao ,, dyy'aoj 

T Looking over the paper t'other market day 

M sot :wntjyst'r ay zyyjd [zyd] ao kwnt ao dhao prayz 

A :wyn%stao'R zyy 

T at "Winchester I see'd a count of the prize 

[ 1532 ] 

D 5, V iii.] THE MID SOUTHERN. 101 

M kyy'aot'l)zh jao'oh uaj> yn ilwnaon [:lohnaon]. 
A ,, zhua ,, yn ilohnaon. 
T cattle show up in London. 

4. M ay wEE'aontyd too niiwa WEE'eot GO zaod aobimt ao paogz ; 
A ,, w&mtyd nua iruat ao zed aobtbt ao pygz; 
T I wanted to know what he said about the pigs ; 

M uaz dhao WEE' aoz son WEE'E dhao \uarn vraom. 
A ,, ,, wuaz wah'r ,, kolmi vrom. 
T whose they was and where they come from. 

5. M ay vao'ohaond aoz ao'oh dhEE'E wjia^'snt 93 z'qg'l paog VESODI 
A ay vaa'ohnd ,, ,, ,, ,, uag VEOHL 
T I found as how there were'nt a single pig [hog] from 

M ry'somzli'B [ijaomzh'n] maoq dho3 loot. 
A ,, somaoq ,, \iiai. 

T Hampshire among the lot. 

6. IV! jao'oh niiuaz dhEE'oot, ay)d's zEE'a 1 , aoz wao'l soz y 
A 3ua nuaz dhyy'oDt, ,, dyy'ao'E zy/aoj, eoz wel ,, ,, 
T You knows that, I dare say, as well as I 

M, aon voh'r layk jao'oh bee?/ zdona^sht yy 
A ,, ,, vaoEBy ,, siia byj aDzdonyzlid aot)yt 
T do, and very like you be astonished at it 

M [jaot)aot] zonmaot. tao'l aa 1 ao'oh)aot)soz)z'R. 
A zohm't. tel yj ao'oli[6w] tyz)z'R. 

T somewhat. Tell you how it is, sir. 

7. M wa'y vao'ohks aon :/aomzh'r bEEE'aodz [bsyy'aodz] paogz aoz 
A wy \uaks yn ,, bEy/aodz pygz)aoz) 
T "We folks in Hampshire breeds pigs as 

M paogz ao'oht)ao baty, aon dw<mt gua vaotnaon aon aom wp 
A pygz wt)ao by, ,, ,, ,, on 
T pigs ought) to be, and don't go fattening on them up 

M ty'l dhao kyy'aont wEE'aog. 
A tyl wyy'aog. 

T till they can't wag. 

8. M wa l y zaoz pao'oh'sk ao'oht)tao hEE'aov /yy'aon aoz wao'l aoz 
A wy sez pw&ek iiai tu ,, ,, wel ,, 
T We says pork ought to have lean as well as 

M vyy'aot, aon wa 1 layks UOR byy'aokn stryy'aokyd. zyy'aom 
A ,, wy stryy'aoky. 
T fat, and we likes our bacon streaky. 

[ 1533 ] 



[D 5, V iii. 

M wy kyy'aotl. 

" >> 

T with cattle. 

9. M wpsL v T)z) dhao zoens JIH"B rEE'aozn ao stohfaon aon kR x aaomn 
A W^'RJZ ,, ,, ,, R^aa^n a stof'n ,, kRaonin 
T Where's the sense or reason of stuffing and cramming 

M ao bwlyk ty'l yy byy'aont yao'bl tao zyy jao'oht ? [out 

A ao hoks ty'l ao ,, yy'aobl ,, ,, not 

T an ox [bullock] til he be not able to see out (_out 

M of his eyes, not used] 
A a yz ayz ? 

T of his eyes]? 

10. M wEE'aot jaoz dhao jao'ohs ao EE'! dhEE'aot EE'BOR vyy'aot 

A what iz juuz a CECE'! dhyy'aot yy'aoR ,, 

T What is the use of all that ere fat 

M [vEE'aot] ay wEE'aonts tao nao'oh? ua jaoz dheoh'r aoz 

I J__ A... /. _ O 


tu nua? ,, z 
to know ? Who is 


M jaots)aot? 
A yy'a 
T eats it? 

11. M dhao ^ 

A ,, v aa-a a l 
T The ' oilcake, 

kyy'aok, t'Emaots, maoqg'lz[w'Ezlz) aon ky'aobydj 
,, ,, maoqg'lw'Ez'l aon kaobydj 

turnips, mangelwurzel, and cabbage 

M aoz)aoz wEE'aostyd aon mEE'aokaon wyn bwlyk ao [monster] 

A aoz)yz wyy'aostyd yn myy'aokaon whan ,, ,, monst'r 

T as is wasted in making one bullock a monster 

M ohd gua tao kEE'aop dRa 1 ^ ^a 1 vao'oh'E, vayn ky'aotl yn 

A wd ,, tu dry ,, VOO'K ,, hoks'n yn 

T would go to keep three or four fine oxen [cattle] in 

M gwtfd kondysh'n. 

A n )> 

T good condition. 

12. M way, Z'R, dha^-a 1 med djyst)aoz wao'l vaot)ohp 

A ,, ,, dh^a-a 1 mayt djw^st)aDz w^'l vyy'aot ,, 

T Why, sir, they might just) as well fat up 

M zdaogz)aon yy'oah'sz aon REE'aobohts, ay aon vEE ; aoz'nz aon 

A ,, ,, EE'aORZ 

T stags and hares, 

,, Raobohts, 
and rabbits, 

[ 1534 ] 

aye and pheasants and 

D 5, Viii.] THE MID SOUTHERN. 103 

M pEE'aosdEa'djyz vaa^E dhao mEE^taoE ao)dbEE'aot. 

A pCECE'Edsydjyz ,, maot'R o dhyy'aot. 

T partridges, for the matter of that. 

13. M tao'l aa 1 WEE'aot [taoz] :myy'aost'r :pohntj, yi zda'd ao vlyqoon 

A tos'l yy uat, pwntj yi zded o ,, 

T Tell you what [it is], Master Punch, if stead of flinging 

M aowaa-a 1 guad. pRavnd'n tao t'sn ^End yoBoenaom'lz y'ntn 

A aoway ,, provaond'r tu ,, ,, aonaomcE'lz aontw 

T away good provender to turn horned animals into 

M rdaonaol ilaomb'sts, dha^-a 1 wuaz tao gyy bryy'aod aon 

A ,, :laomb ? Ets dh v ay uaz tu byy'aostiU ,, ,, myy'aot 

T Daniel Lamberts they was to give [bestow] bread and meat 

M am t'Eraobts tao :krystaonz aon myy'aok zohm on)aom 

A ,, on rkrystyaonz ,, ,, ,, o)dbohm 

T and turnips on Christians, and make some of them 

M ao byt vaot'E dhaen dha^-a 1 ba 1 ^ dho)a 1 d dua 

A ao lyt'l vyy'aot'E dh^aaaon dh ay byy dh v ay/)d duua muua 

T a little fatter than they be, they'd do more 

M guad. ao praa^snaos zayt, aon ay)ni bao'ohn jao n oh ba j y 
A guu&d ao prEE'aoshaos zayt, ,, ,, bawnd juua \>yy 
T good a precious s ig^ an( ^ I' m bound you be 

M dnao zyy'aom pynaon. 
A o dhao ,, aobynjaon. 
T of the same opinion. 

14. M dj ba 1 , Z'B,, jao'oh'E baa^djaont z^aa^vnt :djw0n :grao'ohts. 
A ,, byy, ,, jw'r byydjaont ,, ,, rgrawts. 

T I be, sir, your obedient servant, John Grouts. 

Notes to the above Letter. 

1. knoivs, M. writes (ay nao'ohz) and 9. bullock, M. says ox is not used in 

says not (miaz) which is what A. gives ; Ha., but A. gives it. 

but M. says that 'to know' is (tao 11. oil ((Effi'ylj) in cwl. making not 

niia), (inyy'eokaon) says M., as A. has, it is 

3. looking, an octogenarian at Reden- only the infinitive which is (mz/y'aok). 

ham (5 nw.Andover and 1 nw.Apple- M. says monster is not used, and Prof. 

shaw) agreed with A. here. S. put a ? against (niEE'sonst'K,) as a 

5. found or (voo'ohnd). M. says possible pron. ; -four is (vao'oh'B,), but 
" hog not used, " that is in the sense of fourteen is (r.aa p atn). cattle was 
a male pig ; but as a young and as yet oxen in the original, but M. says the 
unshorn sheep, the word is common in word is not used, though A. has it. 
Ha., so that a Hampshire Hog means 13. tell you what, according to M. 
a country simpleton. There is a should have had 'tis appended. a bit, 
1 Hampshire-Hog Lane ' at Hammer- M. says not a little, which A. uses. - 
smith, London, W. bestow is not used says M., but it is 

6. very, M. says the final y is fre- given by A. you be [of, to be omitted 
quently omitted. according to M.] the same opinion. 

[ 1535 ] 

104 THE MID SOUTHERN. [D 5, V iii. 

Written by Prof. Schroer from dictation of Mr. B. Manning. See p. 100. 

1. (dhaot hayv waoz muua dhoon hEEf bruu^d), that hive was more 

than half brood. 

2. (t)y/)aont layk dhyy'oot), it [=the thing said])is)not like that, 

[=is not so]. 

3. (y yy'aont nuua guuad), it [referring to a rake] is-not no good. 

4. (yy'is dhyy haost, dhyy)st stowlst my niEE'ao), yes thou hast, thee 

hast stol'st my maw = heart. [The phrase is said to belong 
to a well-known anecdote, using stoVst for stolen.~\ 

5. (gymy dhyk ZEE'S), wy'tjn? dhyk)n), give me this saw. which 

one ? this)one. 

6. (dhyy'ao byy'sost GO bEE'aod bdoe), thou be'st a bad boy. 

7. (dhy/oodst [dhyy'ooldst] nee'ao byy nuua gwd)an), thee'dst 

[thee'ldst] never be no good one. 

8. (tyz mayn bEE'ood, Z'R), it)is main [=very] bad, sir. 

9. (ay yfcyy'oont kao'ohnt)aom dhEE'ao EEV1 aomaoq), I can't count 

them there all among [mixed up together]. 

10. (udy duuant xuua guua huuarn \_wuuam\\ why don't you go 


11. ((Mtuaok mEE'ahk sytj)ao nEEVz), don't make such a noise. 

12. (ay t^'l dhy wat)yz, mn !), I tell you what [it] is, man ! 

13. (w v aa 15 ii byy'aost [byst] dhy?/ gwawh^?), where be'st thee 

going? [In (gwawh!) "the first element low-back-wide, the 
second rather mid-mixed-wide, but certainly labialised by 
the (a). I [Schroer] make it (wh : ) lower, between (oh) and 

(h), but more (y) than (oh)." 
14. (wEE'aot byst gwayn vjis 1 '^?), what be'st thou going for? 

why are you going ?] 
15. (wat)s dhyy wEE'aont ?), what)is [it that] thee want ? 
1 6 . (mayn smy^/tjy , mayn smyy'nt) , main ( = very) dusty, main smart. 

17. (ay wynt. ay uant gua uam. taonayt), I will)not. I won't go 

home to-night. 

18. (\.itdkyy ?/y'r; y iualdi my tw^dhao daay), look ye here ; he told 

me the other day. 

19. (yi dhyy w^st gwdwh^ teo :oksf'Ed, wytj way wwdst guua?), 

if thee wast going to Oxford, which way wouldst [thou] go ? 

20. (wytj w v % wdst sev)yt; A'ot o kw^'ld [kgo'oh^'ld]?), which way 

wouldst [thou] have it ; hot or cold ? 

21. (myy'eot dhay mEE'oot), meet thy mate. 


from the phonetic observations of Prof. Arnold Sctroer, chiefly on Mr. Manning 
and Mr. Arcbard, wbo are sometimes distinguished as M and A. Mr. Manning 
also gave Prof. 8. a list of many words in the cwl. in his own orthography, 
which I annex in Italics because it serves to shew his own appreciation of his 
own sounds. I preserve even Mr. M.'s division of a word into two. See 
p. 100. 


A- 1 ztia. 3 by^/'aok. 4 tyy'gok. 5 myy'aok, niEE'ahk. 6 m?/y'aod. 8 
|_hEE'oov. 9 byjy/aov. 11 mEE'ao. 12 ZEE'O). 14 dREE'ao, dR^aa 1 . 15 

[ 1536 ] 

D 5, V iii.] THE MID SOUTHERN. 105 

, EE'oofwl) awful]. 17 M IEE'SO, A Ipa 1 . 18 kyy'aok. 19 tyy'aol, 
tay'l. 20 lyy'aom [more decided dialect], lEE'aom [less broad]. 21 nyy'gom, 
nEE'aom. 24 zhyy'aom, shyy'gom. 30 k*/y'a)'R, kyy'R*. 33 Kyy'aodhao. 

A: 39 kyy'som, kaym, &mm [not much used. M.]. 40 kuutcm. 41 dhaoqk. 
43 |_h//'aond. 44 l//9ond. 45 wEE'aont. 46 kyy'sondl. 47 wyy'aond'R. 48 
zyy'aoq, zohq. 49 yy'aoq. 50 taoqz [doubtful whether ever (tyy'aoqz)]. 51 man. 
55 M EE'soshyz [never (yy'ao-)], A yy'ooshyz. 56 wEE'aosh [very seldom 
(wyy'aosh)]. A: or 0: ^58 VRaom, vRohm. 60 laoq. 64 REE'aoq. 

A'- 67 gtiua, gu. 69 nuua. 70 tuua, Tutia, isuua ? 72 w, hyy'u, hstiua. 
73 zwMfl. 74 TW, isiiua. 76 ttiuad. 77 l v aa l 'Rd. 78 wwa. 79 wwan. 80 
ol'Rdao'i, aol'Rdao. 82 wons, WMMOHS. 84 mtiua. 85 ZMMQO'R, zao'ohaoR. 86 
marts, [usually (wwats)]. 87 kljaa^z, klEE'aoz. 89 bzuorth, bEE'soth. 91mao'oh. 
92 niiua, nao'oh. 96 ziiua [but mostly (zoo'oh, zeo'ohd, zao'ofyaon) sow, sowed, 
sowing]. 97 zww'l. 98 M ncECE'ad [knowed], A nmtan [known]. 99 dReo'ohd. 
100 zao'ohd [but the (z) is gradually giving way to (s)]. 

A': 101 iwuuak. 102 aoks, ax. 103 aokst, EE'aokst, eykst, axt. 104 Ruad. 
106 bRwwod. 113 uua'L 115 uuam. 117 uucm.. 118 bwmm. 122 i. nuuan, 
ii. nw. 124 stww^n. 127 |JIAA'RZ. 133 nii-uat. 

M- 138 (v)fyy'aodh'R. 140 EE'SOJ!. 141 nEE'aojl. 142 snEE'aojl. 143 
tEE'aojl. 144 aogj/y'aon aogEE'aon. 146 mayn [rarely (mz/y'aon, mEE'yn)]. 147 
bRyy'9on. 148 vBB'oe'r. 149 blyy'soz. 152 wtao, wootao [" with voiceless d, 
' Stimmlose lenis,' the pron. (watao) apparently dialect, (wootao) influenced by 
educated pron., heard both from old country people." AS.] 153 zaot'Rdaay. 

JE: 154 byy'eok. 158 ah ter. 159 EE'aoz, aoz. 161 daay. 162 twdaay. 
163 laay. 164 maay. 165 zed. 166 mEE'aod. waps [wasp]. M'- 
184 lEE'aod, lee ad. 187 lEE'aov. 189 woy. 190 Aoy. 194 EE'aoni [occ., but 
oftener (ony)]. 195 niEE'aoni, maony. 197 djEE'soz. 198 Icet. 199 blEE'oDt. 
200 WEE'aot. 202 EE'eot. 

M': 203 zbEE'aoHj. 204 yndBB'floM [indeed]. 205 dinged. 208 M eev'n, 
A GOV'R. 209 M neev'R, A naov'R. 210 klaay. 211 gn&ay. 212 waay. 213 
oydh'R, EE'ahdh'R. 214 na'ydh'R, nEE'ahdh'R. 215 ttiuat. 216 dBB'aoU. 217 
EE'ootj. 218 M zhyy'eop, A zhEE'aop. 220 M zhy/aob'Rd, A zhEE'aop'Rd, 
zhjoop'Rd ["the latter rather confirming the pronunciation of M."]. 223 
dhah'R, dh^'R. 224 U^'R, A waah"r. 226 muuast. 227 woet. 228 
zwoet, zwEE'aot. 

E- 231 dhoa. 232 bREE'aok. 233 spyy'aok, A spEE'aDk, [M makes (spEE'aok) 
he spoke]. 234 nEE'god. 235 WEB'SOV. 236 VEE'GDV'R. 238 EE'aodj. 239 
zaa-a 1 !. 241 r k aa-a'n. 243 p^aa-a 1 . 244 woa'l. 246 M kwEE'aan, A 
kw v aa-a'n. 248 HIEE'SO'R. 249 WEE^'R. 250 zwEE'ao'R. 251 M maa'i/t, 
A rnyy'&t. 252 b/tl. 

E: 256 zdHyy'aotj, stREE'aotj. 257 EE'eadj. 260 l^aa-a 1 . 261 z^aa-a 1 . 262 
w t aa-a l . 263 aw k aa-a l , WAA'a 1 . 265 zdREE'aot, zdRAA'a't. 266 woa'l. 269 
z^aa'lf. 271 Wl, tyy'l. 272 oa'lm. 273 myy'aon. 274 bj/i/'aonti. 275 
zdyy'oontj, STEE'aontj. 276 dhyqk. 279 WEE'aont. 286 k a'Bah'R. 288 loet. 

E'- 289 JEE'ao and jyy'ao. * 290 \\ujy. 291 dhyy. 292 HIEE'SO [not much 
used. M]. 293 M waa'y, A WEE'CB, wy. 294 vEE'ood, wrf. 296 bylEE'aov. 297 
vaol'R. 298 VEE'a l lj. 299 grEE'aon. 300 kEE'aap, kee^/p. 301 L%y" r - 302 
M myy'aot, A mEE'aot, meeyt. 303 zwEE'aot, zweeyt. E': 305 L hy. 306 
height. 307 nay. 308 naid. 311 tin. 312 he ere. 314 
btosn [blessing]. 315 vedte. 

EA- 318 leeft. 320 kyyao'R. EA: 321 [(zyd) see'd, used]. 322 few/*. 

L hww'ld, 

324 v ayty [eighty]. 326 ttua'ld, aD'ohld. 330 L hww'ld, Lhoo'ohld. 332 twwa'ld, 
too'ohld. 333*a'a/ 334 liEEf. 335EEV1EE'!. 338 kBB'a'l. 339 [(byy) used]. 
340 jyy'ao'Rd, Jyy'Rd [orchard is (EE'so'Rtjaod, -cot)]. 342 yarm. 343 'ivayami. 
344 tjyy'ld. 346 ^ afe. EA'- 347 he dde. 348 y [pi. (iffl'a'z)]. 349 
fyaoao'oh. EA': ^<?^. 351 lid. 352 REE'aDd. 353 bnt/y'&d. 355 dyf. 
357 dhaD'oh. 359 nayb'R. 360 tee am. 261 bee an. 363 tjyy'aop, tjEE'aop, 
tjep. 366 gryy'aot. 368 tfath. 371 <ra'rf. 

El- 373 dhy ["of course not genuine instead of (hyy) tne old g outhern 
form"]. El: 380 dhoem, oem ["in (oem) perhaps the old genuine Southern 
form Anglo-Saxon heom, him"]. 

[ 1537 ] 



[D 5, Y iii. 

EO- 384 hebn. 386 yow. 387 HEE'W. EO: 388 nrn'lk. 390 shohd, 
shd. 392 jaon. 394 jaond'R. 396 wemk, [^mked) worked]. 399 bRyt. 
402 l l aa p Rn. smyy'Rt [to smart]. 406 ["never heard it used" M]. 
EO'- 409 bay. 412 shy, hy. 419 jao'oh'R. 420 veo'oh'R. 421 vjia'ty. 
EO': 422 zyk. 427 baa 1 '?/ [been (ba'n)]. 428 zaa^y, zy. 430 vreend. 433 
bre'ast. 435 jao'oh. 436 dRao'oh, dnuu. EY- 438 day [and (dwa : ) ? 
died (dayd, dfld^'yd)]. 

I- 440 M wdayk, A WEE'aok. 446 mine. 449 gyt [forget (f'Rgyt)]. 
I: 452 dy. 455 Idy. 458 ndyt, nyy'aot [the latter "most decided dialect"]. 
459 Rdyt. 465 sytj. 466 tjy'ld, tjyy'ld. 469 [(dy ww'l) I will]. 475 woind. 
484 dhyk [(dhyk'n) this one]. 485 thee'sels. sohns [since]. I'- 490 by. 
492 zdyd. 494 tdym. 496 dy'Rn. 498 Rdyt. I': 500 Idyk. 506 |_wwinn. 
507 wum'en. 

0- smAA'ak, smwk [smoke]. 519 ao'ohvao. 521 vow'el. 522 oop'un. 
524 warld. 0: 527 bowt. 528 thoivt. 529 broivt. 531 dEEtao. 532 
koo'al. 534 hoo'al. 535 vao'ohk. 536 goo uld. 541 wynt, want. 550 ward. 
552 k k aa p Rn. 553 Lhjsa^Rn. 0'- 555 zhoo. 558 luak. 559 moother. 
562 moo'un. month [month]. 564 zuttan, zwn. 565 nwz. 566 ohdh'R 
["but usually (tohdhaoR, tw^dhaoR, tao'ohdhaoR) ; I heard an old farm -labourer, 
80 years old, at Longstock (9 nw. Winchester), say (mdv tohdh'Rz) =my others." 
AS.] 568 bRaadh'R. 

0': hiiuak. 570 tuuak. 571 guttad.. 572 blwwad. 574 bRM^ad. 575 
siuuad. 576 wwwanzdao, wohnzdao. 578 plAA, plso'oh. 579 M inao'oh, A nohf 
[which M doubts]. 580 tao'oh. 583 t^aojl. 584 sTe<aojl ["that is inverted 
(t) almost like (tj) ; this sound is said to be frequent, though M does not admit 
it in (TII), two, where I heard it distinctly myself, though not always." AS.] 
585 hnuuam. 586 duua. 587 dohn. 593 mist. 595 voo'ut. 

U- 599 ah'boone. 601 vowul. 602 zow, plu. zows. 603 kohm, kooam. 
604 zohm'R. 605 zohn [see 629], 606 do'er. uud [wood]. U: 609 
vu'l. 612 zohm. 613 dRohqk. 615 pao'ohnd. 616 gRao'ohaond. 623 vao'ohaond. 
625 too'ung. 626 [not used, / be' a moin hungered, M]. 629 zohn [see 605]. 
632 ohp. 634 M dRao'oh, A druu. 639 dowst. 

U'- 640 kow hu, pi. kow'hoo's. 641 Lhao'oh. 644 zohk, zwk. 645 duuav. 
dhuttam [thumb], U': 658 dao'ohn. 663 Lhao'ohs. 

Y- 673 mohtj. 675 dRdy. 680 byzy. 682 lee' die. Y: 684 bree'adge. 
685 ru'dge. 688 zohtj. 692 johqgaost. 694 w^Rk. 695 ^aa^Rkn, Lhyy'Rk. 
700 wos'cr, wuss. 701 v t aa 15 Rst. 702 wy. Y- 706 wdy. Y': 709 
vy'er, voy'er. 



E. 745 tjWaH. 749 M lyft ["which 

A. 713 bEE'aod, b t aad. 714 lEE'aod. 732 ao^n. 
l^aas, IEE'GOS. 737 myy'aot, mEE'sot. 

I myself heard," AS.], A lEE'soft. I. and Y. 758 gEE'l. 759 vyt. 760 
zhryv'ld. 0. 761 loo'ud. 765 :djw??n. 766 [I believe this word moidered 
to be purely Irish, I never heard it in Ha., M.]. 767 n(E(Eyz, nEE'a'z. 769 
nioo'el, waant. 773 doqky. 774 ptiuani. 776 guuad. \)daj. 783 [poultry is 
not used or they would say powel try, M.]. 791 b(E(E'y, booe. U. 796 
bloo 1 '^. 801 rum. 802 rohm. 804 drwqkn [compare 613]. 808 poht. 


A-- 810 ve'ass. 811 ple'ass. 813 byy'aokn. 818 EE'sodj. 822 maay, 
may. 826 EE'aog'l. 828 eegyy. kaompl 4 aynyn [complaining] . 833 p?/yao'R. 
plaa l/ 2/z [" (plyy'aoz) is probably not genuine dialect"]. 835 R^aa-a'zn. 836 
zyy'aozn. myy'oost'R. 849 chaimber. 841 tjyy'aons. 847 dainger, doinger. 
849 zdRaondj'R. 850 dyz/'eons. 851 (E(E t nt. 852 EE'aop'Rn. 854 baoao'R'l. 
855 k(E(E'Rohts. 856 pEE'ao'Rt. 857 kyy'aos. 862 zyy'&f. 864 k^aa^aos, 
[shorter (kaos)]. 865 voEffi'lt. 866 paa'R. 

E-. 867 tEE'a 1 . 869 VEE'eojl. 874 ryy'aon. 875 vEE'aont. 876 dEE'aonty. 
877 [not used, M.]. 885 vaah'R, vao'Ri ["an old man of 80 in Redenham (5 nw. 

[ 1538 ] 

D 5, V iii.] THE MID SOUTHERN. 107 

Andover), apparently eager to avoid the dialectal change of (f ) to (v), said (feiu/)," 
AS.]. 888 sartun [often it is zartun zure, M.]. 890 byy'aost. 893 vlce'oh'r. 

! andX 897 dylayt. 898 na'ys. 900 pr k aa i; y. 901 va'yn. 903 ddyn 
[not vulgar]. 904 va'yket. 912 ro'ys. 0-- 913 kwatj. 915 zdohf. 916 
onjaon. 918 fay'ble. 920 pCE'ynt. 922 bohshl, bwshl. 923 maist, moin 
de'amp. 924 choy'iss. 925 v^aa^ys, vraoi'ys. 926 zbpa^ylj, zb(E(E'*/l. 929 
kao'ohkaomb'R. 930 IcEos'yn. 935 kohntri. 939 klwas. 940 kuat. 941 VOO'M/. 
942 bohtj'R. 943 titch. 950 zohp'a. 951 kohpl. 952 koo'us. 

IT- 965 (ECE'yjl. pohnish [punish]. 969 zlm'R. 970 djiast. 


The Isle of Wight may be regarded as part of Ha. dialectally as 
it is politically. Owing to its separation from the mainland, and 
the absence of commercial ports, it has not been so much exposed 
to the influence of great towns as the couuty generally. The 
MS. form of dial, is strongly marked. The reverted (n) is well 
recognised when final. My information, independent of books, is 
derived from Rev. C. E. Seaman, the vicar of Northwood (2 s.Cowes), 
for the n. of the island, and Mr. Titmouse, schoolmaster of Shor- 
well (5 sw. Newport), for the s. The latter says that initial (z) is 
not frequent, but occurs in (zamut) somewhat, and there is a 
tendency that way in many other words, and also that the tendency 
is generally to use initial (v) for /, as (vanloq, vog) furlong, fog. 
Mr. T. says that thr- does take the sound of dr- in a very pronounced 
manner, and points to dresher for thresher, but Mr. Seaman does not 
admit this, but introduces an auxiliary vowel, as (th'ru) through. 
The transposition of (n) has not been noticed. / be, we>m going, 
don't us, Pve a walked, I do know, are general. Mr. T. (a native of 
Hu.) had been previously a schoolmaster for six years in n.Sm., 
and the Wi. speech struck him as bearing a very strong general 
resemblance to n.Sm. speech. Having some difficulty in inter- 
preting some of Mr. Seaman's spellings, I confine myself to giving 
those words which Mr. Titmouse has re-spelled. 

SHOBWELL (:shoK'l), 5 sw.Newport, Wi. 

cwl. furnished by Mr. Titmouse, 14 years schoolmaster, pal. conjecturally by 
AJE. The diphthong (a>') may be (a't), but is not (ai). The MS. character 
is very evident from this list. 


A- 3 biek. 4 trek. 5 miek. 7 siuk. 8 hee. 12 SAA! [part. (sAAltq) 
perhaps (L)]. 14 drAAl. 19 thd. 20 limn. 21 rnirnn. 24 shitjm. 31 liet. 
A: 41 thEqk. A'- 70 tuu, 74 ty x [written tue, and Mr. Seaman said that 
it approached Dv. (y^, possibly (ta'u)]. 86 whats. A': 102 aast [asked]. 
108 doo. 115 whornn. 118 bden. M- 138 v^dhtJB. M: 155 dha'tj. 
158 aateR. 166 mi^d [the common word, but apparently confused with made}. 
172 graas. 179 wot. 181 paath. M'- 182 see. 183 teetj. 190 kee. 
196 ween. M': 224 ween. 

E- 232 briik. 236 feewn. 252 ktt'l. E: 265 stra>t. 272 eta. 
284 dra'sh. EA: 323 fa'zrt. 342 jiBKm. 343 waRm. EA'- 349 ["i 
more like v"]. EA': 359 n^bsR. EO- 386 too. EO: 393 bwo-nt. 
399 brao'it. 407 faRd'n. EO'- 411 drii. 420 [f as v]. 421 
EO': 425 lao'it. 426 fao'tt. 

[ 1539 ] 

108 THE MID SOUTHERN. [D 5, V iii, iv. 

I- 449 git. I: 458 nao'it. 459 rao'it. 462 sao'it. 484 [(dink) used]. 
488 JEt. I': 505 [my wife (mso'i raisis, mao'i o01jd)nmi)]. 506 enen. 
0- 521 fuel. 524 waR'ld. 0': 597 sat. 
U- 606 dooR [Mr. Seaman (dAABR)]. 
Y: 700 was. 701 fast. 


A. 737 miret. E. 750 ba'g. 0. 767 nao'iz. 772 bonefao'iR. 773 


A" 810 fn?s. 811 pirns. 824 tj'njR. 851 naant. 852 eepvun. 853 
baRgen. 854 baR'l. 866 pooR. E" 890 blest [pi. (biestiz)J. 891 fiest. 
I-. and^f-- 899 nees. 904 vso'ilet. 910 djao'ist. 0-- 923 mao'ist. 926 
spao'il. 930 lao'in. 942 batreR. 944 [I allows it will rain = I think, admit, 
etc.]. 947 bao'il. !! 965 ao'il. 968 ao'tstim. 

YAH. iv. SE. AND Ss. FOEM. 

The n. of Sr. will be treated tinder D 8. The s. of Sr. and w.Ss. 
vary but slightly from the Ha. var. iii. of D 5, but the dialect is 
manifestly dying out. The initial (z, v) have vanished. The (&i) 
for AEG, EG, scarcely appear, having become (ee', ee, ee), as 
frequently even in D 4. The A- fractures remain generally. 
The F remains (a 7 *) or nearly so, but as we go eastward becomes 
more confounded with (A'/, o'). This last diphthong has been 
constantly given me from other districts, when subsequent viva 
voce information has shewn it to be (a'z, az) or even (a*). Here 
Eev. T. Burning-ham, then Rector of Charlwood (6 ssw.Reigate), 
wrote aw-i, and hence I give his words with (A.'*'). In e.Ss. and in 
Ke. most informants give oi, but I have found (a') in n.Ke. At 
the same time (a'*') so often simulates (o'$') that an unaccustomed 
ear would unhesitatingly give the latter. Mr. Burningham finds 
s Sr. and n.Ss. more mincing than the s.Ss. He says: "It is 
difficult to give a notion of the close, mincing, squeezed-in pro- 
nunciation of the s.Sr. and n.Ss. : ' Jiaaow much a paaound is that 
raaound of beef?' as also to give the burr of the r's." The aa is 
explained by hay, and the italicised words are closely (heu, peund, 
reund) common in London and n.Ke. "A Sr. man would say 
'rebbit,' a s.Ss. man 'rahbut,' e.g. 'eve a' -got a rahbut in ees 
pawkut' (ii;v 'Bgot 13 rab^t in iiz pAAket). I speak of the pronun- 
ciation of 50 years ago. It still prevails among the old, but is 
polished off a good deal among the rising generation by ' educa- 
tion.' " My information from w.Ss. is very meagre, but there 
can be no doubt that it continues Ha. speech with a still further 
falling off of the dialect in the direction of Ke. The separation 
between e. and w.Ss. depends on the use of (d) for (dh) in certain 
words. This is unknown even at Bolney (12 nnw. Lewes) in w.Ss., 
but has been heard from old people at Cuckfield (3 ne. Bolney). The 
commencement of the line at the mouth of the Adur is due to the 
late Mark Antony Lower. In these districts / be remains, but 

[ 1540 ] 

D 5, Y iv.] THE MID SOUTHERN. 109 

I are is found in Ke. The cwl. on which I rely are those obtained 
viva voce from students at Whitelands, and these I annex, in- 
cluding some other words. 


Pal. by AJE. from diet, of Miss Jane Sayers, native of Ockley (8 sw.Reigate), 
where she had lived all her life ; Miss M. A. Forth, not a native, but who 
had been always resident at Ockley and had spoken Sr. talk when a child ; 
and Miss Alice Slyfield, native of Reading, who had lived 7 years at Stoke 
(1 n.Guildford), all in Nov. 1877 students at Whitelands. The reverted (R) 
of Miss Sayers was perfect. The C, G, W were pal. by AJE. from indications. 

C Charlwood (:tpred) (6 ssw.Reigate) from Rev. T. Burningham. 

G words from Dr. Grece's dt. for Weald of Sr. Since Dr. G. marked numerous 

words in his wl. as having the vowels in rs., I have given some of them in ro. 

and in Italics. 

W Wisborough, Ss. (8 sw.Horsham) from Rev. W. A. Bartlett. 


A- 3 bake [no (ee 1 ]} vanish]. 5 make [no (ee 1 ]} vanish]. 12 saa [no euphonic 
(R)]. 13 C naa. 17 laa [no euphonic (R)] and C. 20 leeem. 21 neetmi and G. 
23 seemn. 24 shee^m and C. 33 raadhim, rmlheR. 36 C thaa. 37 klaa. 
A: 41 C thEqk. 43 a ! n [h always omitted], W hAAnd, G haand. 51 man. 
64 WAAnt. 

A:orO: 58 from. 60 long. 61 raioq. 64 wrong. 

A'- 67 guu and C [(ugwee-n) a-going 0, not S]. 69 noon. 70 toon. 73 
so'ou. 74 two. 76 too'd. 77 C kRd. 79 oo'n. 85 C sooun. 86 watsandC. 
87 tlooz [(tl, dl) for initial cl- gl- general]. 92 no'ou. A': 101 oo'k. 104 
ro'oedandG. 106 broo'd, C bnaad. 107 loo'f. 108 do'ou, C doo. Ill ought. 
115 oo'm and C, S com. 122 nan. 123 W nAAthen. 124 stoo'n and C, 
stan [as a weight], 131 gooet. 

M- 140 ee'l. 141 nee'l. 142 snee'l. 147 bree'n. 152 water. 153 
sa l dimdee. JE: 155 thstj and W. 166 mee'd [(gsel) usual, quite London]. 
170 aRvist [no change of (v) into (w)]. 171 barley. 172 gRaas andC. 174 eesh. 

M'- 182 sea. 183 teach. 184 lead. 190 \ee. 193 clean. 194 Bni. 197 
cheese. 200 wiit. M': C eedhvR. 215 C taat. 218 ship and C. 219 C 
slip. 224 G weeuR. 226 C mootjst. 227 S w^t. 

E- 233 speak. 235 weave. 236 fever. 241 C rain. 246 i. queen. 250 
swiiuR. 251 meat, W nwt. 252 kid'l [common], C kit'l. 254 [C (liduR) old 
Sr.]. E: 261 say. 265 stra'it, G street. 272 Ehim. 278 [a term of de- 
preciation]. 280 leeb'n. 282 C strnnth. 284 thrash and W. 

E'- 296 C bliv. 299 green. E': 310 C hirel. 312 C ireR. 314 C 
hireRd. 315 fit. 316 nikst. 

EA- 319 gee'p. 320 kee^R. EA: 322 C laaf . 323 fa'wt and C and W. 
324 [tendency to (ait)]. 326 ood. 330 ood [same as 326]. 333 calf. 334 
7^/[noh]. 340 jiierd. 343 WAARM, C waaRm]. 346 gee't and G. 

EA'- 347 Ed. 348 ai. 349 few and C. EA': 355 deaf. 357 though. 
358 S niist [nighest, heard in use]. 360 C tirern. 361 C biren. 368 death and 
C. 371 straw, C stRaa. 

El- 373 they [no (d) for (dh) as in D 9]. El: 377 steak, C stiik. 378 

EO- 383 SEb'n. 386 too. 387 new. EO: 393 beyond, C biJE-nd. 
394 Gjendm. 397 soo'Rd, C sfiwjRd. 399 ObRait, SbRa'it. 405 aRth. 406 
earth. EO'- 412 she. 413 devil. 414 fly. 417 tpo. 420 fifettR. 

EO': 423 thigh. 424 roof. 425 lait. 426 fait. 433 C bmist. 435 you. 
436 S tRiu, tRoo, C tRiu. 437 C tuiuth. 

[ 1541 ] 

110 THE MID AND BORDER SOUTHERN. [D 5, Viv; D 6, 7, 8. 

EY- 438 dai [once said (dei)]. 

I- 440 wik, S wiik. 442 C A'ivi. 444 stail. 446 nain. 448 these. 
449 git. 450 Tuesday. I: 452 ai, a ! i, C A'* [often]. 457 C mA'it. 458 
nait, S na'it. 459 Rait, S Ra it [and so for I 7 ]. 465 sitj. 467 tjai'ld 
and C. 469 tjiluR, -mm. 472 SRiqk. 475 wind. 484 this. 487 jisteRd^. 
488 Jit. 

I'- 494 taim [C (A') for I']. I': dik [ditch]. 503 laif. 505 waif. 
507 wmen. 508 mail. 509 wail. 

0- 521 foal, C ioouL 522 open. 524 wafild. 0: 526 kAAf. 527 
bought. 528 thought. 529 brought. 530 wrought. 531 daughter, C daateu. 
532 coaf, C koonl. 533 dEl. 536 gold. 546 C fwwuiid. 549 uutmd. 550 
wand and C. 551 C staRm. 552 corn, C kaun. 553 horn, C haRn. 

0'- 555 shoe. 559 wotf^r. 562 moon. 564 swn. 566 adhim. 0': 569 
book. 570 took. 573 ^00^. 575 *fa0c?. 578 plE'w. 579 enough [never heard 
(ena'u)]. 580 tough. 586 do. 587 <fcw. 588 woow. 589 spoon. 592 SOOR. 
594 [shoes always said even for boots]. 596 rut, rat. 597 sat. 

U- 605 sow. 606 duuBR and G. 607 butter. U: 611 bullock. 613 
^rw&. 615 S tuu pan [two pounds]. 618 wwn. 619 fwn. 620 grwn. 625 
tongue. 629 sww. 631 thaazdee. 632 wj?. 633 cup. 634 through. 636 

U'- 640 kE'u [all U' like this]. 641 C IIE'U [and all U' like this]. 649 
thE'uztmd. 653 but. U': 656 rrnn. 662 us. 663 E'WS, C heews. 665 
mE'ws. 666 wzben [0 (gaqBR) commonly used]. 671 mE'uth. 

Y- 676 lai. Y: 689 build. 691 C mVind. 700 was and C. 701 fast. 
Y': 711 lais. 712 mais. 


A. 722 dRein. 737 WG meeut. E. 743 C skR<*?m. I. and Y. 758 
G gsel. 0. 761 luu'd, C lo'oed. 769 mo'oul. 790 gE'wn, C gE'wnd. 

U. 808 pat. 


A-. 809 able. 810 fee's. 811 plee's. 813 bacon. 840 chamber. 843 
hREnsh. 850 dsns. 852 apron. 854 C baRl. 861 tee'st. 

E-. 868 C djai. ! and Y-- 899 niece. 906 C VA'ipim. 

0-- 913 kuuBtj. 916 iq'n. 919 a'intment. 920 pa'int. 926 spa'il. 
929 kE'ukembBR. 930 C lE'in. 934 C bE'wnti. 938 C kaRneR. 940 koo't 
and C. 947 ba'il. 948 ba'wl. 

U 961 gRuul. 965 a'il. 968 a'isteR. 969 C sWirea. 971 flint. 

D 6, 7, 8 = BS. or border of S. as against M. and E., 
forming the Border Southern Group. 

Boundary. This cannot be determined with great accuracy, and 
will be given for each district separately. 

Area. Extreme n.GL, most of Wo., sw. Wa., most of Ox., extr. 
se.Be., n.Sr., and extr. nw.Ke. This was an area of continual 
conflict and mixture of the S., W., M., and E. populations. 

Character. A mutilated S, which is strongest in the w. and 
gradually fades towards the e. and s., becoming finally scarcely 
perceptible in D 8. 

[ 1542 ] 


D 6 = n.BS. = northern Border Southern. 

Boundary. Begin at Bewdley, Wo. (2 w-by-s.Kidderminster), 
and go along the reverted ur line 3 (see p. 17) through Wo., Wa., 
.and Np. to the b. of Np., which pursue as far as its sw. angle (6 
sw.Banbury), and then cut across the projection of Ox. and proceed 
w. to Moreton-in-Marsh, GL (17 ne. Cheltenham). Then continue 
direct w. to the s. of Tewkesbury, GL, and of Eldersfield, Wo., and 
n. of Staunton along the n. b. of D 4. Here turn n. and pass over 
Red Hill and the Malvern Hills and their n. continuation to the 
starting-point, Bewdley. Although this b. is laid down with much 
minuteness, it is often uncertain, and must be considered to be at 
least six miles broad. 

Area. The extreme n. of GL, most of Wo. and s. of Wa., the 
extreme n. of Ox. and sw. of JSp. 

Authorities. See the following places in the Alphabetical County List, where * 
means vv. per AJE., t per TH., || in so., in io. 

Gl. fAshchurch, fBuckland, fEbrington, fFairford, Kemerton, *fShe- 
ning-ton (locally in Ox.), fLong Marston, fTewkesbury. 

Np. tAshby St. Legers, fBadby, fByneld. 

Ox. fBanbury (part locally in Np.). 

Wa. Butler's Marston, fClaverdon, fKineton, fKnowle, fPillerton Priors 
t||Stratford-on-Avon, fTysoe. 

Wo. fAbberley, fBengeworth, fBewdley, fBirt's Morton, fDroitwich, fDnnley, 
fEldersfield, fEvesham, tGreat Malvern, f Great Witley, *Hanbury, Hartle- 
bury, f Kidderminster, f Malvern Wells, f Sale way, fStourport, Upton Snodbury, 

Character. This complicated district, containing the transition 
from S. to M., is naturally by no means well marked. Except at 
Eldersfield, the use of initial (z, v) for (s, f) seems lost; the (B) is 
inclined to approach (r) when initial, at least all my informants so 
hear it, and Mr. Hallarn generally writes (r) only, even when final ; 
and finds only traces of (B) in parts, which fail especially towards 
the e. / be remains, with her for she, and /, she, we, as emphatic 
forms of the object. It is convenient to distinguish four geo- 
graphical varieties, though the differences between them are small. 
These are Yar. i. s.Wo., Yar. ii. s.Wa., Yar. iii. Banbury, Yar. iv. 
sw.Np. The general character of all is A- (ee) as (nemn) name. 
A' = (00, wa) as (rood, warn, stwan), road, home, stone. ^E: = (ai, 
ei, ee)j as (dai, dei, dee), day. EG-=(ai, ei, ee), as (rain, rem, 
reen.}, rain. EA'=(iB, era, eY, ee), as (biimz, be^nz, gre/t, greet), 
beans, great. = (a) occ., as (drap, starm, kras), drop storm, cross. 
TJ=(a:, u ), as (kam, sw m), come, some. T3'=(d'u, a'w, BM\ as (B'U, 
na'w, dawn), how, now, down. The variations from these normal 
forms are so slight and probably individual that they cannot be 
formulated, but they must be collected from the following cwl. The 
whole district lies in the mixed sum, sdom or som region, and stidm 
prevails more and more as we approach the Midlands. 

Illustrations. A cwl. derived from numerous places for each 
variety, dt. for Worcester, Hanbury, Claverdon, and Shenington ; 
cs. for Banbury. 

[ 1543 ] 


VAR. i. Wo. FORM. 


dt. pal. by TH. from diet, of Mr. "W. Brown, native, about 42, who had gone to 
"Wolverhampton 9 years previously. 

1. di se/, tjaps, JB)SZ ca)m ra'V Bba'wt dhat b't'l WEnsh kamm 
frBm dhB skuul. 

2. am)z gu*m da'wn dhra rood dhaR thruu dhB rsd gje^'t on dhB 
left and soVd B dhB rood. 

3. luk dhaR ! SR)Z gAn straVt w p' tB dhB doBR B)dhB roq Q'US. 

4. waR aR)l vEr^ \dikli drop olt \_=hold~\ B dhat owld drw qk'n 
f r*'qk'ld :tom. 

5. ju aa\ noo)^m vEr* WE!. 

6. w<))nt dh^ did tjap sun tsl)^r not te)kam 'BgJE'n, pu-e th/q ! 

7. luk dhaR ! e)nt it truu ? 

Notes. enough shtiCT ^n?/ f , cAi& tjaild, fellow 

fsle, name neem., shrivelled up sriv'ld 

"Words omitted : yonder jond^r, girl w p, [with (srimps, sra'ud] shrimps, 
rl, so soo, now na'u, way wei, sure s 

(6 wsw.Redditch). 

dt. pal. by AJE. from diet, of Miss Turner, then a student at "Whitelands 
Training College. 

1. soo <d'i sa, me^ts, JB sii na'w dh^t <d'i bi ra'/'Bt -eba'wt 'dhat 
Kt'l gjaRl 'Bkamm fram dh^ skuul jand^. 

2. 3R)z -B gum da'wn dh-e roo^d dliaR thrum dh^ rEd gee^t on 
dh-e lEft a'nd saYd BV dhB wa*. 

3. shuBr Bna'w dhB tja / 'ld)z gAn strait ap te dhB du^r "BV dhB 
raq Q'US, 

4. waR SR)! la'ikb* fa'md dhat t*'ps* dEf fslBR BV dhB neBm B 

5. wi AA! nooz)im vEr* waLB. 

6. want dhi a'wld tja ] p san t<?<?tj BR not tB duu it BgEn, PUUBR 
tht q ! 

7. IwkB ! beeBnt it truuB. 

Principal variants in the dt. from Hartlebury (4 s- by -e. Kidderminster), sent 
by the Misses Haviland, daughters of the then Eector : 

1. so su, say saz, see siiz, girl WEnti, where weeur, chance to mEbi ap'n, 

school yonder skuuel jond^f. 2. there Thomas rtonres. 6. old 6ud, soon suuen. 

dheeer, through thru, gate gJEt, way won't ont, teach laauN, again nemu-er. 

weei. 3. enough Bnaf, iz bi, straight 7. is not, brent, true truu. 
streeit, door do'oer, wrong raq. 4. 

[ 1544 ] 


Made up from the following sources : 

A Abberley wn. by TH. (r-, -R), doubtful if one ( ), no (z-, v-, h-). 
B Bewdley wn. by TH. mostly from Mrs. Ashcroft, a centenarian, one (z-), ( ) 

frequent, occ. verbal pi. in en as (dw n-JB, wi tw k'n, wi)n) do you, we took, 

we have, with the He. form (t?dh Bdha'ut) of 'with without.' 
Bg Bengeworth, a suburb of Evesham, Wo., wn. by TH. 
Bu Buckland, Gl. (11 ene.Tewkesbury), wn. by TH. 
D Droitwich wn. by TH. 
E Eldersfield, Wo. (9 s. Great Malvern), wn. by TH. from Mrs. Knowles, aged 

79, native, (dhaU kiip'n) they keep, (kam wi a'i te plai) come with I to play, 

many (z-). 

Eb Ebrington, Gl. (18 ne. Cheltenham), wn. by TH. 
G Great Witley, wn. by TH. 

H Hanbury, vv. to AJE., the dt. is not included in this cwl. 
M Gt. Malvern and Malvern Hills wn. by TH. 
P from ' quaint words ' by ' APORSON,' that is a parson, in s.Wo. from Worcester 

on n. to Chacely on s. and Evesham on e. to Great Malvern on w., pal. as 

well as he could do it by AJE. 
S Saleway (7 sw.Redditch) wn. by TH., no (z-, v-), but (r-, -R), (BR)Z, wi)z) 

her is, we has, (jant) ain't. 
W Worcester wn. by TH., no (z-, v-). 

* # * For brevity, when several places are grouped, the medial length of vowels 
has not been distinguished from the short. 


A- 4 BSBu teek, H t&k, E tet?k. 5 H meek ai [make hay]. 20 AE l&nn, 
S lemn, BBu \eern. 21 ABSWBu neem, W n&md [as well as (n*n)], Eb niam. 
23 seem. P onreR [hammer], A ombi?R [compare inserted b in number, timber], 
S oim?R. - - P feeR [to fare, a fare]. 33 D raadheR. A: P krob [a 
crab]. 51 P niAn, BW niA'n. A: or 0: 60 SD Iw q. 64 D ru q. 

A'- 67 AD gwain, W gwein. 77 P laRD. 81 E leen. 92 AD now. 
A': 104 Bu rood. 115 PAWH warn, D worn, Bu oom, W om [also home, refined], 
- S tjloon [alone]. 117 AEM wan, W WAU. 118 P bwan. 120 D rerz tjguu 
[years ago]. 122 Bu na'n, H nan. 124 P stwan, AD stoon. 130 P bwat. 

M- 138 A fiadheR, B fizdhw, S fmlhtm, D fredhim. 141 B n^ilz. 147 
H brain. Wstanz [stairs]. 152 S weetw, D witta. M: 161 PAD dai, 
S laU, W dai, [in city] del, dee, Bu dee. - - P op'l [apple]. P koRt [cart]. 

M'- 182 W sii. 192 P meen.. M': 210 P klai [clay]. 211 AS grai, 
B grei. 213 H iidhuR. 218 PD ship. 223 Bu dhetjR, BDS dhi^R, Bu dh^R. 
224 B WE'R, S wit?R, BuW waR. 

E- 233 BW sp^k. 241 AB rain. 243 ABESH plai. P beeR [to bear], 
248 PmeeR. 252 A kJEt'l. E: 260 ABBu lai. 261 PABSDsai, Bu sa 1 !, 
AE zei, W sai. 262 B wai, W wei, D wai, [foundations] AA! gjin wa r i [all 
given way]. 263 ABESBu Bwai, M swei. 265 W strait. E': 315 PH fit. 

EA- 320 P keeR. EA: 324 BESHD ait [Mrs. A. said (i sai ait OT 
na'in)]. 326 BS 6d, EBu owld. 328 B kowd. 333 kAAf. 335 Bu aal, AA!. 
346 W gjeit [in the city] gjet [in the country]. EA'- 347 SD jad, BuW 
M, jM. EA': 350 B djE r d. 353 S brE'd. A kraim [cream]. 360 S 
tiim. 361 P beenz [beans]. 366 A greet. 

El- 372 B di. 373 ABS dhai, ED dha j i, Bu dha'i, D dhE'i, dhe. El: 
378 Bw^k. EO- 383 E ZEV'U. EO: 393 BuD jand^R. 395 Sjw q. - 
P boRm [barm]. EO'- 409 P \>eez [bees]. 411 AB thrii, E drii. H trii 
[tree]. EO': 426 B feit. 428 E zii, S sii. EY- 438 W dat, D da'i. 

I- 446 E na'in. - G jis [yes]. I: 452 A e'i, D a'i, W di. 458 W 
naif. 459 WD re'tt. 469 AV w?/ nt [won't], Bu ui [wilt]. spEl [to spill] 
A ran [run], S r n [H added "donkey boys say (rw n)"]. P set [to sit 

- E ziks. I'- 490 G ba't. 494 A ta'im. F: BW ta'idi [tidy] 
502 E va'iv. 506 W umra, H a'wljd)amn, [a woman, old woman]. 510 ^ 
rna'i. D la'in [line]. 

E.E. Pron. Part V. [ 1545 ] 99 



[D6,Vi, ii. 

0- _ S shw v'l. D drap [drop]. 0: 525, ii. af. 531 D 
- D krap [crop]. 551 BuD staiim. 552 Bu kR v n. BS A'S [horse]. GS 
marnin [morning]. 554 M Bkras [across]. P pwost [post] . 0'- 555 "W 
shce'u. 559 GW madlveR. 564 D sun, H san. 568 B br dhtm. 0': 573 
D ftu d. 575 H stad. 579 D imaf. 586 S d?* s dhii [dost thou]. 587 AH 
dan, S d n. 588 H nan. 589 H span. 594 H [has no (buuts) only (shuuz)]. 
595 PH fat. 596 H rat. 597 H sat. 

U- 601 ASB fVwl. 603 M Bkamm [a-coming], H kam ap [come up]. 
M thw ndr. 605 S su n, D sa'n, ABu son, BD son, D [between] son, sw n. 
606 WD doBR, Eb. dutm. 607 B better. IT: 612 S su m. 613 B dm qk. 
M M ndrd [hundred]. Bu Aqgri [hungry]. 632 BW w p, M ap ap. 
U'- 643 G na'w, D na"w. 650 E Mttt. U': 656 G rum. 658 ABESW 
da'wn, Bu da'un. 663 SW o's, D a's, a'wz'n [pi.]. 667 D a'wt. 

Y- D mw ti. 675 dua'i. 679 D tjantj. Y: 691 ES ma'ind. --P 
haRNet [hornet]. 


P wogin [wagging]. 0. 767 A naiz. 791 H bwo'i. U. B mw k 
[muck]. 803 M [between] cLp mp, dpmp. M kw t. 808 Bu put, D pwt. 


A- 811 Dpletjs. 820Pgai. PD pai [pay]. G fail [fail]. Bu 
taihjR. 830 Butrkin. 833 A paR. PS pl^z [please]. 847 D daindrer. 
851 W nant. 

E 867 P iee. B pm% [preach]. 878 P saelm. P pors'n, B paasen. 

! and^f-- 898 Bu na'is. 900 P pra. - P sperit [spirit]. 910 P 
dje'tst. B bif [beef]. P dp'int [joint]. 923 P me'fst. - B nw qk'l. 
930 P la'in. P kaRps [corps]. EG sart [sort]. 940 P kwat. 947 
A bw6il. 

U-- 970 M djest, D [between] djast, dp st. 

YAK. ii. S.WA. FOEM. 

CLAVEKDON, WA. (5 e.Warwick) dt. 

pal. by TH. from the dictation of S. Job, farm -labourer, b. 1824, native. 

1. d'i SE'I, ju tjaps, ju szi o'e)m ra'V na'w 'Bba'wt dhat Kt'l wEnsh 
kamm fr^m s' skuul 

2. ar)z Bgu'm da'wn 

rood [rdwd] dhi'^r thruu dh^ rEd gje^t 

on cuai3 Isft and sa^'d [inclining to (s<nd)] B dh^ rood. 

3. Iwjt j^ ! driT? tja'ld)z gAn strE^V w p v te dhi3 roq o'ws' 

4. WIBT ar)l praps fa'md dhat drw qk'n, dsf, thm ^n ag/d 
[haggard] fEru [krE^'ter] -BZ dh^ kAAl :tom. 

5. wi AA! noo zm vEr* WE'!. 

6. ww nt dhi3 owld tjap niE'k t?r noo bEter n^r gu dhf-er 
pimr thiq\ 

7. Iw k JB ! JEnt it tro?'u. 


This has a very neutral character. I 
find among the wn. from the same per- 
son (jandt?r) old, (jronder) new, etc., and as 
the latter appears in the dt., it is possible 
that Job was sometimes " speaking 

pretty." I find, also (n^em, t^eb'l), 
name, table, old, and (neim, teib'l) new. 
Compare following cwl. Job used 
(srimps, sra'ud) shrimps, shroud, (shr-) 
being a difficulty. 

[ 1546 ] 



B Butler's Marston (10 s.Warwick), pal. by AJE. from a nwl. sent by Rev. E. 
Miller, Vicar in 1877, helped out in parts by K. below. Mr. M. considers that 
the speech extends for 6 m. round. This would include Kineton. Stratford 
is only 7 or 8 m. off. As reverted (R) is heard both at Stratford and Banbury, 
I conclude it must exist here and have introduced it. As exceptional pron. 
only were marked, the other pron. in the original wl. must be taken as 
practically in rs. In this case (u ) would occur only in the words so marked. 
/ be is used. 

K wn. at Kineton (9 s-by-e. Warwick) in 1880 by TH. from a native of 58, who 
had, however, resided many years at Warwick as keeper of the gate at the 
entrance to the common. Only principal words are given. TH. had not 
noted the reverted (B), but as it was strong in Stratford, I have introduced it. 
I am used. The pron. seems to have been tainted by Warwick. Also from 
Mrs. Pheasey, lived there 50 years from childhood. 

P Pillerton Priors (8 se. Stratford) wn. by TH., in 1886 from a native b. 1819. 

S wn. at Stratford-on-Avon in 1880 by TH. from an errand boy, native, and GL 
Phipps, a labourer, 20, native, only absent If years. But both had so marked 
a town pron. that I give very few words. The errand boy had not even 
reverted (R), but the labourer and the other people in the town had it 
strongly. The labourer used we am. The (u ) was frequent. 

T Tysoe (11 se.Stratford) wn. by TH. in 1886, from natives b. 1802 and 1809. 
/ be used. 


A- 3 BP bt-ek. 4 BP t&k, K teek, S teik. 5 BP m&k, T meek. 6 B m^d. 
7 B s<h?k. 10 B haa. 12 B saa. 13 B naa. 14 B draa. 17 B laa. 18 T khtk. 
19 B t&l. 20 BKPT Imn, S leim. 21 BP n&m, K neem, n&rni nfom. K 
aniBR [hammer] . 23 BPs^mn. 24 Bsheem, T sheem. 25 B m^en. spiiR 
[to spare]. 31 B Lbt. 35 T AA!. 36 B thaa. A: 39 B k^m. 40 B kuum 
[? confused with combe a hill]. 43 Band. 44 Bland. 51 B man. 57 Baas. 

A: or 0: 59 B lam. 60 T loq, lq. 61 T Bmwqkst. 64 P roq, T roq. A'- 67 
B gun, K Bgu-in. 75 B struuk. 76 BT tued. 77 B LZRD. 81 B Imi. 84 
B muBR. 85 B SUBR. 86 T uets. 90 T bloo. 92 S nott. 93 P snoo. 
A': lOlBuuk. 102 T Eks. 104 T rood. HOPnat. Ill B aat. 113 B 
haul, T wool. 115 B hfom, K 6m, T worn. 117 S WA'U, 1 wan. 118 T bwan. 
120 PT Bguu. 121 P gA'n. 122 T na'n. 123 B nw thiqk. 124 K stoon, PT 
stvvan. 135 B klath. 

M- 138 B f^dhtjR [or (&)], SK faadh^R. 144 B ugin. S prw ti 

JE: 158 P after. 161 KPd^. 165 B sid. 169 WEU. 172Bgraas. 174 
B aish \? (E'ish)]. M'- 182 B sei. 183 B teetj. 185 BT reed. 187 P 
litjv. 192 PT nmm. 193 T Ideen. 195 T niEm. 196 B wee'R. 200 K 
wiit, TP w^t. 202 B heei. M': 215 B taat (?). 216 B diel, T dj E 'l. 
218 T ship'. 223 B dhireR, KPT dhier. 224 B wireR. 226 B muust. 228 

T SWEt. 

E- 232 briik [but only very partially]. 233 BKPT sp^k. 237 femifc. 
241 K r E "in, T rain. 243 KT pW. 251 BT meet. 252 B ktt'l, T kJEt'l. 
253 B Et'l. E: 260 K lee. 261 KT see. 262 PT wee. 263 KT vwee. 

268 K Eldtst. 270 B i. bElas. 272 B Elum. 279 T WEnt. 286 B hare. 

E'- 294 T fiid. 299 KT griin. 300 PT kiip. 301 B jireR, P IOT. E': 
307 T ni. 312 B UBR. 314 K ierd, T a[Rd. 

EA: 321 ~Bsaa. 322 Tlaf. 324 T Vit, s'tt. 326 F old. 345 T da'r. 
346 B gent gent. EA'- 347 B led, K ed. EA': 350 B died. 360 ] 
tiim. 361 K bmiz, P bi^n. 363 T [between] tjap tjop, KP tpsp. 370 B 
laa. El: 378 vreek. 

EO- 383 T. SEv'm. 315 B braMh. 386 BT joo. EO: 388 T milk. 
393 B bija-nd. 394 SP janduR. 395 PT j/ q. 397 B SUBRD. 402 BP 
KIRN, T k L Rn, K la'KN. EO'- 411 KT thrii, T thru. K trii. 420 B 

[ 1547 ] 

116 THE BORDER SOUTHERN. [D 6, V ii, iii. 

foojBR. 421 B faRti. EO': 423 T tha'ii. 425 B Idit. 426 B fait. 432 
fooBRth. 433 T brEst. 434 B bM. 438 K da^ [marked as lying between 
(a 1 , )]. 

I- 443 S fra'idi. 446 T na'in. I: 452 K a't, P a't, T 9'*. 458 B na'it, 
K [the (a) marked as lying between (a, a)], P na'it', T [between] na'it, na'it. 
469 B wl. 480 Tthiq 1 . - KS rw n. I'- 490 B bat. 492 K sa'id. 494 
K taw, T ta'im. 496 K a'turn. 498 B rait. I': 502 B fa'iv. 503 T la'if . 
505 T wa'if. 506 KT unnm. - - T ee [hay]. 

0: 526 Bkaaf. 527 B baat. 528 B thaat. 529 B braat. 531 B daateR, 
KP dAAteR. 547 B buuRD. 551 B staRm. 552 B kaRN. 553 B haRN. 
maRnin [morning]. 554 P ekras. 0'- 559 S modhuR, K madlrar. 562 T 
muun. 564 KP sun. 568 S b dhBR. 0': 569 T bwk. 579 B mdu, T 
imw f, [plural] ena'w. 581 B saat. 586 P du. 587 KP don [marked as 
lying between (6, a ( ), another time merely (da'n)], S d^ n. 588 TKP nuun. 
589 T spuun. 595 B fat. 597 B sat. 

TJ- 601 K fa'wl. 603 B kw m, KP kam, PS kam. 604 K 8w mtjr. 
S thw ndeR [thunder]. 605 K son [as in 587] sw n, TPS su n. 606 B dooim. 
TJ: 610 T ul. 612 SP sw m. 632 BKT w p. 633 BK kw p. 635 wath. 
636BfaRd*?R. 639 T dz* st. TJ'- 640 T kja'w, Pkja"w. 641 K e'w au, 
T a'w ha'w. 648 KT e'ww. 650 T uba'wt (a'). TJ': 658 KT da'wn. 659 
TSP ta'wn. 663 K a'ws, T [between] a'ws, ews. 666 T w zbBn. 

Y- 677 Tdra'i. 679 StjaRtj. Y: 689 B bild. 690Bka'ind. 691 BHK 
maind. 700 B was. 701 B fas. 705 B skat. 706 B wai. Y': 709 B 
fatR, STfa'tBB. 711 Bla'is. 712 B mais. 


A- 718 B treed. E. 743 B skritmi. 744 B m^z'lz. 751 B putmT. 
0. 761 B Ifod. 767 B nais. 778 B Bffi^RD. 


A-- 809 Bftsb'l. 810 B fees. 811 B pleBS. 813 B be'ek'n, T b^k'n. 
814 BmeBs'n. 824 B tjeeR. 829 B getm. 833 B peeR. Kpliiz [please]. 
835 BT ra?z'n. 836 BT s^z'n. 837 B leesh. 852 B <?epBRN. 860 T p^a'st. 
861 T te^st. 862 B setjf. 865 B foot. 

E- 867BTta?. 869Bvd. 888 T saRtin. 889 B sees. 890 B b^st. 
891 Bf^st. 894 Bdis^v. 895 B liseev. I-andY~ 898 B nais. 
910 B dja'ist. 

0" 916 T a'nren. 919 B a'tntment [the distinctions (a't a'i a'i) were not 
indicated with sufficient precision in 919, 920, 924, 925, 926, 947, but distinctions 
of a similar kind at least were intended, AJE.]. 920 pa'int. 924 B tja'is. 
925 B vais. 926 B spa'il. 938 B kaRnt?R. 947 B ba'il. 948 B ba'wl. 952 
U-. 965 Bail. 969 


cs. translated in 1875 by Thomas Beesley, Esq., J.P., F.C.S., native and 
resident, and pal. by AJE. from his indications and from TH.'s wn. The Iw. 
which Mr. Beesley sent me was made 40 years previously by his uncle, and he 
had purposely abstained from consulting it, so that this is altogether an independent 
testimony. Mr. B. considers the dialect to extend for about 6 miles round Ban- 
bury, and names the following villages as using the same speech: in Ox., Copredy, 
Wardington, Adderbury, Bloxham, Swalcliff, Tadmarton, Sibford, Shutford, 
Horley, and Hornton ; in Gl. (but locally in Ox.), Shenington ; in Np., Middle - 
ton Cheney and King's Button. Mr. B. does not mark the reverted (K), but 
from TIE.'s observations I have introduced it. Mr. B.'s letters shew that he 
used (a) for short TJ, but TH. heard nothing but (w ) at Banbury. 

0. waV :dpn aa)nt noo de'wts. 

1. WE!, nEbBR, jau im ii me boo'th laaf Et dim ii'B, muuz B ma'm, 
huu kii'Rz ? dhat)s needhvn ii'E ni3R dhee'E. 

[ 1548 ] 


2. fiuu [fiAAu] took da'*z, koz dhra bii laaft rat ; lias nooz, 
doo'nt)as ? wat shwd mirak)am ? tr'Ent VB* la'*kK, h*'s)*t ? 

3. ha'usrainE'vraR dhiiz bii dhra faks ra dhi3 kiras, soo djEst oold jraR 
bodhraR, frEnd, -en kiip kwa'Vrat t*'l a'* bi [a'fjv] dan. haaki ! 

4. a' bi santm shiuu'R, raz a'* ii'nD ran see sam ra dh00 fooks raz 
WEnt thruu dhi whal th*'q ba'* dhraRselvz -dhat a'V did shiuu'R 

5. dhrat dhra jaqest san hezsElf, ra grEt buaV B na'm, nood z 
fredhBKz vo's ^t wans, dhoo it wan soo kwireR ^n Bkwwktn-la't'k, 
en a'')d trast hii te sp<?^k dhB truuth ban* [b.En, n^en*] d^^, a, 
dhat z'i bwd. 

6. ^n dh^ oold bwmim "BRSE'lf ^1 tEl han' on)i "BZ laafs na'w, 
im tEl)i str^^t off, tuu, w^a'wt matj, bodbt3R ^'f ju on* haks)'BR 
want)sbi [want^R], dhat;s AA!. 

7. l^st wa'e'z ER tEld *'t, 'mii wEn d'i bakst BR, tuu BR tbrii 
ta'emz OOV^R sbi dd, ran *aR had)nt AAt te bi roq in s'tj ra pua'mt BZ 
db's'n [dhat-eefi], wot dra juu th/qk ? 

8. WE!, raz a'* WBR ras^-m '3R)D tEljjra, lia'w, weeR ran wen shi 
fwjnd dhra draqk'n birast shi kAAlz raR azbrand [man]. 

9. shi swee'RD raR sm *m w* raR oon aVz, lee-in stretjt rat fal 
lEqkth on dhra gra'wnd in iz gwd sand<9 kuurat, kloos baV dhra duurar 
ra dhra ha'ws, da'wn rat dhra kAARmm ra dhat ee'R leen. 

10. hii wer ra wa'mm rar SEZ, frar AA! dhra waRLD la'^'k ra s^k tja'ld 
raR ra b't'l gal [lii't'l wEntj] in ra frEt [in raR tantrsmz]. 

1 1 . ran -dhat ap'nd raz - aR an raR daa'traR n laa, kam thruu dhra 
bak jaRD from aqm a'wt dhra wEt klooraz, 

12. wa'l dhra kEt'l wraz ra bua'rlm fraR tee, WAQ fa'm braVt samraR 
aatraRnuun, ooni ra wk raguu*, kam nEkst thazd/. 

13. ran, djra noo? a'* nEvraR laRNT noo moo'R nraR dhs ra dhat b^znes 
ap tra trad^, raz shiuu'R)z ma'* nfram)z :djon :shEpraRD, ran z'i duu)nt 
wont tu nmlhraR, dhii'R na'w ! 

14. ran soo d'i bi raginrm [g^<?^n/n] wham tra sapraR. gwd na'^t, ran 
duunt bi sra kw?*'k tra kroo oo'vraR ra bod* ragE-n, WEn i tAAks ra dh*'s 
dhat raR t)adhraR. 

15. t)s ra week fuul raz pr^ts [tAAks] w*ja'u't r^<?z'n. ran dhat)s 
ma'* last waRd. gwd ba'*. 


6J w.Banbury, politically in GL, locally in Ox., pal. in 1881 by AJE. from 
diet of Miss Harris, native, then a student at Whitelands Training College, who 
knew of Wykes, the policeman, that furnished the Iw. to TH., mentioned on 
p. 118. Observe that here (w c ) was used for short U. 

1 . soo a 7 * sa3% bw t*'z, jra s<? ! na'w dhrat a'*' bi ra'*t raba'wt dha j t 1* t'l 
Rl ra-kw mm from dhra skuul ja ] ndraR. 

2. shii)z ra-gwm da'wn dhra rww'd dhaR thruu dhra rEd ge't on 
dhra Isft a j nd sa'*d ra dhra wa?'*. 

3. shuuR rana'w dhra tja'*ld)z gon strait w p tra dhra duu'R ra dhra 
roq a'ws. 

[ 1549 ] 



[D 6, V iii. 

4. wi'R shii)'l a ] p'n to fs'md dha't drw qk'n dsf fElt?R B dha nfom 

na*t to duu)t ^gEn, puu'R 

5. wi AA! noo )im VE WE!. 

6. ww )nt dh)3 ool tja'p sun laaRN 

7. Ink jii'R ! ee)nt it truu ? 


1. so, never (zoo), no 2 for s or v for 
y. mates not used. _T be more frequent 
than / am. right, not heard initial 
(rh, nil) . girl the regular word, though 
(wEnti) is used. The (R) usual. Wykes 
rejected girl and only admitted wench. 

2. she 1 8 agoing, her 's not used, it is 
quite foreign to the dial, we, you, 
they be, in general use. Miss H. never 
heard I are. hand, h always omitted, 
w used for wh. 

3. sure enow, they never use (Bnw f), 
does not know the distinction of mean- 
ing between enough and enow. 

4. shrivelled not used, they say 
(shm hz), so that (shr-) is used. 

5. know him, (en) is used, especially 
among the elder people. 

6. old chap, old without d, but in 
(o01;d)w men) old woman, the d is dis- 
joined from I and run on to the follow- 
ing vowel. 

From the following sources : 

B Banhury vocabulary by the late Mr. Beesley, uncle of the Mr. Beesley who 
wrote the cs. on p. 116. It is not quite certain that all the words belong to 
Banbury. There were many repetitions in the list, and sometimes the 
repeated words were not spelled in the same way the second time they occurred 
as they had been the first time. Of course the pron. assigned is greatly 
conjectural. From HB (below) I adopt (Q'I, Q'U, u , R). Words not in- 
serted are (eent, ent, jent, bient, eeren), aint, baint, e'er a one, (hiz'n, 
haRn, twaRDBnt), his, hers, it were not. 

HB Some of the wn. in Banbury by TH. in 1881 from natives. Some of these 
seem to be rather refined. 

S wn. by TH. in 1875 from "Wykes, a London policeman, but native of Shen- 
ington, confirmed by Miss Harris, a native, in 1881, p. 117. 

ES words from the dt. on p. 117, diet, to AJE. in 1881 by Miss Harris, 
native of Shenington. This village was admitted by Mr. T. Beesley, who 
wrote the cs. for Banbury given above, to be in the Banbury district. I do 
not give the words from the cs., considering his uncle's Iw. sufficient. 


A- -- S week [a wake or feast]. 21 HB nem, ES nrem. - - B hoimm 
[hammer]. - B ptb'l [pebble]. A: - B rom [ram]. 43 B hanstaf 
[handstaff or handle of a flail, (swiq'l) the other end], 45 B want. 51 S man. 
56 S wosh. A: or 0: 64 HB roq, ES roq. A'- 67 B guu [(gwmim 
gw^^n) going], HB gou -egu-in, S gwE'in. 74 S tce'u. 76 B tuud. 79 HB 
ozm. 81 S Men. 84 HB mwm. 86 S u^ts. A': 101 S oek' [Miss 
Harris (fok)]. 102 B aks Eks. 104 ES rww'd. -- B drav [a drove]. 110 
Bnat. Ill Sat 1 . 113 B whal. 115 B wham, S wa'm, o''imi [Miss Harris 
did not know the last form], - B wops [wasp]. 118 B bwan. 123 B 
nathiqk, HB nw thiqk. 124 B st^an, HB stoun, S stuim. B toft [loath]. 

JE- 138 BfiaadhTjR [spelled feah'ther], S fmlhuR. S JE'ktm [acre]. B 
ladhm- [ladder]. - B bladhra, [bladder]. 144 B BgE-n. 149 B blizi bla'iz [is 

Jslm), one of the S. infinitives in -y?J. 152 S wieteR. JE: - B stid* 
steady]. B stom [stem of a tree]. 158 S aLRteR. 161 HB dei. - B st^l 
handle]. - B haps [hasp]. 172 S graas. S dlaas [glass]. HBS kja'rt. 
sort]. - B rot [rat]. 2E'- 190 B \ee. 200 B weet, HB wit. - - B 
Eth [heath]. ^': 205 B thrid. - B sid [seed]. 218 BS ship. 223 
ES dhaa. 224 B wiiR [where], noo'BR [no-where]. B strit [street]. 

[ 1550 ] 


E- 233 S BSpE'ikin [a -speaking]. 243 HB plei. 246 S kwdin. B eA 
[eat]. 251 B meet, S mint, meet [Miss Harris says the last is more usual] 
253 B Bt'l. E: B fot fotj [fetch]. 261 HB set, S see, ES sse't. 262 ES 
wae'i. 263HBt?wei. 265 ES strae'it. fiLD [field]. 272 S uhrai [Wykes, 
(Elm) Miss Harris]. B hoop hoopt [help, helped]. 278 S wEntj. B ind, 
ind [end]. - B nist [nest]. E'- B iitj [to eke]. 299 HB griin. 
E': 306 B hEkth [this form is not found in other words, compare Havelock knicth, 
supra Part II. p. 477, see below p. 127, No. 306]. 312 ES riia. 314 B hinu>. 

EA: B tjAAf [chaff], tjaa-fin [chaffing]. B tjAAlz [jowls]. 323 B 
fe'wt. - B tpok [chalk]. 326 ES ool. 334 haapnt, haapsth [halfpenny, 
-worth], S aap'm. B vmfrrst [almost]. B AA!BS [always], S ha^RD 
[hard]. 346 B jeeet, ES ge't. EA'- 347 B hadlund [headland], jsd, BH ed. 
EA': 350 B djsdli [deadly, extremely]. 352 ES rEd. 355 ES dBf. S 
biem [beam]. - B krem [cream]. - B sem [seam]. 360 S tirnn. 361 
S b'nm. 363 B tpp tjap. - B jap, japt [heap, heaped]. 364 ES ti^p. 
S it?R [year]. - B eesb [east]. 366 B got. B eezi [easy]. B dioo, 
dtAA'tt [dew]. 370 B raa. 

El- 373 HB dhei. EO- 386 S sou. EO: 394 S jandeR. B haRD 
[herd]. 397 B swaRD. 402 BES laRN. 404 B staa' ['with a rough burring 
sound']. 406 B JEth. EO'- 411 HB thrii. 413 B div'l. EO': B 
liv [lief]. 425 HB la'it. 428 ES w 1 . 436 ES truu. EY- 438 HB da'i. 

I- 440 B wtk. Bhiis[yes]. B sine [sinew]. 447 S aR. B peez, 
S pE'iz [pease]. 450 B tjuuzdi. I: 452 HB a'i & A [unemphatic], ES a'i. 
B baRD, S baRD [bird], bi'diz [birdies]. 458 HB naif. 459 HB ra'tt, ES 
ra'rt. 465 B sttj. - B filer [thiller or shaft horse]. 469 B hl [will, 
' rhyming wooV\ hwt [wilt, 'rhyming with pwt'], S 1. 470 ES en [weak, old 
people = hine\. 477 ES fa'in. - HB m n [run]. - B bashap [bishop] 
B spet [spit]. I'- 492 HB sa'id, ES sa'id. - gii gin giz [give, gave or 
given, gives], gifteR [gift]. - - B briif [rife, a remnant of (iij" in N (rifr), con- 
fused with brief and so preserved?] - HB thaBtt. I': 502 HB fa'iv. 
506 B umvn. B hE'nrekm, HE'rikBRD [haymaking, hayrickyard]. 508 S 

0- - B sha'ttl [shovel]. -- B rat'n [rotten]. 0: 529 S brat 1 . 531 
S daaLRteR. 538 B h?^d. 543 B an. 549 B WURD. B hos [horse]. 554 
B kras, S kraas. - - B puustiz [posts]. - B moots [moths]. 0'- 555 
HB shce'u. 557 S te'u. - - Bfodh^R [fodder]. 559 S madliBR [not with (M O )]. 
560 ES skuul. - B guumz gumz [gums]. 564 S sun 1 , ES sun. 566 HB 
dhBR. - B bb'wz [blows = blossoms]. 0': 571 S gw d. B had [hood, 
peascods (bii dhe peez haded ?)]. - - B rad [rod]. 579 HB mw f, ES ena'u 
[not with/]. 587 HBS d^ n. 588 HB na'un, S nun. 595 B fat. 

U- 599 HB t}bM v. - B hwd [wood]. - B dra^th [drought]. 603 S 
kamm, ES kw min. 605 HBS su n. 606 HB do'wBR, ES duu'R. U: 612 
HB sw m. 619 B fand [?(fw nd)]. B anfeeR, ansaRtin [unfair, uncertain], 
anka-qg'ld inpo-sBb'l [untangled, impossible]. 626 HB w qgri [hungry]. 631 S 
thazde. 632 HBES M p. 634 ES thruu. 636 B faRd^R. B ra'wsti [rusty], 
U'- 640 B kja^, S kja'w. 641 B has'mjEVBR ha'/sBm;EVBR [however]. 643 
ES na'w. 650 HB Bba't, ES ba't. U': 658 S da'wn. 663 HBES oW, 
S a?^z'n [houses]. 666 S w zben. 

Y: 684 B baadi. 685 B radi. 689 Bbildin bwe'ildin. B shilf [shelf]. 
- B faz [furze]. 701 B fast. Y- B udramd [a-dreamt]. 707 HB 


A. 727Bdpm. B tiaa [a chare]. 737 Bmi^t. B a- 
S okBBD [awkward]. E. - B zad [letter zl. 751 B piiRT [as 
mut?R piiRtCT nAR ^r did) she looks perter=in better health, nor=than she 
did]. ' I and Y. 758 ES gaRL. 0. 772 B boonfa'm. - - B sa'wnd 
[swoon]. B moRt [mort = many]. 791 S bo'i. U. -Bdak[to 
duck]. - B padin [pudding]. ' - B tjuun [tune]. 804 ES drw qk n. 

[- 1551 ] 



[D 6, V iii, iv. 

805 B kaRDZ. B shEt shEteRz [shut, shutters], - ES \>u Q ti [butty, 


A- S ttobl [table]. 811 B pl&us, HB pleis. 813 S biuk'n. B 
thwd [flail]. 824 B tjiiR. - - B pleez [please]. - - B eezi. - B masteR 
[mister]. B koor [quarry, (as got dhB stwanz from :hoRNten kooR) we got the 
stones from Hornton quarry]. B maRvilz [marbles]. ES tlaas [class]. 
B slat, S slnrt [slate]. B saas [sauce]. 865 B IAA! 

E-. 867 BS tee, S iee lt - - B % [vetch]]. 878 B saleri. - B fEnimi 
[venom]. - B tjari [cherry]. 888 B saRtin. B saRV [serve]. - B 
mizBR. 892 B nEvi. 

I and Y-. B wedth [width]. 901 S fain [Wykes, (fa' in) Miss Harris]. 
910 B dp'is. 

0-- 916 B a'in-TBn a'inran. - B kwa'in [quoin = coin]. - B na'int 
[anoint, thrash]. - B dp' in [join]. 929 B kjVwkBmbuR. 930 B b'in. - 
B kja'wnt [to count]. B kja'wnti [county]. - - B :hoR'is [Horace, 'with a 
rough burring sound']. S t (rust [toast]. 940 HB koz^t. 947 B ba'il bwa'il, 
S boil. B ra'wt[rutof a wheel]. 956 B kiveR. U-- - B djuuti 
[duty]. B trivunt [truant]. B tjuulep [tulip]. B pilpit [pulpit]. 
970 B djEst. 


From the following sources : 
A Ashby St. Legers (3 n.Daventry). 
Ba. Badby (2 ssw.Daventry) including Daventry and "Woodford (6 ssw.D.). Ex. 

(shent, edhat'n, wot)s i sei?) shan't, of that kind, what does he say ? (ai dw n 

dhat kwd'it roq) I [have] done that quite wrong, (just to se ^mEn ^n nau 

it) s aa-niEn) used to say a-men and now its ah-men. 
By. Byfield (7 sw.D.). Ex. (in mi sEv'mti tm) in my 72nd year, (a ( bi)j? bi)ju 

in priti gud. Elth ?) how are you ? are you in pretty good health ? 
T. Towcester (11 sse.D.) including Helmedon (7 sw.T.), Syersham (6 ssw.T.). 

A man of 60 says when he was a boy, say 1830, A was called (ee). 
W. Watford (4 nne.Da.) and Weedon ^4 se.D.). A man of 60 who attended 

school at Whilton (3 sse. "Watford) was taught to call A, E (aa, ee). One 

person examined at Watford had (R L) strong. 
All from wn. by TH. from natives in 1881 and 1886. The variants were probably 

due to individual habits, and did not extend over districts. 


A- 3 W beikt, A beek bE'ik [new], bafojs [bakehouse old], By bii?k. 4 A 
tck,Byt&k. 5 A m^k, Ba m^k. 6 By m&d. 18 W kjeik, By kjek. 20 
Ba leBm. 21 T neim [villages about Towcester say (n^em)] ABa n^L^m neim 
[new]. 23 A seim sefem, By eSvm. 31 By lei?t. A: 39 Ba ka'm. 56 A 
WAsh. A : or : 60 A Iwq. 64 TBaBy roq, W m q. 

A'- 67 TWBy gu-in gowin, ABa gou, By gwein. 69 Ba nou. 74 T te'u, 
W tiu. 76 ABaBy tutjd. 81 A IB" in Imi. 82 W ww ns. 84 W mu^R. 
86 A outs outs [new] By wts. 92 W now, A noo. 95 By throo. A': 104 
A rood rowd [new] rued, By rood. W [between] leidi la'idi [lady]. 115 AT 
bum, TABaBy 6m, Ba bum [new], By com. 117 T wa'n, A won. 120 By 
tjguu. 121 T gA'n. 123 T [between] nothiqk nw thiqk, W nw thiqk. 124 A 
ston 1 , BaBy stuen, By stwan. 125 W ownli. 

M- 138 TWBaBy faadher. - By ladher [ladder]. 142 By saeel. By 
seet [a seat]. 152 By wAAter. M: 158 W a[Rte[R, A Arter, Ba ater. 161 TW 
dei, W da'i, A dE'i dii [the last evidently an importation from Le.], Ba d<?i, By 
dee. 172 Ba gras'. JE'- 190 W kii. 197 ABa tjiiz. 200 TW wiit 
[villagers], weit, ABa wiet, By weet. M'\ 216 A dii, By dE'l. 218 Ba 
ship. 223 A dhiCT dheer, Ba dhmr dhi^LR, By dhier. 224 By wier. 

E- 233 T spt'ik [villages about (speik)], WABy sp^k. 241 W ra'in, A rE'in, Ba 

[ 1552 ] 


r<?n, By reen. 243 W plE M i plei. 250 W SWEE'-OT. 251 Ba mat. E: 260 
W leivrz [layers]. 261 A SE", BaBy see. 262 TW wei, W wa 1 *, A WE% Ba 
Vfe, By w#7. 263 W i3wei, Ba aw^. 278 W WEntj [an offensive term]. 280 
A lEv'm. E'- 299 TBy grun, W griin. 300 ABa kiip. 302 By mfit. 
E': 305 By a'. 312 T rer, By LOT. 314 W imid, TW and, By it?rd. 

EA: 324 T a*it, ABa E'it. 326 T oud oul, BaByW bulA. 334 W af . 
335 W AA!. 346 Ba gjeet. EA'- 347 T rid, WBy ed. EA': 350 W 
dE'd. 353 By brrid. 360 ABy tiBm. 361 BaBy bitm, Ba been. 363 ABa 
tjEp. 366 TA grett, By greet grat. El- 373 W dhei dh*. 

EO- 383 T SEv'n, ABaBy SEv'm. EO: 395 ByWA jw q. 396 Ba wark. 
402 W hmn, By larn. EO'- 411 T thrii, Ba thrti. Batrt'i [tree]. 420 
T foe, By ffar. EO': 425 A [between] la'tt 16tt, By la'it. 431 TBa MOT. 
437 TBy tra'uth. EY- 438 T da'i, A ddi, By da'i da'*. EY: 439 
"W trw s)nn [trust) me]. 

I- 440 W wfik. 444 A [between] sta'il sto'tl. 446 T na'in na'tn. I: 452 
TBa at, By 9'*. 458 TBy na'tt, W nait, A [between], natt noit, Ba [between] 
na'tt n*t. 459 A [between] ra'tt r6tt, By ra'it. 466 By tja't'ld. 469 Ba wil 
w^ l [will]. - - W n [run]. W daat. I'- [long * Ba (a'i, at), 
Daventry (a')]. 492 A [between] sa'id sa'td, Ba sid. 494 TBy ta'tm, A 
[between] tA'im ta'tm, Ba [between] tdim ta"tm. I': 500 TByla'ik. 502 W 
[between] faa'tv ffitv, By fa'tv. 503 T la'tf . 

0: 527 Ba bat. 529 ABaBy brA't, By bro'wt. 531 ABaBy dAAter. 532 W 
koul, A kaa'wl. 543 By a'n. ' - By A'S [horse]. 0'- 555 W shun, By 
shwu. 558 By luk. 559 By madlnjr. 560 A skuul. 562 A muun, BaBy 
muun. 566 A ?,< dhOT. 567 By tw dher. 568 ABaBy b dher. 0': 569 
BaBy buk. 571 A gwd. 586 T dce'u, W downt [don't]. 587 W don, Ba 
dw n. 588 A nzmn, Ba nuun. 594 W ba'ut [occ.]. 

U- 603 TBy kam. 604 A auj&vr. 605 T sa'n [and between that and (son)] 
WABy sw n, Ba [between] sonz sanz. 606 T doB[r duB[r, ByAV duOT. U: 612 
WBy sw m. - - T [between] tomb'l, tamb'l [tumble]. 615 W pa'wnd. 622 Ba 
w ndOT. 629 BysM n. 632Byw p. 633 T kop\ WA kw p, Ba kop kujp. 636 
ABy fardBr. 639 A dt^ st. U'- 640 Ba kja'z. 641 A a'w. 643 TByW 
na"w. 648 T Q'WBIT, W [between], E'wBrn, a'uBrn. 650 TAVBy ^ba'wt. U': 
658 TWBy da'wn, W da^n, A da l wn, Ba daun. 659 Ba ta'n. 661 A 
[between] sha'wBr shaker. 663 TABy a'ws, Ba &.MZBZ a'u-ztz, By a'uz'n. 666 
Ba w zbon. 667 T d'ut, A [between] a'ut Bw't. 668 By pra'ud. 671 W mEE'e<th. 

Y- 677 By dra't. 679 Ba tjartj. 682 T lit'l. Y- 707 T thar-tii-n. 
Y': 712 Byma'is. 


A. 726 ABa tAAk. I. OHO" Y. 758 T gjal, gJBitl [refined], 0. 761 

By lm?d. 767 T noiz. 791 By boi. U. 803 A dj mp. 


A .. - W leibOT [labour, (r) rather strong]. 811 A plemz pleuz. 822 Ba 
m. - Ba PB" p^d. - W plein [plain]. A master [master, Mr.]. 
848 W tjetndj. 849 T ju)m)^ stremdpr [you are a stranger]. 851 TW ant. 
- W pled [plate]. E-- 867 W tii te, A tii, By tee. 885 By VET*. Ba 
paas'n [parson]. I- and ^ - 898 W nx'ts, By na'ts. 901 T fain fa'tn. 
0- - bif [beef]. T qk'l [uncle]. 933 A frw nt. 940 By kuut. 947 
By boil. U- 963 By kwa'it. 970 A djw s. 

D. 7 = m.BS. = mid Border Southern. 

Boundary. Start from Little Bollwright, Ox. (19 nw. Oxford). 
Proceed to the e. to the sw. corner of Np. and continue by the b. of 
Np. to the b. of Ox., go se., s. and n. by the b. of Ox. round to 
Iffley (2 s.Ox.). Then pass through Be. to the w. by Kennington, 

[ 1553 ] 




"Wootton, and Appleton to the b. of Ox. Proceed n. by the b. of 
D 5 through Ox., e. of Witney, w. of Handborough, e. of Chaiibury 
and Chipping Norton, to the starting-point. 

At the s. part of the peninsula of Ox. the dialect, however, has 
become so worn out that no b. can be assigned with certainty, as 
the district abuts on the metropolitan area. 

Area. Most of Ox., with a small portion of Be., included in a 
bay of Ox. This is entirely a region of transition from S. to E. 
The dial, forms are uncertain, and become practically lost at the 
s. part. 

Authorities. See the Alphabetic County List under the following places, where 
* means w. per AJE., t per TH., |j in so., in io. 

Ox. fBlackthorn, ||fEnsham, fFreeland, Fringford, Greys, HfHandborough, 
||Holton, flslip, f Oxford, Sonning, fStonesfield, fTiddington. 

Character. In contradistinction to D 6, D 7 is very homogeneous. 
Mrs. Parker (author of the Ox. Glossary and Supplement published 
by the English Dialect Society) divides D 7 into three principal 
parts. The first two might be called the Handborough (9 nnw 
Oxford) and the Blackthorn (10 ne. Oxford) varieties, forming mid 
Ox., bounded on the n. by the n. b. of D 7, and on the s. approxi- 
matively by a line through Sandford (3 s-by-e. Oxford) and Thame 
(12 e. Oxford). With these two varieties she was personally well 
acquainted, being a native of Handborough. Mrs. Parker was 
kind enough to acquire the use of Glossic, in order to furnish me 
with information, and to allow TH. to "interview" her, by which 
means I was able to substantiate the accuracy of her phonetic 
spelling. TH. also visited Freeland (close to Handborough), and 
obtained supplementary illustration and confirmation. I give below 
the cs. and dt. and a number of sentences, evidently recollections 
of actual speeches heard by Mrs. Parker (sent me in MS., but 
subsequently printed in Glossic in the Supplement to Mrs. Parker's 
Ox. Glossary), several of which I add in pal. Mrs. P. considers 
that the chief differences between these varieties are that Hand- 
borough says (bJEnt, gween, wats, bjfinz, kwat, dw?Ent) ben't, 
going, oats, beans, coat, don't, and Blackthorn has (blent, gu-n, 
u^ts, biimz, kui3t, du^nt). Now these are only constantly inter- 
changeable forms of the same original for each pair. Ws. ate, 
oats, becomes regularly (uats), whence by putting the stress on the 
first element only ((rets), and by putting it on the second only 
(uats, uats, wats). And so for the other forms. Hence the 
difference is a trifling variety, often found, while there is a sub- 
stantial identity in this respect, and a real identity in others. The 
third or s.Ox. variety embraces all the s. peninsula of Ox. between 
Be. and Bu., with which Mrs. P. was personally unacquainted, but 
she procured me a dt. from Miss Slade, a schoolmistress at Sonning 
(4 sw.Henley-on-Thames), and I obtained another from Eev. 1ST. 
Pinder, rector of Greys (or Eotherfield Grays, 2 w.Henley-on- 
Thames), neither of which I can fully interpret, but they are 
sufficient to shew that the speech is a mere variety, differing from 
the other two mainly in indicating a still further degradation, but 

[ 1554 ] 


still having an unmistakable S. character. Thus Miss Slade says 
that in 1880 there might be commonly heard (^ra'ut) without, 
(pw?st puBstoz) post-s, (neer'n) ne'er a one, (aatBrnuun) afternoon, 
(aasts) asks, (dhiiz iir , dhat eer ) these here, that there, (hant) 
have not, (ship) sheep, (hos) horse, etc., of which the first three, 
at least, are distinctive S. forms, though the rest are familiar in 
the metropolitan area. And in Miss Slade's dt. she uses (me'ets, 
skuuld, jend^r, rd^d, giist, street, mw?st, nemn, want) mates, school, 
yonder, road, gate, straight, most, name, won't, which have the 
same character. Whether (R) is used I could not determine, but 
probably it has faded to (r ) or been entirely vocalised. The 
analysis of (a'i, a'u) could also not be determined. Mr. Finder 
wrote oy, but as writers of dialect constantly use oy for (at, ai, 
a 7 /), I am very sceptical when I see it. Even in Aylesbury, Bu. 
(see E div. D 15), where Mr. Fowler said (A*), I heard it once only 
from labourers. The whole e. side of Ox. and w. side of Bu. seem 
inextricably mixed up, and I have marked the e. b. of Ox. as the 
b. of the district and group, simply from inability to determine 
where any change takes place. Mr. Fowler, of Aylesbury, con- 
sidered the part of Ox. from Deddington (15 n. Oxford) to just e. of 
Charlton (7 nne. Oxford) to belong to Bu., but the pron. to change 
at Thame (12 e. Oxford), and the s. peninsula of Ox. to be quite 
different. It was only an impression, and he was unable to assign 
his reasons, but this would give Mrs. Parker's Blackthorn variety 
to Bu. and too much of a S. character to the s. peninsula. It is, 
however, provoking not to be able to draw a boundary with certainty 
between dialects so distinct in their development as the S. and E. 
But it certainly lies between a line on the w. connecting Blackthorn 
(10 ne.Oxford), Islip (4 n-by-e. Oxford), Holton (5 e.Oxford), and 
Henley-on-Thames, and a line on the e. connecting Buckingham, 
Aylesbury, and High Wy combe. Prom Aylesbury to Islip, the 
greatest width, is 18m. Eev. C. Coker, of Fringford (16 nne. 
Oxford), says that he does not consider the difference between Ox. 
and Bu. at that place sufficient to constitute a different dialect, 
and certainly the whole e. side of Ox. is much affected by Bu. 
There is no natural barrier between Ox. and Bu., and the Chiltem 
Hills pass through both. 

Illustrations. A cs. and a dt., both from Mrs. Parker, a series of 
observed sentences written by the same, bringing out the southern 
character of the dialect very conspicuously, and finally a cwl. 
furnished by the same lady, with some words noted by TH. 


pal. by AJE. from Mrs. Parker's systematic spelling, assisted by notes, and 
TH.'s observations. 

0. wa'?' :djon aant got noo da^ts. 

1. WE!, maa-ste, dhii un ii med bwath t?n i laaf at dhis-Jtm nmuz 
ma'rn, uu kii'RZ ? dha)s na'rdheR jam nBR dhaaR. 

[ 1555 ] 


2. tjEnt nmri mEn BZ daVz kAAz- dhB bi laaft Bt, as nooz, 
dwant )as, mim ? waat shuud m<9^k)t?m ? tjEnt vaR la'fk'lt, fl'z it ? 

3. awEVBR dhs iz Q'U t)waz, soo djEst oold dhii noVz, wt ? 
maa'staR, Bn bi kwa'rBt, t*'l aV B dan. Ks'Bn* 

4. z'i bii saaR'ten shuu'R aV jaRD)Bm see sam B dhee fooks uz 
WEnt thRuu Evri mos'al an)t ffiam dha fast dliBRSE'lvz dhat)i)dd, 
seef. Buaf 

5. dhBt dhB Kt'Blest bwA'e ezsE'lf, 'B grst bwAV 'B na'm, nood z 
faa'dht?Rz V^A'S dlreREk'h', dhoo t)waz s^ k^ii'R ^n sk^iik'm, 'Bii 
o'/)d tRast *ii te sp^^k dhB tRuuth [tRuuf] Eni d<?<9, aa, 'dhat)i *wd, 

6. Bn dhra ool;d)wm*t?n BRSE'lf wl tsl Eni)im)i BZ laafs na'w, -Bn 
tel)! sTR^t AAf tuu, mBn, Bdha'wt' matj ta-duu, tf juu)l anb' aks)^R, 
djEst want)^R ? 

7. Eni)a'w BR tEld -a'* it wEn aV akst)^R, OO-V^R 'Bn 

BR -dd, ^n -3R d'd)'nt AAt tu be Roq Bn s*tj B pwa'mt BZ 
waat dast 'dhii theqk ? 

8. WE!, BZ Q f i WBZ B see-in, '3R)d tEl)dhB, waaR, WEn, Bn Q'U BR 
fa'wnd dhat dhaaR DRaqk*'n biEst BZ BR kalz 8R az'bBn. 

9. BR swaa'RD BR sin i wi BR oon a'^z, lee'in spRaald AA! Bloq", in 
iz gud san'd* kwat, kloos ba 7 ?' dhB a'ws duu'R, da'wn Bt dhB kAAR- 
nBR B dhat leen jan'dBR. 

10. ii WBZ B wn*Bkm BW00' BR SEZ, mBn, fBr AA! dhB waRLD la'^k 
a sfc'k tja'ld [tja'i'ld], BR B h'ti gjal an dha gRz-'l. 

11. Bn -dhat ap-'nd az -aR Bn BR rtomz wa^'f kam thruu dha bak 
jaaRd from aq-m a'wt dhB wEt klooz tB dra', an B wosh'n dee, 

12. wa'/l dhB kje't'l WBZ B \)W9 f ilin fBR tee, wan fa'm sani sam-BR 
aaRtaRnwn anli B w/k Bgoo kam nakst thaRzd [thaz*d]. 

13. an, dwst noo ? aV nEVBR jaRD nB muu'R nBR dhi's B dhat 
bVnes ap tB tBd&9, mBn, BZ shuu'R BZ maV n^mz :djon :shEp-BRD, 
Bn o'i dwant waant tu niidhBR, SB dhaaR ! 

14. Bn na'w o'i bi B gweem. oom tB aa maV sap*BR. gwd na^'t, Bn 
dwant bi in stj B gjal'Bpm aRi tB kok-kroo OOVBR B bodi BgJE'n, 
niBn, wEn B tAAks B dhis dhat BR t)adh'BR. 

15. t)iz B week fuul BZ pr^ts Bdha'wt ree'z'n. an dha)s maV 
laast waRD. gwd dee. 


1. master, all the r j s not preceding nor did he observe any assimilating 
a vowel are marked (R), for, although effect on t, d, , I, producing (T, D, 
in Mrs. Parker's own pron. to TH. N, L). Like JGG. in D 4 at Chippen- 
they were nearly evanescent, their ex- ham, Mrs. Parker considered the (R) 
istence was clear close to Handborough. to be rather retracted than reverted, 
Before a vowel TH. observed no cases, and always untrilled, that is, (r /0 ). 

pal. by AJE. from Mrs. Parker's Glossic. 

1 . soo aV see, meets, JB siz n&'u BZ aV bi raVt Bba'wt* dhat dhaaR 
lit'l gjal akanrm fram dhB skuual jan'daR. 

2. 3R-z Bgw<9<rn da'wn dhB rood dhaaR thruu dhB rEd gJEt B dhB 
left aand saVd B dhB rood. 

[ 1556 ] 


3. seef. i3naf dire tjaVld)z gAAn street ap te dh^ duutm ra dire soq 

4. waR 3R)L vaaR La'^'k fa'md dhat dhii'R draqk'n dsf sr&vuld 
fEl'13 B dhi3 neem 13 :tonras. 

5. as AA! nooz 'ii VE[JEW WE!. 

6. want dh)0ol tjap swn laaRN OR nat te dw)t i3gJEn-, puu'R thiq. 

7. jalak ! JEnt ii truu ? 


1. mate is often Joy (bwA'i) in the stock, in this district. there, (dhaaR, 

singular, in calling out to several men dhaR, dhii'R) are all used, and similarly 

they would say (a't see jiuu), and not (waaR, waR, wii'R), for where. the 

the usual (JOG). as and not that would child's gone, '* means is, has is not 

be used here, compare the mummers used in the dialect ; they say, "is gone, 

rhyme, where (it) means yet, and (jfid) is come, had went or a- went," this a- 

head (B) is used after had, but not after have. 

(hii'R kEmz a'i, z aant bin it, 3. ^ a^ ^ is frequently used. 

here come I that hasn't been yet, . 4 -^veiled initial (shr-) unknown 

.. ,.,,,.,> in this part of the country. fellow, 

wi ma ^ gust JEd vn Itt- 1 wit.) with a g \ (R) as (fEkR) J ^-^ a 

with my great head and my little wit. Httle further 8 n ^ h an( i north-east. 

be becomes in the negative (bjEnt, 5. we for us, and us for we, is the 

bEnt). that, th is sometimes omitted rule. he, (^n) for him and i when un- 

from this word, as (at i wl)=that he emphatic. learn, but (t^'tjBB,) with 

will. little (lirt'l) =very small. girl, distinct (R). 

" my wench" is a usual term of affec- 6. thing, (sanvet, nath-'n, nath-in, 

tion, "wench," by itself would be nath'iqk), etc., are all heard for some - 

offensive. yonder, yon is not used. thing and nothing. 

2. her, the (R) is always felt ; (shii) 7. (lak, al-ak, dhal-ak, lak) as ex- 

is used only as an emphatic objective clamations for look there ! but look is 

case. agoing, (agwmrin) is also com- otherwise (Iwk). is not, (Ent) is more 

mon, especially at Combe and Wood- refined than (jEnt) . 


All these phrases and many others were printed in Glossic in the Supplement to 
Mrs. Parker's Ox. Glossary after having been supplied to me in MS. 

1. (o'i nEv^r wEnt nuui3R imaYst^n), I never went no-where near 


2. (twad andi3R 13 are), toad under a harrow. 

3. (dh's biiR)z dasht, 'Bn aR AA!OS dim dash t), this beer's dashed 

[mixed with some of an inferior quality], and she always do 
dash it. 

4. (duu)i kam m, im aa T? d/sh 'B tee wi as), do ye come in, and 

have a dish of tea with us. 

5. (AA! Q'I wAAnts iz faaR duuz, im faaR duuz Q f i)l aa, fim AA! -dhii 

er Enibodi E!S), all I want is fair dealings, and fair dealings 
I'll have, for all thee or anybody else. 

6. (rpwdni :wdi3RD 13 bm im fsl ^pon :t^^pot rad^mz, ^n i \Q'UZ ^n 

diklaaRz i)l pal)isn), Puddingy Woodward has been and 
fallen upon Teapot Adams, and he vows and declares he'll 
pull him. 

7. (*f dhii bigfnst Eni 13 dha'f Egrev^tm w^z jaR, d'i}\ kat dh^ 

"e tuu m dh m*d'l), if thou beginnest any of thy 

[ 1557 ] 


aggravating ways here, I'll cut thee clean a-two in the 

8. (bitwiin juu mi d'i mi dhi3 gjet pwast), between you and I and 

the gate-post, i.e. between ourselves. 

9. (inn SEZ ram bii), they say they are. 

10. (bant)'n ap aster d'i, l)i), push him up after I, will ye? 

11. (na dhEn, kJAA, wojs bin i? duum an, na'w ?), now then, caw 

[fool], what-hast been a doing of, now ? 

12. A. (dhii IEU aV dhaY na'if), thee lend I thy knife. 

B. (dhii utfnt gijn a'i bak), thee wilt-not give-it I back. 

A. (d'i)l JEt fa'ii?E -an flaas mi AA! din? WORLD ^t wan ma'ufM, 
if. d'i dwant), I'll eat fire and flare and all the world at one 
mouthful, if I don't [a usual boyish asseveration]. 

13. (dhis gra'undjz in s^tj bad auT, tjEnt noo juus ta soo weet UBE 

wats, Q f i thqks d'i shul plant teetvuz), this ground [field] is 
in such bad heart [condition], 'taint [it isn't] no use to sow 
wheat nor oats, I thinks I shall plant potatoes. 

14. (if. dhi gust in ool :dan'l :kJEzz kloos, ^'z bwl B! OENtj dh^), if 

thee goest in old Daniel Kearsey's close [field], his bull will 
horn [toss] thee. 

15. (dant stan dhaas B lo*pt?tn 'eba'wt, sEt "Bba'ut dumn sam'et), 

don't stand there a-lounging about, set about doing some- 

16. (mam im dad), mother and father. 

17. maid-servant (if Q'i bJEnt nath'n bat -e saiiv^nt, di bJEnt 

p^a'ez'n), if I ben't nothing but a servant, I ben't poison 
[==an object of disgust], boy (dhat dhu best, pwaYz'n tuu), 
that thou be'st, poison too. 

18. question, is she a respectable woman ? that is, one above the 

position of a labourer ; answer (noo, S8E, aR Ent 13 r^spE'kteb'l 
mnm, n^ mii^E n-BE eV bii, aE azb^n wasks et dh^ s^^m 
faEm -BZ ma'rn duu), no, sir, she aint [iz'nt] a respectable 
woman, no more than I be, her husband works at the same 
farm as mine do [does]. 

19. (d'i bi s/k un s^td w dhB VCE* *soYt B wask, <sfi aa)nt SEt 

da'wn dh^'s J^E blEst'd dee, ran maY bak ^^ks djEst f*t te kam 
T?)tuu), I be sick and sated with the very sight of work, I 
have-not sat down this here blessed day, and my back aches 
just fit [ready] to come a-two. 

20. (dhs tee IEVZ s^tj 13 naast* smak m dhi rno'wth, t)z wast?E n'BR 

siin^), this tea leaves such a nasty smack [taste] in the 
mouth, 'tis worser nor [worse than] senna. 

21. (dh^s nA^'z iz ima'f te stam antbodt, 8')d i3z Kv bi 'Bt :bEdl^m 

-BZ bii jaE), this noise is enough to stun [s. inf. in -y, but 
used with an object, which is unusual] anybody, I'd as lief 
be at Bedlam as be here. 

22. (maV ool / )d)wm'Bn)z vgween ta'rm ap -faR)mB), my old woman 's 

a-going tying up -for me [that is, making sheaves of corn 
into stacks, observe emphasis in /or, if it had been 'for me,' 
he would have said (feE 'a 7 *')]. 

[ 1558 ] 


23. (a'* nooz i wEnt raVt, ftm B SEZ te aV, 13 SEZ, "aV 13 sm t3 ^ndj'l," 

-en a' SEZ, " aav)i faadhim ?" im B SEZ, "iis," ran a'i SEZ, " d/d 
-B speek tu)i, faadhBR?" VIL B SEZ, "iis, mo'* wEntj, 13 d/d, 
ra SEZ, icLfoo, a'* wAAnts)i"), I know lie went right [that is, 
to heaven], for he says to me, he says, "I have seen an 
angel," and I says, "have ye, father?" and he says, 
"yes," and I says, "did he speak to ye, father?" and he 
says, "yes, my wench [term of endearment], he did, he 
says, Joe, I want ye." 

24. (a'* AAlras tlu'qks raz rat in bwks -en pr^tjm, ^n AA! se'tj th/qz 

13 z dhEm bi mEnt fr?R dhee vz kjaant waRk), I always think 
as [that] writing books and preaching, and all such things 
as them [those], be meant for they as [those that] can't 
work [do manual labour]. 

25. (lEn)s aa)t), let-us have-it. 


7 nn\v. Oxford, with Freeland, a hamlet of Ensham just s. of Handborough, Islip 
and Blackthorn. "Words generally from Mrs. Parker, but occasionally from 

B Blackthorn, wn. by TH. from Mrs. P. 

F Freeland, near Handborough, wn. by TH. from Mrs. "Waine, Mrs. P.'s 


G General in Ox., from Mrs. P.'s lists. 

H Handborough, from Mrs. Parker's lists, but by no means exhaustive. 
Ha Handborough as noted from Mrs. P.'s pron. by TH. ; almost every such 

word is here noted. 

Ho Holton, from Mrs. P.'s glossic. 
I Islip, from Mrs. P.'s glossic. 


A- 12 HHa saa. 13 HHa naa. 14 H draad [drawed = drawn, drew]. 

9 'Em [game]. 24 HHa shsm. F pib'l [pebble]. H staau [to stare]. 30 
kjsR, khm. 33 G rEdhea. 36 H thaa. A: rom [ram]. 43 Ho ond. 
- Ha kja-s'nt [canst-not]. 54 Ha wAAnt, F WAnt. A: or 0: 64 Ha roq. 
A'- 67 Ho egu-in, Ha Bgwein, 'Bgwein, F vgwe-in. 72 Ha uu. 76 H twad. 
84 G muuBR. 85 G SUUBR. 86 Ho uets, HF wats, HaF wats. 89 H bwath, 
bath. 92 Ha noo. A': 113 H wal, al, Ha u\\ 115 I bum, FHa com. 
123 G nath'n. 124 F stwon, Ho stan. 135 H klaath. 

M- 138 HI faadhm. 148 Ha faj_R. Ha st^RZ [stairs]. M: 161 
Ha I dE"i FHa dee. 179 F wot. JE'- G ra?tj. 183 G ted}. 187 
G lee\. 190 Ho \ee. 192 HHa mJEn. 200 Ha WE n it, F weet. 202 Ho jeet. 
M': - Ha mja ( d [mead, G]. - - F sid [seed]. 214 naaRn an urn [ne'er a one 
of them]. 223 Ha dha L R, H dhaR, dhan, dhiBR, I dhiBR. 224 H waR, waR, 
WIBR, Ha wa-LR. 

E- 233 Ha speck. HaG tan, ticad, taRd [to tear, feared, tore]. 248 Ha 
maj_R. --H IJEzin, Ha lEzin [leasing = gleaning]. 252 Ha kjit'l. E: 261 
Ha see, s6i. 262 Ha WE"*. 265 Ha stred. 278 F wEn L tsh [perhaps (wBN|T*h)]. 
280 G lEb'n. E'- 299 Ha grim. E': 306 HaG Ekth (seep. 119, No. 
306). 312 F IBR. 314 HaF jai Rd. 315 HaF fit'. 

EA- H shEk, shak [shake, shook], 319 Ha gjaap. 320 Ha MOT. 

[ 1559 ] 



[D 7, 8. 

EA': 350 H dJEd. 352 F rad'. 354 G shef. 356 H Isf, IEVZ. - Ha 

S 1 'EHI [beam]. - krEm [cream]. 361 HHaF bJEnz, Ho bienz. 363 
aG tjEp. ' - G eesk [east]. 366 Ha grat. - H JEzi [easy]. 371 HHa 

El: 378 HaFG w^k. 382 Ha dhaRn [theirs, G]. 

EO- 383 G sEb'n. 384 G Eb'n. 386 Ha soo. EO: 394 HaF jand^LR. 
397 II SUURD. 402 HalaLRn. 403 H faR. EO'- - G fl? [a flea]. 419 
Ha JUTJIRU [yours]. EO': Ha ilt [held]. 427 Ho burnt [be-not]. 434 
HHa bjEt. 437 Ha triif, truth. 

EY- 438 Ha da'i, da'i [marked as lying between them, the first is analogical]. 

I- 440 Ha wik\ 447 Ha aR, aj_Rn [hers]. - FG peez [pease]. I: 
452 Ho di, a'i. Ha lEd [lid]. 466 Ha tja'i'ld. 468 G tiildBRN. 469 H 
tfk [wilt], F want. 482 I E)nt [is -not], H bjsnt, Ha btE'nt [probably (biEnt) 
is near enough], Ha JEnt, tjEnt. 483 Ha iz'n [stated to be general]. 487 H 
isttmdi. 488 II it. tit [teat]. - sens [since]. I'- H gii, gin 
[give, given, gave]. HF rip [to reap]. 

0- -- G rat' n [rotten]. 0: 531 Ha daateLR. 537 Hma'wldi [mouldy]. 
538 H d. 543 HaF an. 546 H faR, faR. 547 G buuRD. 549 H UUBRD. 
554 G kras. 0'- gum [gum of tooth], 564Has?m'. 568 F bradhtm. 
0': Ha brak [brook]. 586 Ho duimt [don't], Ha dwant, F dwant [modern 
(dant)], F d^* s'nt, Ha dwst [dost]. 587 Ha da'n. 590 H fluaR. 592 Ha 
swai R. 595 Ha fut ( , F fat'. tilth, tith [tooth, teeth]. 

U- --wd[wood]. 603 HaF kam. 606 FG dui?R, Ha duB L R. U: 
wlf [wolf]. G sha'wld^R [shoulder]. anduRD [hundred]. 623 H fan. 

wndt3R [wonder]. 626 Ha i?)oqgri [a hungry]. 632 I ap\ - H muBRN 
[mourn]. H thasti. U'- 643 HaF naX F ne^. 648 Ha O'UB L RU [ours]. 
U': 667 F a'wt. 

Y- 675 Ha u)dra'i [a-dry, thirsty]. 676 B lig, ligsteR [a lie, a liar]. Y: 

shilf [shelf]. 694FwaRk. 700 G was. Y- 706 Ha wa M i. 


A. kraal [crawl]. H okeRD, akwid, Ha ak^RD [awkward, stubborn]. 
E. Ha Eft [to heft, weigh in the hand, from to heave]. I. and Y. 756 I 
srimps. 757 H tiini. 758 Ha gjal [sometimes (gjarl), Oxford (garl). 0. 
778 G ufmiRD. 791 Ha bwAA'i, F bwdi. II. I djamp. 



A-- 810 Iftus. 
835 Ha r^z 

814 Ha m<?SBnter. G heel [flail]. 824 Ha tirer [G]. 

ra?z'n. H niasteR [master, Mr.]. Ho gjalt?p [gallop]. - Ha 
pant'ni 1 [pantry]. Ha A'rtj [arch]. G kjaaR [to carry]. G kjaa'fmrtt?R 
[carpenter, Ha (kjaar-)]. 857 Ha kJEs. slat [roofing slate]. 

E-- 867 F tee. Ha dhurEkli. 872 H tjEf. -- saRV, saR [to serve]. 
GHa mizh^R [measure]. 891 H biEst, B fiEst. 896 HHo bm^R. 

- Ha biif [beef]. 916 G a'in^n. - pa'iz'n, pwa'iz'n [poison]. 
925 Ha vwVis [mod. VA n is]. G ku^RD [cord]. Ha puBRk [pork]. 
940 Ho kuBt, Ha kwot, F kwat. fuuRm [form]. 947 Ha bwa'Hin. 955 
Ha dd'uts. Ho mav [move]. 956 G 

U-- tribrat [truant]. 969 

D 8 = s.BS = southern Border Southern. 

Boundaries. From Reading, Be., follow the n. b. of D 5 through 
Sr. to Knockholt, Ke., and continue ne. to Gravesend, Ke., then turn 
w. and follow the s. bank of the Thames back to Reading. 

Area. Extreme se.Be. ; ne.Sr., and extreme nw.Ke., embracing 
London s. of the Thames and the adjacent suburbs. 

[ 1560 ] 


the Alphabetical County List under the following- places 
er AJE., f per TH., in io. 

where * means vv. per 

Be. Hurley, Hurst, * Wargrave, f Windsor. 
Sr. Chertsey, Chobham, Croydon, Leatherhead. 
Ke. No information from this very small portion of nw.Ke. 

Characters. The composite nature of a very shifting population in 
this district renders the growth of any dialect proper impossible. 
Still in country places and even in the suburbs of London there is 
a slight tang of S. speech even if it is limited to using / le. At the 
extreme w. of the district adjoining Ox. the S. character is almost 
strong. Thus at Wargrave, Be. (5 ne. Reading), T. E. Maitland, 
Esq., gave me vv. the words : 

A- 4tesk. 21 neem. A': 104 rot?d. M- 142 sns'il. 143te'il. M: 161 
dee. E: 261 see. fiild [field]. EA: 346 geet. EG: 394 mduR [this is an E 
form, for (janden)]. I: 466 tja'ild. I'492s3c'id. Y-682liit'l. A. 737 meet. 
A: komplffi'int. R is regularly (R). H generally omitted, and also wrongly 
inserted. Usages, I be, her be, I am, I are, we knows-un. 

From Hurley (9 ne Reading), and hence close to the former place, 
Mrs. Godfrey, marking the only ' peculiarities ' (that is, differences 
from rs.) she could think of, in a dt. gave me : 

A- 21 nesm. EA. 346 gitjt. EO: 394 Endim [the (R) is assumed from the 
neighbouring Wargrave, and the (E) confirms the former (i}~\. 0: 541 wsnt. 
U- 603 T?kamm. A. 737 meets. I. 758 gsel. Usages, I be, housen, Michael- 
mast, feller. 

Erom Hurst (4 e. Reading) the late Rev. R. A. Cameron wrote 
(1879) withadt. : 

" It is difficult to characterise the genuine dialect of the district. The popula- 
tion is very mixed and migratory. The chief characteristics as they struck me 
when coming 40 or 50 years ago from Suffolk were (besides the perverse confusions 
about the aspirates, particularly strong hereabouts), the addition of a short vowel 
sound to all long terminal syllables, as (me^ts, mistook, kompleent) [these words 
were interpreted from Wargrave with (ec), but the last may have been (se'i). It 
was difficult to see whether Mr. Cameron wrote de or ai. TH. heard (trein, e^t) 
train, eight, from unknoAvn speakers at Windsor, but these were probably London 
importations] ; the dropping of the initial w as (ul, eraiim) wool, wonan, (B d'uld 
urmsn] an old woman ; a peculiar sound of the I, something like the French I 
mouillee as ' feulld, chiuld ' for field, child, but this cannot well be expressed by 
any combination of letters phonetically." Perhaps he meant merely (el) as (ffeld 
tja'zuld), but the sound may have been possibly been (EL). There is no sound of 
(1) in the modern French I mouillee, and hence I have given his own spelling. 
He wrote long I as oi, which Wargrave shews to be (a'i) . The following words 
are taken from the dt. : 

A- 21 neem. A: 43 send. A: or 0: 64 raeq [probably an error]. A': 104 
ro'T?d. JE- 144 Bgrn. E: 262 wei [written wdi, uncertain, might have been 
(wae't)]. 265 stmt. 266 wa>l [doubtful]. EA: 326 a'wld. 346 geet. I: 452 
a't. 459 ra'tt. 466 tjs'ild. 469 ul [possibly (el)]. I'- 492 sa'td. 0: 541 
oont. 0'- 560 skiul [?]. 564 sn. U- 603 Bkamin. 606 dut?R. Y- 682 HI 
['sometimes,' very doubtful indeed whether used by natives, (la'tl) is a N. form]. 
A. 737 meists. I. 758 ganl [the (R) is assumed from Wargrave, (md) written 
maid was said to be commoner] . The rest of the words in the dt. were said to be 
in rp. Usages, I says, I be, she's a goin, bain't, we knows-un, that'en. 

The above shews S. in a still moderately active form in Be., but 
it dies out very rapidly towards Sr., and in Sr. itself the borough 

E.E. Pron. Part V. [ 1561 ] 100 



[D 8, 9. 

of Southwark and the outlying suburbs seem to have pretty well 
destroyed all trace of dialect. The following is all the information 
I could find. 

Chobham (8 n-b- w. Guildford) . An incumbent of 50 years could only give E. 75 1 
(prer c t), the (r ) assumed, and the plural housen. Neither form is distinctive. 

Chertsey (11 nne. Guildford). The predecessor of the vicar, that gave me the 
information, had known the place 70 years, but knew "not one peculiarity in 

Leather head (12 ene. Guildford). Mr. Martel, in writing to Prince L.-L. 
Bonaparte, said : " It is hard to find distinct traces of provincialism of any sort, 
as the population is so continually changing," but he gave the usages I be, I 
knows, I saw-r-er, dra wring, sometimes in for ing in the participle, I see (not I 
seen) for I saw, and I were, but in no other person. Of these, / be is distinctly S., 
draw-r-ing, etc., is E. Altogether mixed. 

Croydon. Mr. W. Taylor Malleson, of Duppas Hill, tried hard to find pro- 
vincialisms in the Board Schools, but was not very successful. These are the 
most he could discover, and I have not been able to interpret all satisfactory. 

A'- 90 to 97, he writes with a-ow, which may bear different interpretations, as 
(eo, E'M, a'o), thus, 93 (sneo, SUE'W, sna'o), and I incline to the second. EA- 319 
gmp, 346 geeit [which are not S.]. E: 260 tai, 261 sai [which I think are not 
really S. forms, as they seem at first sight, but an exaggeration of the (1m, seei) 
that may be heard in ne. London], 285 kriis [a common Londonism]. E': 306 
ha'ith [this is not dialectal, it is a mistaken analogy, and is even heard from 
educated speakers]. EO': 436 triy, 437 triyth [these seem mistakes for (triu, 
triuth), which are not uncommon; the diphthong is East Anglian]. I: 472 
sranqk [this is an example of the non- pronunciation of (sh) before (r), and is not 
distinctive. It is also inconsistent with 654 shreoud~\. U- 601 sss'u, 602 fee'wl 
[these were written sd-ow, fa-owl, and were said to resemble (ae-a'w), an unknown 
combination, but as many dialect writers use aow to indicate what has been found 
to be (ae'w), I so interpret ; the sound is, however, not S., but nearest (ew) of Ke., 
or the E. diphthong. In the same way the long I is said to be (ae'i), a very 
common sound in London, but decidedly not S., unless occ. for the ai, ay words 
which are not contemplated. This (ae'i) is stated to be a favourite sound in 
Croydon, which is called (:kra3 ; id'n)]. Again, U': 654 shreoud, 658 deoun, 668 
preoud, look as if meant for (shria'wd, dia'un, priaud), 'the e very slight,' which 
looks like a well-known M. triphthong. 0. 769 mojil [this must be an accident, 
it is not known in any dialect]. 

The above only betray a very mixed set of speakers. But one observation is to 
a certain extent S., 608 agli, 697 bEri, 773 doqki, 785 pooltri, 934 ba'wnti, 935 
kantri, with a clear final (i) not (i) or (ij. It is, however, not a certain criterion. 
Usages, 'I be agoing' is S., but 'I am,' I are,' also heard, are not so. V and 
"W are said to be properly distinguished. 

On the whole, therefore, it must be right to characterise D 8 as 
a S. dialect almost entirely obliterated by town influences. It 
forms the s. part of the metropolitan area, or that lying s. of the 

D 9 = ES. = East Southern. 

The w. b. is the e. b. of D 5 and D 8 from the mouth 
of the Adur in Ss. to Gravesend in Ke. The other borders are the 
sea-coast round Ke. and e.Ss. 

Area. Almost the whole of Ke., with e.Ss. It was the supposed 
seat of the Jutes, but the modern speech is a decaying S. form, with 
the exception of a peculiarity of entirely modern growth, subsequent 
to A.D. 1340. 

[ 1562 ] 


Authorities. See the Alphabetical County List, under the following places, 
where * marks vv. per AJE., f per TH., || systematic spelling, in io. 

Ss. Ashburnham, fBattle, f Brighton, *Cuckfield, *Eastbourne, Etchingham, 
||Leasam, fLewes, Marklye, Possingworth, Selmeston, Weald of Sussex. 

Ke. *Charing, *Chatham, Denton, *Faversham, || Folkestone (fishermen), 
*Maidstone, Margate, Rolvenden, Shadshurst, *St. Nicholas *Sheerness 
*Strood, Stoke, Stourmouth, Wingham. 

Character. The general character is that of w.Ss. and Ha., that 
is that of D 5, only still further decayed. Initial (z, v) seem 
never to be used for (s, f). The JEG and EG words have passed 
pretty well into (ee, ee) and in some cases (ii). The (K) remains; 
I have heard it myself from Cuckfield and Eastbourne in Ss., at 
Tunbridge Wells and Maidstone in Ke., and have had it indis- 
putably recognised at Possingworth and Marklye (14 wnw. and 15 
n. Eastbourne), and in several places in Ke. But it has a tendency 
to degenerate into the ordinary English vocal r, a mere vowel (a, ) 
or a buzz (r ), the form that it retains in London. Rev. Mr. 
Parish (Sussex Glossary) does not notice or apparently acknowledge 
it at all, using ar simply as a symbol for (aa). But Miss Darby, 
of Marklye, graphically and accurately writes, "The roll of the R is 
most peculiar, and I never heard anything like it anywhere. It 
can only be sounded by beginning the sound with the tongue 
straight," that is, in its usual direct position for the preceding 
vowel, " and suddenly curling it round so that the underpart of the 
tongue touches the roof of the mouth," that is, for the consonant 

The peculiar character which separates D 9 sharply from the 
adjoining D 5 and D 8 is the pronunciation of the initial th as (d) 
in this, Mat, the, there, their, theirs, them, then, these, those, thej. 
To these words would probably have been added than, thou, thee, 
thj, Mine, Mough, thus, had they been used in the dialect, but they 
have not been heard ; than is always replaced by nor, thou etc. by you 
etc., though thus do not seem to be required at all. Rev. Mr. 
Parish (Glossary, p. 8) says "the th is invariably d" this is not 
the case for the initial th of any other words, so far as I can learn. 
In the middle of words we have d in farming and further, but that 
is common to other dialects. Miss Darby thought she knew it in 
other, either, neither, but was not able to verify her supposition 
when she tried. In Faversham, Ke., however, Mr. H. K.- 
Hugessen gives (imadBE,) another. Final th in with, smooth 
becomes d before a vowel, as (smuud it, w^d t) smooth it, with it, 
but not regularly, compare (i?drn, -Bdewt) within, without. Now 
here some might suppose we had the desired Jutish peculiarity, but 
alas! there is no trace of it in Dan Michel, who (see pp. 38-41) 
had plenty of initial (z, v), which have since his time entirely 
disappeared. In John Lewis's History and Antiquities as well 
Ecclesiastical as Civil of the Isle of Tenet [that is, Thanet, the ne. 
corner of Ke.], 2nd ed. 1736, he says (p. 35) that "the English 
spoken here is generally very good, only the natives in common 
with the other inhabitants of this part of Kent are used to 
pronounce the th as a d, the o as an a, as an for on [regular S.], 

[ 1563 ] 



[D 9, V i. 

the i as ee t as Deek for Dike [rather (ck'k) like (cb'tj)], and to say 
who instead of how and how instead of who [the latter not met 
with]. As for example, How is dat man dere? for, Who is that 
man there?" Yet in Thanet at the present day, as among the 
fishermen at Folkestone, I have not been able to discover a single 
instance of this use of d for initial th. But Sir F. Burton (of the 
National Gallery) informed me in July, 1887, that his housekeeper 
from the Isle of Thanet has an old uncle about 80, who always 
says " dat man dere," and knows other old people who do so. 
Hence Lewis is confirmed, and the disappearance is only recent. 
In Thanet the watering-places of Margate and Ramsgate might be 
credited with the restitution of th, but this hardly applies to the 
fishermen of Folkestone. 

Another peculiarity has also developed itself, but is disappearing 
under the influence of education. It is not, however, confined to 
e.Ss. and Ke., but extends along the e. of England from Ke. through 
Es. and Sf. to Nf. inclusive, which form what may be called the 
Land of Wee. This is the replacement of (v) by (w), but not 
conversely. Sam Weller, who spelled his name "with a we" and 
Cockneys are especially credited with the interchange. I have 
never yet heard (v) used for (w) in good faith, though I have 
much wanted to do so, but (w) for (v) I have known all my life in 
Ke. Eev. W. Parish acknowledges it in e.Ss., but Miss Darby does 
not. Now the late well-known traveller Dr. Beke declared that 
the Cockneys and the Trasteverini in Rome pronounced German 
w (bh) in place of both (v) and (w), and that the Cockneys, with 
whose habits he was well acquainted, did not know when they 
were saying one or other, because in fact they said something that 
was neither, but sounded like (w) when (v) was expected, and (v) 
when (w). Now I am perfectly familiar with (v bh w u), the 
last being the unstressed vowel diphthongizing with a following 
vowel. I can readily and easily distinguish in my own and other 
person's speech vie French, wie German, wee English, ui in Italian 
Gbttdo, oui French = (vii, bhii, wii, uii, ui). Yet I do not hear Dr. 
Beke's (bh) from those who use (w) for (v). Mr. H. C. Coote also 
affirmed that he knew coachmen (cocchieri} in Home to say (uEnto) 
for vento. That is possible, but requires investigation. I think, 
however, that they could not say (wEnto). The English (w) is 
a peculiar consonant which I do not find in the rest of Europe. 
The v and w habits of the fishermen of Folkestone will be especially 
referred to on p. 143. 

Although the dialect is tolerably uniform over the whole district, 
it will be convenient to separately consider Yar. i. e.Ss., Yar. ii, 
n.Ke., Yar. iii. e.Ke. including the Folkestone fishermen. 


Miss Darby, who lives in a very out-of-the-way place, Marklye, which used to 
be seven miles from a railway-station till 1880, says, " I feel quite sure in a few 
years all these old terms will be extinct. A railway has been opened for the last 
few months within four miles of us [at Heathfield], and already the change is 

[ 1564 ] 


very great. We have two old men who have worked on the farm in our family 
for many years, one for forty years. He is of an old superior family, but cannot 
read. He said yesterday [dated 15th Oct. 1885] that he was much put out at 
hearing people talk now, and he could not make out ' high words.' His wife, 
who is upwards of seventy and able to write, has much disgusted him by buying a 
dictionary to keep pace with the times. There are not a dozen people left in the 
parish who speak the real old dialect." Miss Darby's information is checked 
first by Rev. Mr. Parish, both of them having sent me versions of the dt., and 
secondly by the wl. vv. given me by two students at Whitelands, p. 134. 


M. by Miss Anna M. Darby, of Marklye (cmaBkla'i') (15 n.Eastbourne), pal. 

by AJE. from indications. 
S. by Rev. "W. D. Parish of Selmeston (:simstm) (6 ese. Lewes), pal. conjectually 

from io., for which no indications were furnished either in writing or in his 

glossary. Only those words which apparently differ from Miss Darby's 

are given. 

1. M. Marklye. soo bi see, me^ts, JE sii HE'U di3t)i3 bi 

mfets, jiu o'*)m [bi] 

M daet-eim liit'l gael ^ks-min from dset-eim skurcl E'ut 
S dcet h'd'l gaRl dB skuul [omit] 

2. M shii)z Bgirfcn ds'wn da&t-eBR ruisd de^r thrnu di3 rad gent on 
S sliii)bi gwm dra rdud 

M t)a:dliBR so Yd B)d^ ruisd. 
S de Lsft haand wee. 

3. M shmm ^no-f di3 tjo'/ld bi gAAn ro't i?gm dt? du^R )da RDq E^S. 
S shuBR)naf 'z- strait ap te)de 

4. M WI'L'R shi)'l ep te fo'm dset-e^R draqk dEth srevBld tjsep ^)d 
S wei?R tjaans fo'md daet draqk^n 

M ne^m 'B :tom. 
S niem : tomes. 

5. M wi A A! nooz em vaR we^l [waal]. 
S aal him WER wel. 

6. M wutmt dt? d^ld tjsep su^n laRn BR nevt?R te duu ut noo 
S want ool tjEp sun tiitj ht?R not *t 

M mo^r, 


7. M lwk)i de^r ! biBnt -et trim ? 
S [omit] it 

Notes to M. 

1. /, at the beginning of a sentence little, Miss D. was surprised at Mr. 

o'), and (B) in the middle.-^, used, P.'s (lid'l), which she never heard. 

r. P. prefers am ; he be also used.- Mr. P. says -double t is always pro 

[ 1565 1 





[D 9, V i. 

nounced as d, as liddle for little, etc." 
Miss D. inquires what becomes of bo^le, 
v?o.ttle, which are in constant use. 

2. she, her is used for she only im- 
mediately after a verb, as (did)im), she 
be gooin, or she's a gooin, optional. 
way, w never becomes v. 

3. enough, with o in cot. straight = 
(street), but (ro'it) is the word that 
would be used here. up, pr. (ap), but 
here agin = against, i.e. towards, would 
be used. house, the h is 'dropped 
slightly, never put in the wrong place.' 

4. deaf, Miss D. says, " As regards 
this word, I consider it a most peculiar 
thing that it should be called death, 
and it is a very common expression, 
' she is troubled with deathness," 1 " so 
also Mr. P.'s Glossary. Halliwell 
says it is a Suffolk pron. Thomas, a 
common name, but always abbreviated. 

5. Miss Darby wrote waal, which 
ought to mean (weel), but as Mr. 11. 
Kuatchbull-Hugessen at Faversham 
said (waal), may have been meant for 
the latter. 

Notes to S. 

1. mates, written meuts, similarly 
par. 4, name (nrem), written ne'dm. 
Misses Darby, Francis and Sayers 
have all (neem). 

2. road, written road, but Mr. P. 
may have meant (rued) . 

4. chance, as this is written chadnce, 
it ought to be (tjeens), which is un- 
likely, but I have no guide but Cuckfield 
851 (a^t), aunt. 


Those words in which only the ordinary spelling is given in Italics are supposed to 

be in rp. 

C Cuckfield, vv. from Miss Sayers, native, student at Whitelands. 
E Eastbourne, w. from Miss Francis, of London, 8 years at an Eastbourne 

school, student at Whitelands. 
FC Cuckfield, from Archdeacon Fearon, native. 
L Leasam, near Eye, from a numbered wl. by Miss B.C. Curtis. 
M Marklye, given by Miss Darby, in addition to her dt. 
P from Rev. "W. D. Parish's Dictionary of the Sussex Dialect, conjecturally pal. 

by AJE. with the help of C and E above. 


A- 3 CE beek. 4 CE teek. 5 CE meek. 6 CE meed. 7 CE seak. 9 FC 
biheev. 12 CE SAAR [even without a following vowel]. 17 CE IAAR [as 12]. 
18 [always called biscuit, even a large Christmas cake is called biscuit at E. and 
Brighton, not at C.]. 20 CE leem. 21 CE neem. 22 CE temn. 23 CE seem. 
24 CE sheem. 33 CE & FC reedheR. 36 CE tliAAR. A: 43 CE and, FC 
an. 44 FC Ian. 51 P maan. 56 L wash. A: or 0: 60 CE long. 61 C 
ernaq, E emoq. 

A'- 67 P egw^'n [a going], a't guuz [I go], CE & FC guu. 70 CE toe. 
72 CE uu. 73 CE so. 76 CE & FC toed. 79 CE o'en. 80 FC liohjdt. 82 
P wanst. 83 FC moen. 84 CE moe)n)dat [more than that]. 86 P wats. 87 
CE tlooz. 90 CE bloc. 91 CE ma'w. 93 CE sna'w. A': 101 CE o'ek. 
102 L ast [inf. and past tense]. 104 FC ro'ed. 105 FC roed. 106 CE broad. 
108 P daf, CE Aoo. Ill CE ought. 115 CE hotmi. 118 PCE & FC been. 
120 P eguu. 122 P UAAU, CE nan. 124 CE & FC sto'en. 125 CE only. 

M- 138 P fiedheR, CE feudh^R. - P laadtR [ladder]. 141 CE neel. 
142 CE sneel, L [often (snag) or (sn<?) omitting (1)]. 143 CE tenl. 147 breun. 
- P amets [ants]. 149 CE bleez. 152 CE water. 153 CE sadmtd*. 

^E: 155 CE & FC thetj. P aadeR [adder]. 158 FC aateR. 161 PLM 
dii. 162 P tedii. 166 meed. P wenjas [wain or waggon horse]. 168 P 
toll?. waps [wasp]. haps [hasp]. 170 CE aRvist. \l\barley. 172 CE 
gwas [common]. 32'- 185 CE read. 188 P nakeR. 190 key. 197 cheese. 
199 CE bleet. 200 CE wrt. M': 203 CE speech. 207 CE niid^Ll [with 



an indistinct (1)]. 218 PCE ship. 223 CE dhhm [(d) not marked in this word! 
224 CE ween. 227 CE wet. 

E- 231 P du. 232 break. 233 speak. 234 knead. 235 weave. 236 fever. 
239 CE seel. 241 CE rera, M rien. 243 pleu. 250 CE SOBR [swore]. 251 
C miit, E meet. 252 CE kit'l. 253 CE nettle. E: 261 CE see. 262 CE 
wee*?. 264 CE &tl. 265 CE street. f ild [field]. 272 elm CE [volunteered 
that it was (el'm) in Es.]. P hiin [a hen]. 281 CE Isnth. 282 CE strEnth. 
- niEsh mash [marsh]. 284 CE thrash. 286 L haRRR [and so for all words 
having double rr, as carriage (kaRRR), that is, very much lengthened (R)]. 

E'- 290 CE A*. 292CEw. 293 CE we. 294 CEfeed. 296 P a'i blav, 
E beleev, bilEt't [believed], [I believe, parenthetically]. 300 CE kip, kEp [keep, 
kept]. 301 CE fen. E': 305 CE Mi [?]. 307 CE nai [?]. 308 CE need. 
309 CE speed. 312 CE jeim. 314 fed. 315 CE fit. 316 CE nEks. 

EA- P vote [fallow]. 319 EC geep. EA: 323 CE fa'wt. 324 CE 
eet. 328 CE ool. 330 CE 001 = 328. 333 CE kaesef. 334 CE ha383f. 336 
CEfall. 337 CE watt. 345 CE dare. 346 P gfet, CE & FC gent. 

EA'- 347 CE Ed. haafeR hafoR [heifer]. 348 6i. 349 CE few. 
EA': 350 CE dead. 353 CE bread [but (bra)n)tjiiz) bread and cheese]. 354 
CE sheaf. 355 P dsth, CE dEf. 356 CE leaf. 357 CE though. 359 C neebuR, 
E nfebtm. 366 P gsmt. 368 CE death. 369 CE stow. 371 CE strAAR. 

El- 372 CE [not used]. El: 378 E week. 380 P dEm. 382 P deeRZ. 

EO- 385 CE beneath. 386 CE JOG. 387 CE nuu. EO: 388 FC melk. 
394 P jaquR [? q], CE jandra, jandtm. 399 CE broit. 400 CE aRnest. 402 
CElaRn. 405CEaRth. 406 CE earth. EO'- CE/m. 411 CE three. 
412 CE she. 413 CE devil. 414 CE/y. 415 CE 16i. 417 PCE tp'u. 420 
PE fa'wBR, C form. 421 P faRti. EO': 423 CE thigh. 424 P braf. 425 
CE lait. 426 foit. 435 CE you. 436 CE triu. 437 CE triuth. EY- 438 
CE die. 

I- 440 PCE wik. 442 CE 6m. 444 CE sto'il. 446 CE noin. sbiiR 
[shire]. 448 PCE diiz. 449 CE git. 450 CE tuuzd^. I: 452 CE 6i. 
457 moit. 458 noit. 459 CE roit. 462 CE soit. 465 CE & FC sitj. 466 
CE tp'ild [?]. 468 CE tjild'n. klim [climb]. 472 CE sriqk. 473 CE 
bk'in. 475 CE woind. 476 CE ba'in. 477 fa'in. 478 gra'in. 479 CE wa'in 
[compare 475], 483 P hiiz [his, written he's]. 484 CE dis. 485 P sis'l [' the 
usual pronunciation of thistle,' says Parish], CE this'l. 488 CE jit. P spEt 
[spit]. I'- 490 CE boi. 493 CE droiv. 494 CE toim. T: 502 CE 
foiv. 503 CE loif. 504 CE noif. 505 CE woif. 506 CE wmen [(moi ool 
dmt>n) my old woman = (moi misis). 511 woin. 

0- 524CEwaRld. 0: 527 CE bought. 528 CE thought [often (tha'ut) 
L]. 529 CE brought. 531 CE daateR. 532 CE coal. 533 CE dull. 536 CE 
gold. - krap [crop]. 552 P kaRn, CE kARn. maRnin [morning]. 554 P 
kras. CE poostisiz [posts]. 0'- 555 CE [(buut) is always used, never 
(shun)]. 558 CE look. fodhtrc [fodder] . 562CEmuun. 563 CE Monday. 
-B mant [month]. 564 CE swn [very short], 566 CE adhtm [not (adtm)]. 
0': 569 CEbook. 570 CE took. rad [rod]. 577 CE ba'u. 578 CE 
pla'u. 579 CE miaf [(BIIE'M) not known]. 586 P do'rat [don't]. 588 CE niyn 
[in afternoon, this is Sf., it was difficult to appreciate]. 589 CE spiyn. 590 CE 
fluBR. 592 P SUUR. 595 CE ft. 596 CE rt. 597 CE sat. 

U- 600 CE love. 602 CE sa'w. 605 CE son. 606 CE direR. 607 CE 
bateR. U: 609 CEfull. 610 CE wl. 611 CE bullock. 613 CE draqk. 
614 P hewnd, CE E'em. P mewnd [mound]. 615 P pewnd. 616 CE grawn. 
619 CE fa'wn. 620 CE gra'wn. 625 CE toq. 629 CE sun. 631 CE thaRzd*. 
632 CE ap. 633 CE kap. VUUR [a furrow]. 634 CE through. 635 CE 
wath. 636 CE faRdtjR. 639 CE dust. U'- 640 CE kJEU [rather rounder, 
approaching (kja'u)]. 653 CE bat. U': 657 CE brE'un. 659 CE tE'tm. 
665 CE mE'us. 666 CE azbtm [but (mEsteR) is usual]. 671 CE mE'wth. 

Y- P hiiv [hive], biiv [beehive]. 676 CE loi. 679 CE tptj. 682 
lid'l. Y: 689 CE build. P k E l [kiln]. 690 CE koin. 691 m6in. 
700 CE was. P bras'lz [bristles]. 702 P tsdi-n [within]. 703 P ptt. 
Y- 705 CEskoi. Pdiiv[todive]. Y': 711 CE liis, L IE'USIZ. 712 P 
miis, CE & L ma'wsiz. 

[ 1567 ] 

136 THE EAST SOUTHERN. [D 9, V i, ii. 


Probst [rabbit]. 716 P aad'l [stupid], Ed' 1 [rotten], 722 P driin, M 
drum, CE dreen. 725 seel. - P klaps [clasp]. 737 P mint. 741 CE men/. 
E. PliBR [lear, empty]. 752 P piiiit. I. and Y. 756 CE srimp. 758 
CE ga'l. 0. 761 CE'lited. 767 CE naiz. 769 C m6l, E ma'ul. 772 CE 
bonfa'iR. 773 CE doqki. 774 P porai, CE pooni. 775 CE booby. 778 CE 
ufaBRd. 781 CE bother. 787 CE SE'MS. 790 CE gE'nd. U. - Jaf'l 
[yuckel or wood-pecker]. - P kivid [a cow's cud]. 799 CE scull of head. 
800 CE scull of boat. 801 CE rum. 805 CE curds. 808 P pat. 

A.. P steub'l [stable]. 811 CE plees. 812 CE lees. 813 CE beeton. 

P fad [flail]. 822 CEmee. 824 CE tjeejtm. 826 CE eagle. 827 CE 
eager. 828 CE ague. - M griin [grain]. 830 CE train. -- M stiien [stain]. 
334 CE shee. 835 CE rez'n. 836 CE sez'n. 845 CE ancient. 847 CE 
cfeendrBR. 848 CE change. 849 CE stwendjBR. 851 C a l nt. 852 CE eepenn. 

pliBt [plate]. Priet [rate]. 862 CE serf. 863 CE tjeuf. 865 CE 
fAAt. 866 CE poor. 

E-- 867 CE tee. 868 P djA'i. 869 CE veal. P spaatek'lz [spectacles], 

fititz [vetches], M strhmd [strained]. - M p'ren [pain]. 876 CE 
deunti. 878 CE saUwi. 879 CE female. jaRb [herb]. 887 klandji. 
888 saRtin. P sanv [serve]. 890 CE beest biistiiz [beast beasts, observe 
the change of vowel]. 892 CE nephew. 894 CE deceive. 895 CE receive. 
! and Y- 899 CE niece. vo'ilent [violent]. 904 P vo'ilet, CE voilet. 
909 CE breeze. 910 CE dja'is. 911 CE sEsteRn. 

0-- 913 koutj. 914 brdBtj. 915 CE stuff. 916 CE inren. 918 feeble. 
919 CE nainted [anointed, beaten]. 920 CE paint [a pint pron. in same way]. 
925 CE vais. 926 P spa'il, CE spail. 928 CE E'wns. 929 CE kE'iikembw. 
930 CE lam. 935 CE country. 939 CE close. 940 CE ko'ut. - faRm [a 
form to sit on]. 942 CE batjaR. 947 P ba'il, CE bail. 948 CE ba'wldBR 
ba'wlBR. 952 ku^RS. 953 CE cousin. 954 CE cushion. 955 CE dE'ut. 959 
CE convey. U-- 963 CE k?/;tw?t. 965 CE ail. 968 CE aisteR. 

CE usages, I are, I' re, I be, he be, I were, he do, he didn't ought. Intonation 


A student of Whitelands, Miss Croucher, a native, diet, to me a 
dt. for Charing (6 nw.Ashford), but with slight exceptions all 
recollection of the dialect seemed to have left her. The (r) was 
quite cockney. It would, I think, be useless to give the test. 
The Rev. A. E. 0. Harris, of Stoke (7 nne. Chatham), also gave 
me observations on a dt. which shews that very little dialect exists 
in the Hundred of Loo between the Thames and the Medway, 
while a settlement of Irish there, about 1845, seems to have much 
influenced pron. H. stated also that very few people used the few 
* provincialisms ' he gave. After due consideration I omit these 
as not sufficient. Rev. C. "W. Rolfe, of Shadoxhurst Rectory (4 
ssw.Ashford), marks (me^ts, gael, kwmm, fraem, di?, jaendi?r, girth, 
rorad, dei3r, geut, street, direr, wwl, fELcr, nrem, wEri, wuunt) for 
mates, girl, coming [very doubtful] from, the, yonder, going, road, 
there, gate, straight, door, will, fellow, name, very, won't, which 
are probably correct, but says nothing about (R). These indications 
are confirmed by Rev. J. W. Ramsay, of Rolvenden (12 sw.Ashford), 
who, however, also omits to notice the (E). The Isle of Sheppey 

[ 1568 ] 

D 9, V ii.] 



has no dialect, as I learned from Miss Lowman, a student at 
Whitelands, who had travelled all over it and resided there some 
years. It is a mere soldiers' depot. Merely therefore glancing at 
these, I proceed to the best account of n.Ke. pron. I have been able 
to obtain. 

Mr. Herbert Knatchbull-Hugessen, of Provender, Faversham (8 
wnw. Canterbury), a well-known landed proprietor, who had learned 
the dialect well from his tenants, bailiff and farm -labourers, was kind 
enough in 1873 to spend many hours on several days in teaching me 
the pron. of a cs. written by Rev. Henry B. Berin, then of Biddenden 
(10 wsw.Ashford), to represent the "Weald of Kent. This version 
Mr. Berin kindly supplemented by answering, as well as he could, 
more than 60 troublesome questions which I sent him, and finally 
introduced me to Mr. H. K.-H., who was able to give me the pron. 
of his own neighbourhood, and thus convert the version into one 
for Faversham. This was at an early period of my investigations, 
and I was then unacquainted with the S. (R), and consequently 
confused the r with the London (r, r , B). In 1880 Mr. H. K.-H., 
in answer to my inquiries, wrote : "On the whole I should say 
that the Kentish pronunciation of the r is distinct and has a burr," 
this identifies it with (R), which I have accordingly introduced 
regularly when not preceding a vowel. When the r precedes a 
vowel, minute examination is required to be sure of the existence 
of a true (R). I have therefore left the received r in those cases. 
And I have not assimilated the adjacent (t d n 1) to (R) as in D 4. 
After the cs. I give a few phrases which Mr. H. K.-H. dictated to 
me, and a cwl. containing wd. which he pronounced to me. With- 
out this kindly help from Mr. H. K.-H. and Eev. H. B. Berin, my 
account of Ke. would have been very imperfect. 

FAVERSHAM (8 wnw. Canterbury) cs. 
pal. by AJE. from dictation of Herbert Knatchbull-Hugessen, Esq. 

0. d's bR)z wa'i :djon dimnt dewt. 

1. waa, mbts, ju -en ii nn? boisth hef aet dz's ZBR tjset 13V ma'm? 
uu sets Em stwuR bi daet? da3t)s nedheR zim m?R dei3R. 

2. di3R eent [btf^nt] toRb'l mEm da'i keunt B bii)in laaaeft set, 
wi noo daet dm 13 lit'l du^nt-wi ? waV shwd dee ? da3t mit [b^mt] 
taRb'l lo'fkl*, iz it? 

3. daet)s ew i)iz ewjevBR, soo ju djest AAd JI?R toq ran kiip wist 
til a 7 *' e dan. oxkil 

4. a'e)BR saRtm shumR aV z^Rd -em sae, sam -e dem deim tjaeps 
wot B bin thru AA! on it d^Rsaa'vz from dra faRst onset, dast a'i 
saBtmli dzd, 


[ 1569 ] 



[D 9, V ii. 

6. Bn d)o01 wmBn BEsaa'f '1 taa em sen si, dset laeaef new plamp 
AAf, dewt noo trab'l, ef ju)l ooni aast)BE, wo0nt)shi ? 

7. liistweez shi kEp AA! on tsl/n aen mil, wEn aV aast)Br, shi dzd 
en shi aed'nt AAt tB bii fos ewt bewt d^'s IBE djob, th/qk)sh haed ? 

8. waal BZ "3. f i WBZ B tslm aen ji, sliii)d taa)i raVt AAf, ew sbi kam 
Bpon dfl's IBE draqkm tjap wot shii)z got maeE?d tw. 

9. sbi SWWBE shi kEtjt aV sen ?m BEsaa'f lee'm AA! loq dB grewn m 
z bEst k^o^t, tides Bg'/n dB dwi?E i e)dB hews, ^t du foEd^E iind 
daet e^E rii^d. 

10. ii wcz k93E/;m on, SEZ sbii, foE AA! d^ wald Is.'ik -e aemp^Ei 
tja'^'l, BE 13 lt'l gael wot)s bm apsEt. 

11. d/s ZBE haapt waVl d)wnit?n Bn BE daa'tesmlaa kam trei?sm 
kraes dB baek jasd, WGBE dee)d bm haeqm eut dB tloBz tB dra'/ on 
woshm da, 

12. wa'A dB kst'l WBZ vbafrlm fBE tii, wan bwwtifwl samBE 
aeaatBEnuun, warn B wiik baek kam thazde. 

13. aen, bBhooidji ! aY nEVBE zcsd taal noo moBE B daet BE dpb, 
BZ shuBE BZ ma' niBmz :djaek :shEpBEcl, BD, BnadBE thq, aV dwBnt 
wont tu it, deBE new ! 

14. new a')l mp AAf WOBUI tB sapaE. waa, gwd na / 2t, B Bna-dBE 
ta^'m, wm B tjaep gmz taak B d's, daet, BE t)adhBE, duBnt)i bii in 
s/tj B toEb'l Em BV B Qm tB kaeE^ dB swae. 

15. t)s B taEb'l sili tjaep wot kiips AA! on tjaetBEm Bbewt Aiot a'/ 
raendBm. aen new a' shae'nt see nB mwBE. gwd naYt. 


2. terrible, the common intensive 
adj . or adv. on account of, the first and 
last words omitted. din is within, 
which first assumes the form (-edi-n), 
the (wdht-n) of He. 

3 . whisk t, as ' the wild waves whisht, ' 
Temp. 1, 2, 378. 

5. directly minute, immediately, 
common phrase in the district. 
though it was so terrible queer, and 
ring-y like, and like a ring, and 
he) II tell}ye the truth, without any 
romancing any day, romancing; the 
people are fond of long romance words 
in this dialect. Observe (ski, dai). 
Mr. Harris also gave (sai) for Stoke, 
calling it Greek at. 

7. She hadn't ought [ought not] to 
be far out about this here job, [do you)] 
think}she had. The first had without, 
the second with the aspirate. 

8. drunken (draqkin) is drunking, 
that is, playing the drunken man, not 
drunken itself. 

9. further end, certainly the (d) 

must have been assimilated to the two 
(R) as (faRDBR). 

10. ampery, a common word in this 
district, as applied to cheese, mouldy, 
decayed ; to people, weak, bad, sickly. 
Lewis in his Tenet (Thanet) refers to 
Ags. ampre (not in Etmiiller), w r hich 
Bosworth cites from the Liber Medicin- 
alis of Baldus, and explains as ' a 
crooked swelling vein, an herb, sweet 
marjoram, feverfew ; ' others conceive 
it may be the French empire, worsened. 

1 1 . tracing across, tracking, walking, 
across, a phrase actually heard. 

12. only, the word used may, how- 
ever, be one-y, which must have the 
same meaning. 

13. behold ye ! a common phrase for 
'look there/ 

14. dont]ye be in such a terrible hem 
[devil] of a hurry to carry the sway 
[victory], hem is clearly a euphemism 
for devil, deuce, devilish, damn, dam- 
nation, etc., i.e. exceedingly, it is very 
[or ' hem '] common in this district. 

[ 1570 ] 

D 9, V ii.] THE EAST SOUTHERN. 139 

PAVERSHAM PHRASES from diet, of H.K.-H., Esq. 

1. (a i shsel noo din v 1/t'l, ii 's.'i kiip gwm), I shall know within 

a little [soon], if I keep going. 

2. (noo fARni nt AA!), no form at all, common expression, the 

meaning of which was unfortunately not noted. 

3. (001 rEn'ldz), old reynard, (p00p), Guy Fawkes. 

4. (d)ool antjmmi), the old huntsman. 

5. (gu -sen, w*dj) !), go -on, will you ! 

6. (WAR wops prsdmitK), he ware of wasp presently. 

7. (thrii Ji^Rn aafimz), three-year-old heifers. 

8. (tu draqk), to go about as a drunken man. 

9. (faRn^l laVz), infernal lies, the first unaccented syllable of a 

word is frequently omitted. 

10. (sai/n 13 daet, nath^n -et AA!), something of that, nothing at all. 

11. (wani wans), only once, (taVrn mi -BgE'n), time and again, many 


12. (reR stopim), fox-earth stopper. 

13. (j/steRclee im tadlnmdee), yesterday and the other day, i.e. day 

before yesterday. 

14. (i eent noo kewnt t)AAl), he isn't no account at all, i.e. he is of 

no importance. 

15. (moost dewtedb duubi?R9s), most (un-)doubtedly dubious. 

16. (*z eed iz daet eed'l), his head is that [so much] addled. 

17. (woRkm baV griit), working by the piece. 

18. (wtktt foE waaket, trk ^n ta'i), each = tit for tat. 

19. (ddun ju mteRarpt saaf), don't you interfere with self. 

20. (dfeR aRt 'Bla'e'v, s'tj -B ti'km), dear heart alive, such a ticking. 

21. (tsefrer mi ska3d'l), cross and mischievous. 

22. frt)s tr^, sfi twk AAf), it's true I took off = went away. 

23. (neu im dEn, neu 'Bn ten), now and then. 

24. (/t)s print muun la^'t), it's print moon-light, i.e. sufficient to 

read print in. 


pal. by AJE. from diet, of Herbert Knatchbull-Hugessen, Esq., containing 
almost all the \vd. in the cs. and also many others separately dictated. 


A- 4 teuk. 5meBkmiT?k. kr'ml'l [cradle]. wei?k [wake]. 17 IAA 
laa. 19 teul. 21 nit?m. 28 heBR. -- WAR [beware of ]. 34 Isesest. 

A: 39 [(kam) used]. 43 hasn. 44 Ison. 49 ha?q. - kaesent [cannot]. 
54 wont. 55 eeah. 56 wosh. A: or 0: 58 from. 60 loq. 64 rooq. 

A'- 67 gu, gwin [going]. 72 uu. 73 soo. 74 to. 76 tued. 82 wans. 
84 moBR muT?R. 89 bo^th. 92 noo, nood [knoAved = kneAv] . 94 ki-oo. 
A': 102 aast [in infinitive also]. 104 rued. 106 br A Ad. - drav [I drove]. 
Ill AAt. 113 d) 6*1 [tbe whole]. 115 woimi. 117 wan. 118 Urn. 120 
Bguu. 122 noon, uoo. 123 nathtm. 124 sbuvo.. 125 ooni, warn. 1 
130 bo'et bw^t. 137 rnjR [unemphatic], 

[ 1571 ] 



[D 9, V ii. 

JE- 138 faadBR. 140 ee'l. 143 tetd tial. 144 Bgi-n. 147 \aeen. 148 
feBr. Emet [ant]. 149 blaze. hiiz'l [hazel]. 150 liistweez [leastwise]. 
JE: 154 b*k. -- haed'nt [had not], haed, a?d [had]. 158 anetBR. 161 dai. 
164 mee. 166 meed. 169 WEU. wops [wasp]. 171 baRli. 172 gra33s. 
173 wos. 176 aet. 177 daet. 179 wot. 

JE'- 187 leave. 182 wee. 190 key. 194 Em. 195 niEni. M': 
sprEd [it spread]. 209 UEVBR. 211 gree. 213 edhBR. 214 nedhBR. 
miil [meal, food]. 218 ship. 220 shEpBRd [the common word is .(IwkBR), the 
other scarcely ever heard]. 222 he~BR. 223 deeR. 224 WOBR W'IBR. 229 broth. 

E- 232 briik. 233 spiik. 234 knead. - trad [tread]. 239 s'rel. 241 
riiii. 243 plee [occ. (plai) in the pause]. 244 waa waal. 245 miBl. 
hiilin [bedclothes, i.e. covering]. 248 mare. 249 wiBR. wiiz'l [weasel]. 
252 kEt'l. 255 WEdliBR [never heard with a (d)]. E: wEb [web]. 259 
wedge. 260 lee [as a hen eggs], lee-in [laying for lying], 261 sai, SEZ [says]. 

fil [field]. 269 saaf. 271 taa, taal, tElin [tell, telling]. 276 thiqk. iind 
[end]. 281 lEnth. 282 strsnth. nEstB nsstiz [nest nests] . set [set]. - 
bEst [best] 

E'- 290 ii. 293 wi. 300 kiip, ksp [kept]. 301 IBR. E': 305 high. 
306 height. 312 IBR. 314 iBRd. 

EA- 320 keBR. EA: 322 Iseaef . 323 fezrt. 325 walk. 326 cold. 328 
kfold. 330 AAld. 331 swoald. 332 tuold. 335 AA!. 337 watt. 338 kl. 

solt. -- biBiid. 340 jaRd. 342 arm. 343 WARUI. IBRU [to earn]. 
346 giBt geet [first most frequent]. EA'- 347 eed. aafBRz [heifers] . 
348 a'i. 349 few. EA': 350 deed. 355 deaf [not (dEth) as in e.Ss.j. 
356 leaf. 357 doo. 359 neebBRwwd [neighbourhood]. - hiip [heap]. 364 
tjsep. - J/BB, [year]. 366 griit. 367 thrat. 368 dEth. 

El- 372 [aye is not used, but is replaced by yes}. 373 dee. El: 378 wiik. 
380 dem, dBRsaa-vz [their = themselves] . 

EO- 386 joo. 387 nuu. EO: 390 shwd. daRk [dark]. 397 swBRd. 
399 faRm [farm]. 402 laRn. 403 faR. 406 IBR stopBR [fox earth -stopper]. 
407 faRd'n. EO'- nil [flea]. nil [knee]. frii [free]. 411 thrii. 
412 shi. 416 diBR. tp^z [choose]. EO': 422 (sik) [usual word for 
unwell, not used for vomited, which is called (brAAt ap)]. 430 frin [when used, 
rarely]. 433 breast 435 ju. 436 tra?. 437 triuth. EY- 431 da'i. 
EY: 439 trast. 

I- 440 wiik. 446 na'in. 449 git. I: 453 kw;ik. 456 ef. 457 ua'it. 
459 ra'it. 463 til. 465 sitj. 466 tja'il. 482 iz. 483 izsaa-f [his = himself]. 
484 dis. 485 thistle. 487 jistBRdee. - gra'ist [grist]. 488 got [got, past 
tense]. 489 it. I'- 494 ta'im. 495 wa'in. I': diik [ditch, dyke]. 
500 la'iklo'ikli [likely]. 506 wmBn. 509 wa'il. 510 ma'in. 

0- 519 OOVBR. 522 ap'n. SUWBR [snore]. 524 wald. 0: 525 AAf 
[off]. 531 daatBRinlaa. 532 koBl. 541 woont. - kwrolt [colt]. 543 on, 
onset [onset, beginning], a3n [for of as well as on}. 550 waRd. 551 stARm. 552 
kARn. niARnin [morning]. 554 kraas. 0'- 559 madBR. 562 muun. 
564 sim. 566 BnadBR [another]. 567 t)adheR. 0': 571 gwd. ruuf 
[roof], 579 Bna'w. 584 stuBl. 586 duudwBnt [don't]. 587 dan. 588 nunn. 
590 flBR. 592 SWWBR. 597 sat. 

U- 604 samBR. 605 son. 606 duBR. U: 610 1. 612 sam, safin 
[something]. - tamb'l [tumble]. 613 draqkin [drunking, acting the drunken 
man]. 616 grewn. 618 wewnd [n. and p.p.] zewndz [God's wounds]. 625 toq. 
627 sandi. 629 sun. antjniBn [huntsman]. 631 thazdi. 634 thru. 636 
faRdBR. U'- 641 eu, ejevBR [however]. 643 neu. 650 bewt. U': 663 
hews. 666 azbBn. 667 eut. 

Y- 674 d?d [emphatic]. 675 dra'i. 681 bizinis [in three syllables]. 682 
lit'l. Y: 692 jaqgest. 694 waRkin [working]. 695 aRk. 701 feRst. 702 
din [within], deut [without]. Y- 706 wa'i. Y': 712 miis. 


A. 716 eed'l. 718 tresd. - tjaet [chat]. 737 miBt. 741 maze. 
swai [sway]. 742 liBzi. E. 751 peBRt [recovered from sickness]. 

I. and Y. wip [whip]. 758 g;el. wist [whisht, quiet]. 0. 761 

[ 1572 ] 

D 9, V ii, iii.] THE EAST SOUTHERN. 141 

Iwed. - dpb [job]. 767 ndaiz. 774 pwani. 776 gwdba't. spweRt 
[sport]. haves [technical word in hopping, shaking up the measure to make 
it look larger]. 721 bo'i. U. 796 blw. 798 ktehjn. 9Ri [hurry] 

- rwsht [to rush, like 105 (aast), the past tense made an infinitive]. 

iii. ROMANCE. 

A-- 810 feus. trees [trace, track]. 812 te lees [to lace, beat, drub]. 

- kEtjt [catched, for caught]. - - peel piel [pail]. pee [pay]. 824 tierm. 

- feel [fail]. - tjiin, tjeen [chain]. -- eeR [air]. 833 peeR. 835 riiz'n. 

- peel [pale]. 843 braercntj [not used]. - meendreii. 849 streendieR 
[common word]. 851 resent. - mantjent [merchant]. mtcRi [marry]. 
857 kees [often used]. prases [pass]. 862 seef. 

E-- 867 tii. nil [real]. kriteR [creature] . 870 bwMtifttl. 874 riinz 

- WEnteRsem 
'!) terrible]. 
1 [merciful]. 

- kensaRn [concern]. - f 9Rm [firm] . 888 saRtin. rszelet [courageous]. 

- disebil [dishabille, used commonly for any confusion or litter]. 890 Mist. 
891 feast. ! and Y- 910 dja'istiz [joists]. 

0-- 919 a'intment. dja'in [join].' 925 wo'is. kewnt [account]. 
930 k'in. stueR [store]. 938 kAAimeR. 939 tloes. rdest [roast], 
940 k^-6et. 941 fuul Mish [foolish]. trab'l [trouble]. 942 batjen. 947 
ba'il. 950 sapeR. 955 dewt. U-- 965 a'il. 969 shueR. hoRt 
[hurt]. 970 djest. 

Usages, eent b^ut. (ee) falls mucb into (ie), thou never used. 


The Isle of Thanet has had its dialect nearly obliterated. Mr. 
Basil Hodges, of Vincent, Margate, to whom I was recommended 
as likely to know, said that d for th was unknown, though he had 
heard it from an old man who came from another part of the 
county. But (miis) mice shewed a remnant of dialect as well as 
weal, wiolet, He, bile, I adopt his spelling, for veal, violet, oil, boil. 
Miss Peckham, a student of Whitelands, who had been at a school 
at St. Nicholas, Margate, did not know d for th, or w for v, nor 
recognise (E), and found the h omitted only by old people and not 
so often wrongly inserted. Her r followed London use, even to its 
euphonic insertion. But she used (o 7 *) for long 2, except in (liis, 
miis) for lice, mice. U' gave (ew), and 0' had (in) in (spiun, aatem'un, 
biuts) spoon, afternoon, boots, to which (tin) two was assimilated, 
being confused with (too). Such words as I could get from her 
are in the e.Ke. cwl. Rev. R. Drake of Stourmouth E-ectory, just 
w. of the river which bounds the Isle of Thanet, says he has never 
met with so little dialect. He admits w for v and finds it so general 
that "children taught to speak correctly are laughed at by their 
elders." Though he had been 38 years in the locality, the only 
dialectal words he could remember were (diik) for dyke, and (wa9ps) 
for wasp. He had not heard I are half a dozen times, and never / be. 
He notices aint=\$rft, and lease= glean, and the common use of 
terrible = very. Mr. Toomer sent me a Iw. for e.Ke. and Thanet, 
which are inserted in the e.Ke. cwl. p. 144. We may pretty well 
omit ne.Ke. from dialectal regions, though there is still just enough 
left to shew that it once resembled the rest of Ke. 

[ 1573 ] 



[D 9, V iii. 

The next region of e.Ke. consists of the Highlands east of Canter- 
bury, of which the following dt. gives a good idea. The words are 
added to the e.Ke. cwl. p. 144. 

"Wl^GrHAM dt. 

6 e.Canterbury, representing the Highlands of e.Ke., Adisham (6 se. Canterbury), 
Nonington (7 se.Cant.), Chittenden (8 se.C.), Womeuswold (7 se.-by-s.C.), 
Sibertswold (9 se.C.), Goodneston (7 e.-by-s.C.),and Kearsney (3 nw.Dover) 
by Rev. F. W. Ragg, who when it was written was vicar of Ratling with 
Wingham, and became subsequently vicar of Marsworth, Tring, pal. by AJE. 
from indications and answers to questions. 

1. sdow 6i saV, me-Bts, jew sii new drct oi aaE Eo/t beut dt h'd'l 
[Klh] g?el kamm from d^ skii^l JEndim. 

2. shii)z goo- in dewn di? rd^d de^E, thru du rad ge'Bt on d^ Isft 
send so^d ^v d^ wa. 

3. shuBE naf di3 ga?! -BZ go't?n strait arp te di3 do^E BV da roq hews. 

4. wftfB shi T?! bi 16k to fomd daet draaqk^n dfif snveld 
'BV d^ nei3m 'BV :tom^s. 

wi aal no'ow im wEEi WE!. 


6. wo^nt d-o ool tjaBp siun laEn 'BE not tew dew ii 'Bgin, 

7. lwk)i tz'n ii tri'u? 



1. 7, "somewhat resembling (o'i) 
and differing from (ai)," this points to 
(6i) or (a'i). I have selected (6i] 
because of the Faversham (o'i). are, 
"the r is full, a good burr, and has its 
usual effect on the a," this points to 
the (R), lost in Thanet but retained in 
these highlands. / are, rhyming to 
Jire (oiBR, foim), is the regular form, I 
am is sometimes used, _T be very seldom 
if ever. "liddle almost li'l with a 
rough breathing before the /," which I 
interpret (lid'l, Klh), though the latter 
is very strange, still I have lile lill given 
me by others. yonder, " I am not quite 
sure of yende, whether the r is sounded 
at all, but the e has the modification 
which the r would give it as nearly as 

6. to do, written teoo deoo, which 
might have been meant for (tiu dm), as 
I got tew from Denton (7 nw.Dover), 
and hence within the district, from Rev. 
C. J. Hussey, who says, "In the hymns 
the tew for to strikes my ear, I have 
noticed it more in singing than in speak- 
ing." But Mr. Ragg says, "The eoo 
is like a very short ou in you, abowt, 
ho?<se," and that is explained to be the 
e and w in the "Welsh Btfttws, and hence 
(eu) or (E'U}. But I believe the sound 
degenerates into some variety of (y, 2), 
see Faversham, and may have been 
originally merely (ee'u), which is apt to 
generate all these sounds. 


The Folkestone fishermen are credited with a dialect of their own. 
So far as pron. is concerned, that is not the case. Mr. E Stead, to 
whom I am otherwise much indebted, being master of the Folkestone 
Grammar School in 1880, I asked his assistance. The will of the 
founder of the school provides for the instruction of sons of poor 
fishermen, and there are generally six or eight boys there from the 
houses of genuine working fishermen ; and these boys are said to 
speak the dialect as well as their fathers. By observations on 
these boys Mr. Stead wrote me the following dt. in Glossic, and 

[ 1574 ] 

D 9, Yin.] THE EAST SOUTHERN. 143 

supplemented it by several observations. Mr. Fynmore says : 
" The fishermen of Folkestone, I understand, 'are persistent in the 
transposition of v for w, and are called old Yills. They talk quick 
about vat for what, veil, vant, valk, etc, etc." Mr. Stead says: 
"I can't hear that anybody knows the fishermen by the name of 
'old Yills.' I have to-day been listening to the pronunciation of 
two or three new fisherboys we have, and I can't hear anything 
but was, we, were, wat=what, etc." But in P.S. he adds, " I 
have just had communication with a man well acquainted with the 
town. He tells me that ' Folkestone fishermen are almost uni- 
versally credited with the use of v for wj but he thinks they don't 
' do it so often as is made out.' Nevertheless, he says you will no 
doubt < now and then hear siting ( = whiting), Fellard ( = Wellard, 
a local tobacconist), etc.' Hence, while v for w may occasionally 
occur, it must be rare at least at present, and must be considered 
still to want satisfactory proof. On the other hand, w for v is the 
rule, or, as Mr. Stead says, " very largely if not universally used 
by the fisherfolk in Folkestone, as in vessel, November, JFesta ( = 
Yesta, name of a fishing-boat), walue, etc." 

On the other hand, d for th does not seem to be heard among 
them, but the reverted (E) was distinctly recognised, although it is not 
unfrequently omitted to his ears. Not having heard these speakers 
myself, I do not venture to write (E) initial or to assimilate (t d n) 
to (E) as (T D N). But I feel tolerably sure that all are used, 
especially as (L) is particularly recognised. Mr. Stead says he never 
heard the final reverted (L) so decidedly as among these speakers. 
" Thus, Bill is (biui,), or often (beui,), help = (eLp), etc." He finds, 
also, the long 0' and its cognates have developed not merely into 
(in), but (yy), or an approximation to it, and writes (jy, skyyl, 
thryy, shyyuE, ty, syyn, dyy, lyk, tryy), for you, school, through, 
sure, to, soon, do, look, true. Most probably the (yy) is not fully 
reached, and, as remarked under Faversham, the real sound may be 
(o?'u). The long I' he finds most like (6*), as at Wingham, and 
the long U' is (e). 

written in Glossic by R. Stead, Esq., pal. by AJE. 

1 . soou oi sa, ma^'ts, jy sii new dhut 6')m ro/t vbsut dhet 
komm from dh skyyL jand^E. 

2. shii)z goou'in dewn dhe rdowd dheei? thryy dire red gaVt an 
dhi? left end sol ov dhi3 wa. 

3. shyy'im eno'f dhi3 tj6LD [tjLi>] -BZ gAAn strait op ty dhi? 
doowBE ov dhe r#q [raq] ews. 

4. wefe shi WIGL tjaans ty foind [shi'L preps kam ekraa's] dhet 
droqknn def skini tjep ov dhi? na^'m ov itamvs [:tami?s]. 

5. wi AAL noou tm weR' wet?L. 

6. woownt dh^ oold tjep syyn tiitj T?E nat ty dyy *t Bgain, 
thtq ! 

7. lyk! iz'nttttryy? 

[ 1575 ] 



[D 9, V iii. 


2. there, as well as where, fair, pare, 
wear, have the triphthong (e*^)> as 
(dheiu, weii?, feit?, pere, weira). 

4. she'll perhaps come across, is 
probably the phrase that would be 

The following cwl. collects the e.Ke. words. The S. dial, has 
here decayed as much as possible, and has received strictly E. 
elements, which entirely extinguish the S. as we proceed n. The 
ES. group is therefore a transition between S. and E., but different 
from D 7. 


F Folkestone fishermen's dialect, from Mr. Stead, p. 142. 

N St. Nicholas, Margate, from Miss Peckham, p. 141. 

T Iw. sent by Mr. Toomer for in and about Isle of Thanet, known by him to have 
been used in e.Ke. Although a young man in 1871, he had noticed many 
changes in his time. Conj. pal. by AJE. from io. He apparently uses r as 
in London ar or ur = (aa, AA ao), for he writes dorg [dAAg] for dog. 

W "Wingham, the words from Rev. F. "W. Ragg's e.Ke. Highlands, p. 142. 

Rec. spelling and italics denote rec. pron. 


A- 4 N tee [very long, approaching (teee)]. 12 N" SAAB [with euphonic r 
before a vowel j. 20 N leem. 21 "W nBm, F na'im. 23 IS" seem. 24 N 
shmn. 29 W aas BR. 33 IS" reedhe [occ.]. 36 IS" thaw [with inserted 
euphonic r]. A: 42 end. 43 W send. 55 T ishez. A: or 0: 58 WF 
from. 64 W roq, F raq raq. A'- 67 W goo'in, N [rec. pr.], F goou-in. 
69 N no. 73 WF soou, N so. 74 N tiu. 76 N t6ed. 84 N mo^n 
[more than]. 86 N fate. 92 F noou. 94 Wno'ow. A': 101 N oak. 104 
roed, F ro'0d. 110 W not, F nat. 121 W go'-en, F gAAn. 

M- 140 N [140-147 rec. pron.]. 142 T snEg. 144 W gi-n, Ftjgai'n. 153 
N SEtedi. T pwtt [pretty]. M-. - T wajps wops [wasp]. 174 T ish. 
177 W dt [unemphatic], daet [emphatic]. M'- 183 F tiitj. 190 N" key. 
JEt: 218 T ship. 223 W deeR, F dheiu, N there. 224 W W'IBK, T wen?. 

E- 231 W du [we^k]. 233 N speak. 235 N weave. 236 N fever. 251 
N" meat. 252 N ktt'l. E: 261 WF s&t. 262 WF wai [in pause (wfit] 
265 WF strait. 266 W WE!, F WCBL. 272 T Blum. 278 N [never hear ' 

T iinz [ends]. T niEsh [marsh]. E'- 293 F wi. 297 W iEle. 
E': 314 N iBBd. 

EA- 319 IS gape. EA: 323 N fought. 324 N eight. 326 Wool, N" 
ood, F oold. 330 T 6ou\, N ood. 335 W aal, F AAL. 346 T gect, N gate, 
F ga'it. EA': 352 WF r E d. 355 WF d E f. 364 AV tjsep, F tjep. 371 T 
straa. El: 378 N weak. 

EO: 388 T mslk: 394 W jandeR [? final (R) absent], F jandeR. 402 W 
aRn. EG'- 412 WF shii. T klaivu [cleaver]. 413 N div'l. EO': 428 
WF sii. 435 W seu, F jy. 436 W triu, F tryy. EY- 438 N die. 

I- 442 N o'ivi. 446 N no'in. T shii'gz [shires, applied to the Midland 
counties]. I: 452 T 6t [see note to dt.], F 6*. 459 WF roit, N ro'it. 462 
N so'it. 465 N sitj. 466 F tjoiLD tjaaLD. 469 W'IT;L. 477 WF foind, N 
fo'ind. 479 N wo'in. 480 WF thtq. I'- 490 N bo'i. 492 WF soid. 
1': T diik da'ik [ditch]. 500 W 16*k. 507 N wmun [old people]. 

0- 522 N ap'n. 0: 525 F ov. 541 W wo'unt, F woownt. 543 W on. 

T faak [fork]. - - T os [horse]. 554 Bkraa's [across]. T po'ust po'cstez 
[post posts]. 0'- 556 W tew, F ty. 558 W lk, F lyk. 560 W skut;!, 
F skyyL. 564 W siun, F syyn. 0': 579 W naf, F enof. 586 W dew, F 
dyy. 589 N spiun. 594 N biuts. 597 TN sat. 

[ 1576 ] 


U- 603 W kamm, F komm. 606 W dot?R, F doowjR. TJ- 632 W ap 
F op. 634 W thru, F thryy. U'- 640 N kew. 643 WF new. 650 WF 
be^t. U': 658 WF den. 663 W hews, F ews 

Y- 682 W lid'l lilh, F lit'L. Y: 700 T was wase [worser], N was. 
701 TN fast. Y': 711Nliis. 712 N mils. 


A. 722 T driin. preps [perhaps]. 737 T incuts, F mi 1 its. E. 749 
WF lEft. I. and Y. 758 W gael, F gjaRL. 760 W sriveld. 0. 770 
W :tomes, F -.iawes :tanres. U. 804 W draaqfom, F droqkun. 808 T pat. 


A-- 841 Ftjaans. T kaa [carry, or (kat?) ?]. 864 T koz. 866 W 
PUBR, F puue, N pooB. E" 867 N tea. 885 TWF wEri. T taab'l 
[terrible]. 0- 916 T tqra. T fodj [forge]. IT 965 T e'it. 969 
W shueR, F shyy'tJR, T siuBla'i- [surely j. - - T haat [hurt]. 

T usages, he didn't (hadn't shouldn't) ought, Miss for Mrs. N" usage, I are. 

D 10, 11, 12 form the WS. or west Southern Group. 

Boundaries. The e. b. is the w. b. of MS. and the other boundaries 
are formed by the Bristol and English Channels. 

Area. The w. portion of Sm., all but the extreme sw. of Dv., all Co. 
and the Scilly Isles. This represents comparatively recent, and in 
w.Co. very recent, overrunning of a Celtic language (Cornish or 
"West Welsh) by English. In D 12, w.Co. and Scilly, a true 
dialect has apparently never been formed. 

Character. Besides the general S. character with the (E) very 
strongly developed in the e. but gradually weakening on going w. 
(till in D 12 the received r is perhaps quite established), there is 
also the striking change of 0' into (yyi), closely resembling Fr. (y), 
which sharply limits this group towards the e. 

D 10 = n.WS. = northern West Southern; 

Boundary. Taken from Mr. El worthy's information. The n. b. is the n. coast 
of Sm., w. of e.Quantockshead (14 nnw.Taunton). The w. and s. b. begins at 
Comtisbury (14 ene.Ilfracombe Dv. and 2 e.Linton Dv.), and proceeds nearly s. 
along an affluent of the Lynn R., to Exe Head Hill, Sm., where the affluent rises 
(14 ese.Ilfrucombe). Then passing the head of the Barle E. proceeds to Span 
Head on the b. of Sm. (14 se.Ilfracombe), then se. to North Molton Ridge (14 
e.Barnstaple), and still se. over Molland Down, Anstey's Barrow and Anstey's 
Hill (all on the watershed at the b. of Sm.), and then turning s. along the high 
ground to just s. of Tiverton (where it crosses the Exe), of Collumpton (6 ese. 
Tiverton, and of Kentisbeare (7 ese. Tiverton), and then turning ne. to join thew. 
b. of D 4 about Otterford (7 s.Taunton), after which the e. b. is identical with 
the w. b. of D 4 from n. to the sea. 

Area. The w. of Sm. with a small portion of ne.Dv. 

Authorities. See County List under the following names, where * means w. 
per AJE., || systematic, in io. 

Sm. *Bishop's Hull, Milverton, Taunton, *Wellington. 

Dv. ||*Morebath. 

E.E. Pron. Part V. [ 1577 ] 101 


Characters. A- (fo). A: (SB, a 1 ). A'-, A': (ib, OB). AEG. (a*). 
JEf (ee) and various. EG (a*). E (e). EL (sd). I: often (a 1 ), 
r(a^). O'(y 7l , Wl ). Ufa A). U'( E ' W ). 

Of these the most important are the diphthongs for I', TJ'. They 
are both quite different from those of D 4. Mr. Elworthy originally 
appeared to me to make two forms (a 1 *, 9'*') for I', hut on the last 
examination I did not find the separation certain, and the question 
was which of the two I should adopt. With some hesitation 
I selected (a 1 *), which is transitional to (aY), the Dv. form. This 
was, however, kept distinct from (a*), in which the first element 
was decidedly longer and lower than in (a 1 *). The (E'W) form of 
TJ' was very marked, but did not fall into (ae'w) as in Nf . It is 
quite distinct from the Dv. (ao'yi), so that it forms another mark of 
separation between D 10 and D 11. 

The vowels (a 1 , yy 1} 99^ sharply distinguish the dialect from D 4. 
They are very difficult even to appreciate. The (a 1 ) may be 
considered as (a) raised towards (i), or (i) degraded towards (a). 
Strangers may be content with considering it as ('). Before (1) it 
seems to be absorbed by the murmur, so that (ma^k, sa^k) differ 
little from (m'lk, s'lk). Dr. Murray (Elworthy, Gram. "West Sin. 
p. 113) considers the last to be the exact sound. When I so pro- 
nounced the words, Mr. E. said I was wrong. Neither was the 
word (molk). I had imagined that perhaps (m'Lk) might be right, 
but Mr. E. says he uses ( \] with the tip of the tongue thoroughly 
against the teeth. I must consider that the correct analysis of this 
vowel sound has not been reached. It is strangely affected by 
adjacent consonants. In listening in 1885 to the list of 30 words in 
Mr. Elworthy's Dialect of West Sm., p. 58, which I had drawn up 
in 1875, I found the same separation into three parts, resembling 
(', 9, u), in all of which Mr. Elworthy and natives reckon only one 
vowel, except in milk, silk, where they seem to recognise no vowel 
at all besides the vowel I. The sound occurs chiefly for EO, I. 

The vowels (yy t y b d9 v 9^) are quite as difficult to utter, but 
easier to recognise. They are usually both called "French w," 
but they decidedly reminded me of (y, 9) or Fr. pu, peu, from which, 
however, they were clearly distinct, and apparently ' lowered.' To 
say (tyyi b^ts) two boots, is a most difficult problem to a stranger, 
and one he is not very likely to solve. 

Judging from JGG.'s experience at Chippenham, WL, p. 51, I 
anticipated finding the whole series (T D N L E sh sh TJ DJ) in this 
region also. So far as Mr. Elworthy's pronunciation is concerned, 
this was not the case, as (E) was clear, even when initial, but the 
other sounds seem to occur only when adjacent to (E), as (SEDJ) 
ridge. When there was merely the separation of two words, as 
(im da*d) she did, the (E) does not seem to affect the following 
letter. When (d) comes before (E), the most natural thing is to say 
(DE-) ; but Mr. E. says he feels the tip of the tongue slide along the 
palate from the (d) to the (E) position. On going through the 
points touched by the palate for (E t d n 1) in his pronunciation, 
(E) was fully reverted and the under part of the tip touched the 

[ 1578 ] 


highest part of the palate, for (t, d) the contact lay between that 
and the gums, hut nearer to the former, for (n) the contact was on 
the gums, and for (1) on the teeth. This makes the series (E, t d, 
n, J). Now Mr. E.'s pronunciation seems to he perfect, and he is 
really a native, but it is difficult to believe that the peasant himself 
makes these elaborate distinctions. The sounds uttered by Mr. E. 
appeared to me to be the same as I produced by using reverted 
(E, T D, N, L). In particular with (J) I could not in the least 
produce his effects, but with (L) I seemed to reach them. I have 
thought it prudent, however, to retain (t d, n 1) with their usual 
coronal values, except when they were acknowledged to become 
(T D N L) on account of the adjacency of (E). It must be remembered 
that the distinction (t T, d D) is very slight, and the generation of 
the peculiar English (t, d) as distinct from the foreign ( t d) was 
probably entirely due to converting reverted (E) into retracted (T,), 
a confusion even now going on. But the existence of alveolar ( n) 
and purely dental ( J) seems an entire anomaly in England. Yet 
it was not new at Mr. Elworthy's last interview with me on 4 Nov. 
1885, for I find the same thing noted from him on 22 Nov. 1880, 
thus in filth (fa^th) the (1) and (th) were noted as having precisely 
the same position. Another peculiarity of Mr. E.'s pronunciation 
was the word potatoes, which Mr. E. considered he pronounced 
(taa'^diz), whereas Dr. Murray, Mr. Sweet, and myself heard an 
(r) in place of (d), to my ears the word was (te^riz). As to I, Dr. 
Murray (in Mr. E.'s Gram, of W. Sm., p. 112) says, "Us also often 
guttural, and this is the apparent peculiarity of " such words as 
bull, pull, full, school, wool, tool, stool, and written (b?]!, p0 : l, 
V0J, sh^l, & { l, toil, stexl), etc. On asking Dr. M. in 1885 what 
he had meant by " guttural ,", properly (I), he was unable to 
remember, and thought that possibly guttural should have been 
retracted, which is more likely. 

In 1875 I had drawn up the lists of vowels with examples in Mr. 
Elworthy's Dial, of "W. Sm. from his dictation. Not to be swayed 
by these, I extracted a large number of them, and made them into 
the following cwl., and then Mr. E. was kind enough to pronounce 
every word to me afresh. My impressions were slightly different, 
but almost the same. This list which follows gives the full 
characteristics of the dial, to the best of my powers of observation. 
The sounds (j l & Y a 1 ) were distinctly recognised, as different from 
(y & a), although I failed in imitating and cannot analyse them. 
The (t d n 1) are left as in rs., because, as already stated, I cannot 
either adopt Mr. E.'s distinctions, or make them always reverted. 
This is followed by the cs. and some examples from the grammar, 
while the translation of the first chap, of Ruth will be given with the 
L. and Ch. versions in the Introduction to L., as it was especially 
written for this contrast. All of these were revised from diet, in Nov. 
1885. Mr. Elworthy's papers already cited have been supplemented 
by his elaborate Glossary, pp. 924, full of interesting matter. His 
power of imitating peasant speech is most remarkable. His kindness 
and patience in giving me information are gratefully acknowledged. 

[ 1579 ] 



[D 10. 


pal. by AJE. from diet, of F. T. Elworthy, Esq., Foxdown, "Wellington, Sm., 
revised from diet. 27 Oct. and 4 Nov. 1885, with a slavishly literal inter- 
linear translation. 

0. E'W t)eez in)s rdjaen aa)n i3gAA'i3t noo ds'utinz laH'k. 
how it) is even) as John has) not got no doubtings like. 


wal, faaRim?R :aRTpt, aVtal)e aat t)eez. jyji ran ii, bimdh o)i, 
wel, farmer Kichard, I tell)thee what it)is. You and he, both of )ye, 

imd laafi bs'wt dhiBzh)j*R stdoBR -e ma^'n. yy x d^ krBR VBR 
may laugh -y about this) here story of mine, who does care for that ? 

t)Ed)'n no Adz nadhim WAH wee HER t)adhi3R. 
it)is)not no odds neither one way nor that) other. 

2. dhaR ed)'n vaRi mani meen dh^t di3 
there is) not very many men that do die 

dhe bi elaa'ft o, 
for -cause they be laughed of, 

wii djx noo dha^ doo)n) is ? wAAt d l z) 'BR VXR te me^k)-Bm dyy^^t ? 
we do know that do) not us ? what is) there for to make) them do it ? 

t)Ed)'n VER! 

it)is)not very like, is it? 

3. E'wsamda^R dha[ 1 sli)ja:r)z dh^ daps o)dlm ki^s, zoo dliii dps 
howsoever this) here) is the daps [turns] of ) the case, so thee just 

sta^ dhii Rat'l, avl fate, Bn ba^'d stM gm aH^v Bfa 1 -n'sli. 
stop thy rattle, old fellow, and abide still against I)have finished. 

ns% aRk, wa 1 !)!? 
Now hark, will)thee ? 

4. aV bi saaRtm 

I be certain sure 

aU JSRD) 'em zee zam V dhaR voks 
I heard) them say some of they there folks 

what went 

YOBR dRyy a 't 
right fore through it all, 

vRi3m dhi VSR! fas dh'BRjoon 
from the very first their) own 

zalz, dhaH aH' dsd, saaf ana'f, 
selves, that I did, safe enough. 

5. E'W dha a t dhi jaqgis ze l n a^a-l, ^ gaRT buoi )na 1 m JI^R ool, 
how that the youngest son his-self, a great boy of )nine year old, 

nood dhi3 VA'^'S dh^ faadh^R o)im teRse-kli VBR AA'T?! t)w^z SB 
knowed the voice of the father of ) him directly, for all it) was so 

im skwfl'ki laHTs, Bn aH')d WAARN 'ii van te speek 
and squeaky like, and I)would warrant -he for to speak true 


a l ni dee B)dhi3 wk, iis, ^n 'dha^ 
any day of)the week, yes, and that 

[ 1580 ] 

I would. 


6. Bn dh)ool;d)amBn BRzal, aR B! tal Q l ni o)i dha^ bii Blaaf m nE J w, 
and the) old) woman herself, her will tell any oi')ye that be a-laughing now, 

iis, Bn tal)i RE^'t Bn in, BdhE'ut noo bodBReBRshBn, n)if i)'l ani 
yes, and tell) ye right on end, without no botheration, and) if ye) will only 

aks O)BR, oo ai, oo)n)Br ? dha^s AA'B!. 
ask of) her, oh, aye, wo) n't) her? that) is all. 

7. i3R tool mi o)i3t 8 1 ni)E'w, hAn a* akst)o)BR, tyj! BR daii taH'mz 
her told me of) it any) how, when I asked) of) her, two or three times 

<3vBR, BR dsd, Bn 'au. dEd)'n AAt VBR tB "bi E'wt pan dj^tj B dhq 
over, her did, and -her did)not ought for to be out upon such a thing 

BZ dhfozh)js[B, wAAt)s 'dliii 

as this) here, what) dost thee think of Jit? 

8. wal, in)s a 1 ! w^z etalin o)i, aR)d laet)i noo E I U t?n 
well, even)as I was a-telling of )thee, her)would let)thee know how and 

n ween -BR vE%n dhki dRaqkin t?i^d wAAt BR dj 
where and when her found that drunken toad what her do 

[kJAAl] BR meim. 
call her man [husband]. 

9. BR zwe-BRD BR zid)'n wee BR oon aH'z ^lae'd AA 1 ^! ^stRatjt 
her sweared her see' d) him with her own eyes laid all stretched out 

^n tap -B)dli 
to his full length upon top of) the ground with) his good Sunday 

on, dj^s Ap ^gfn o)dhB dwBR o)dlj E'UZ, de'wn dhaR 
coat on, just up against the door of)the house, down there 

ti3)dhe kAAndim o dh*ki dhe^R le^n. 
to)the corner of that there lane. 

10. dhaR B WAAZ BwaVnin wee, t?R ZES, dje^ dh^ vaRi se^m)zs 
there he was a-whining away, her says, just the very same)as 

thAAf 13 wvz -e tjM Bt^ikt baB^d, BR B l?"d'l maid 

though he was a child tooked bad, or a little maid set up 

in B JEt. 
in a heat. 

11. mi dha^ dhaR apt dh^ VER! se^m taH'm)z aR t?n BR daaRTBRLAA 
and that there happed the very same time) as her and her daughter-in-law 

wez 'BkAmin in dRyjx dhu bak koBRT [kiwBRT] aadBR 

was a-coming in through the back court after they)had 

B;eqin dhB wEt kloBz VGR te dREVi, pan a wAARshm dee. 
been a-hanging the wet clothes for to dry-y, upon a washing-day. 

[ 1581 ] 


12. seism taH'm dire kaH'l WBZ 13 bu6lin pan din? vaVBR VBR t00, 
same time the kettle was a boiling upon the fire for tea, 

WAD. faVn bnaH't zameR aRDBRN^n on* -e wk 

one fine bright summer afternoon only a week ago come 

nsks dhazdi. 
next Thursday. 

13. im, da*z dhi noo ? a 1 * na^R laaRN, wAn niARs'l biit mo'0ER)N 
and, dost thee know ? I never learned one morsel hit more) than 

dhsh)jaR kimsa'Rnin dha^ dhei3R Wznis ta 1 ! Q l z maBRNin, zoo 
this) here concerning that there business till this morning, so 

S!IMBR)Z maH neem)z :djaen isha^^R, en wAt)s 

sure) as my name)is John Shepherd, and what's more, I do) not 

wAnt tji naxUxeR, dhe^R nE 1 ^! 
want to neither, there now ! 

14. im zoo a l i bii gu^n tfem VBR te -se f v mi sap^R [t)sB)mi)sapBR]. 
and so I be going home for to have my supper [to) have) my) supper J. 

naH't)!, en doo)n)i bii zo km'k, maH'n, VBR te kfido dvi3R 
good night)to)thee, and do)not)thee be so quick, mind, for to crow over 

a^i bAdi I3gn3n, hAn Eni bAde d^ tAAki o dhi^z -BR dh'ki BR 
any body again, when any body do talk-y of this or that or 


that) other thing. 

15. ee mas bi 12 aav^l fal^R vim te pi^eti "BdliE^ t RaVm 

he must be a half-fool fellow for to prate-y without rhyme or reason. 

im dhe'sli)jar)z maV las waRD. g^x 

and this)here)is my last word, good bye)to)thee. 

The three specimens which follow are borrowed from Mr. El- 
worthy's Grammar of the Dialect of West Somersetshire, 1877, pp. 
96 and 99, where they are presented in glossic. They have been 
pal. by AJE. and, as before stated, revised with Mr. E. In the 
translation letters and words in Italics are either supplementary or 
explanatory, and the translation itself as before is slavishly literal. 

[ 1582 ] 





A genuine yarn taken down by Mr. Elworthy from a peasant's 


Lord Popham. 

1. I swppose you've a-heard about 
the great oaken tree up to Wellington 
Park JFood, wAat they used to say 
Lord Popham was a -conjured 

2. Well, don' ye see, up there, 

Cknow, sir, there's a great deep 
torn ravine goes down so deep) as 
the tower, main steer = steep like, 
even) as one may say, the same) as the 
side going up over Wellington If HI, 
and this) Acre oaken tree, Ae was 
a terrible great tree sure mough, Ae 
was, and Ae growed in the side of Aim 
= the ravine, and this place is a -called 
Wilscombe bottom. 

1. d l i sptbz Jyjv 

dhE gaRT ook'n tRii Ap te :wai/ten 
:paRk r^d, wAt Jyy : z TB zee 
:LA J BRD ipAApism WBZ -Bka-ncLfBRD 
int yi ? 

2. WE!, do'0)im i zii, Ap dh&BR, 
jji noo, ZBR, dhi3R)z u gaRT dip 
bA'd^m g^iZ ds'wn ZE dip)s 
dhB tauim, mam stnm la^'k 
in)s m^d zee, se"Bm)z dhi3 
zaVd gween Ap <3v J R iwaltten ILBL, 
en dhii3zh)jaR ook'N tRii, ii waz 
B taR-ab'l gaRT TRii shdo^R nEf, i 
WAZ, 'en i gROBD in dh'B zaH'd o im, 
BN dh^'ki ple-BS ez 



rnaHn dhB pui3R ool 
ddo)'Bn i, ZBR ? 
h^ ool :tAm :aalw^^z 
JB noo, zvr, alp DRood)Bn, 
'Bn ween dhee DRood)Bn, nif i 
dEd)'n taRN R^t tap)'m taM 
iis shor/BR, 'Bn dh^ eed. o "BN 
wuz neet dE'wn 'Bnd^r, Bn 
i baH'd. 

4. TBH dhee waz AA! o)'m 
VBR T^ g^j -BniBs)^, -Bn 

zEd E'W in)s "B wnz -Bkandj'Rd 
noo-bAcli kg'^^'Bn naV-BE dRag)mi 
E^t ; -Bn dhe^R i baVd. 

5. Tsn tv laas, a 1 * w^mt Ap, 
kaz dh0<9 zEd dh^ A sez)^d shooBR 

bi -BkiT?ld, *wee teen AAks'n, 

BUT a 1 * itjt -Bm Ap 
baliks p^ 1 ld)an E'wt, 
inte dh^ aeqin kloz. 

6. 'Bn a 1 / no 1 VBR 
Bn dhee WBZ AA! 
Bn Bb^in in)s aH' sha T d 
ki^ld, t?n kAAlin o mi 
te g^ 1? bi?d a 1 ^ naVBR zid 
i t)AAl. 

'Bn, 'Bn ^ 
Bn DRag)n 

zid nooi3RT 

3. You mind = remember the poor 
= deceased old Tom Alway, don' ye, 
sir ? that's the old Tom Alway' s 
father, you know, sir, he help^ 
to throw =fell him = the tree, and 
when they throwed-Aim, and-if he 
did'n turn right top-on-tail=Am? 
over heels yes, sure, and the Aead of 
him was right down under, and there 
he bided = remained. 

4. And they was all of -them a- 
feared for to go a-nighes^-Aim, and 
they said Aow e'en -as Ae was a- 
conjured nobody could' n^ never drag- 
Aim out ; and there Ae bide<. 

5. And to=at last, I went up, 
focause they said the horses)wotild 
sure to be a-killed, wi^A ten oxen, 
and I Aitched Aem up to him = the 
tree, and the bullocks pulled-Aim out, 
and dragged-Aim into the Aanging 

6. And I never seed = saw noughnt, 
and they was all of -them a- waiting 
and a -looking even as I should a -been 
a-killed, and calling o/me a fool for 
to go, but I never seed = saw noughiit, 
nor-yet nobody-ot-all. 

[ 1583 ] 




7. Bn jy x ndoBz :waHt'n ipask 
E'MZ, ddoBn i, ZBE ? a 1 * maH'n 

t-B liv dhaE, ApBm dhB 
gjaEBt, dhBE WBZ B pleBS dheBE 
dhoo laH'k B oov'm la^'k. 

8. Bn a 1 * zid ZBm b^ks w00 
r^din in)Bm in Bn, Bn dh#0 zEd 
dhat WBZ :!ABED rpAA'pBmz b^ks 
en dh0<9 ZEd E'W B meBn 
Ap BH zAAt BstEaVd pBn dhB 
wee -B baWl, in)s -ii ma'd)'n 

9. iis ! Bn t)eez B TaE'Bb'l 00! 
E'WZ)BR, bBd a 1 *' naVBE dEd)n zii 
noobAdi dhe^E, noo W9's)'n mizal, 
in)s maM z<?<9. 

10. E'wsBma'vBB aH')v BJa'RD 
t?m zee ~E'U dh^ saa'Ev^n tjap WBZ 

VBE TB Iset E'wt dhu ak'ni 
-ekamd Am 
dh^E WBZ B meBn 
in dha giBt wee, Bn i b?d)'n 

11. Bn hAn dhee t^xk)Bn tB 
dyy/in naeks mA'BEnin, VBE kAAz 
i aed)Bn Bpat E'wt dhB AAS, 
do'0)Bn i zii Z'E ? B ZEd, s)ii, 
E'W B k^d)Bn pat)Bn E'wt, kaz 
dhBE WBZ B meBn Bst^id neet in dhB 
giBt wee, in)s i k^d^n 00-p'm)Bn, 
Bn dh^ AA'vis JyjiZ ta zee E'W dh<9 
AA'vis kBnsa^BED dhat dheBE WBZ 
:!A'BED :pAA-pBm. 

7. An^ you knows Wellington Park 
/iouse, donV ye, sir? I mine? when 
I uaed to live there, up) on the 
garret, there was a place there 
thew like a oven like. 

8. And I seed some books \f\th 
reading in- them in Aim = the oven, and 
they said that was Lord Popham's 
books, and they said Aow a man went 
up and sat a -stride wpon the roof 
with a bible, e'en-as he = the devil 
might'ntf caxvy-him = the roc/ away. 

9. Yes ! and it-is a terrible old 
house -sir, but I never did'nt see 
nobody there no worse- than myself, 
e'en-tfs one might say. 

10. Howsomever I've a-heard 
^Aem say, Aow the servant chap was 
going for to let out the Aackney = 
hack = horse, after- Ais master- Awd a- 
comed home from market, and there 
was a man a,-stood = standing in the 
gateway, and Ae could' nt open-7tim = 
the gate, 

11. And when they took -Aim to 
doing = took him to task nex^-morning 
for cause Ae Aad'n^ a-put out the Aorse, 
don't ye see, sir ? Ae said, said-he, 
how he could'n^ put-Aim = the horse 
out, because there was a man a-stood 
= standing right in the gate way as 
Ae could' n^ open Aim = the gate, 
and they always used to say Aow they 
always considered that there was 
Lord Popham. 

The following was taken down by Mr. Elworthy from the dictation 
of the carpenter himself. 

ZBE ? 

Dh)ool falBE Bn dhB k; 

ed jy : noo dh)ool :na3n :skot, 

mAAS 8 1 VBBi bAAdi WBZ 

o aE, kBz dh<9 nood E'W 
as kad dvBkjk)in nif BE wa'd. 

2. wal, a 1 * meBd dhe kAAfin 
VAE)BE, Bn SB tsyyjz aH' bi JSE, 
t)wBz dja^t BkAm wi aed'n AA! o 
as Bba'n BkiBld. 

3. t-wBz SB fam B d^)z aVBR 
jyj zid, Bn dhB za j n)'d Bba ] n 

The old fellow = devil and the coffin. 

1. Did you know ihe old Nan 
Scott, sir? ^ftnos^ every body was 
a-feard of Aer, focause they knowed 
Aow Aer = she could overlook them = 
cast an evil eye on them and-ii Aer 

2. Well, I made the coffin for Aer, 
and so true -as I be A ere, it -was just 
a-come = i had almost happened it 
was a mere chance we Aad'nt all of us 
a-been a-killed. 

3. Jt-was so fine a day) as ever you 
seed = saw, and the sun-Aad a-been 

[ 1584 ] 


vsheemn. SB bRa 1 t)s a'n'idlu'q, hAn a-shining so bright)s anything, when 

dja*s in)s wi w^z gween in te dha J^ e'en)s we was going in to the 

tjastj duns, dhim kAmd t? vla-Biwh chu , r . c1 ?; door ' there comed a flaR sn 

B l^t-nin fe't te tera A P din? vasi Sv^Sf fit 7 *?. tear , Jf the V 27 

, , in x T, stones, and emphatic with the same the 

stotmz, -sen w^ dire se^m dto thunder burst out like a cannon. 

thandi3E bast E'wt la^'k 

4. wal, hAN wi kAm te pat 4. Well, when we come = 
BE in dhu ki-BV nif dh)ool meen Aerinthecave=;aft, <m^ 
WAd'n -etaEND E.eet EEw'n. aV noo man = A^r husband long since dead 
B WAZ, VBE a 1 *' alp pat)'n)in. was' nta-turned right rounf I know 

c T j 1 A i ne was ? for I helped put)Aim)in. 

5. oo wi nood wAt t)wAz ^d c ^Vi i 

-I -, , ; . , 6. Oh! weknowedw/iatt)wasAad 

tJdjid ^t. wi nood vasi wal a-do^c it. We knowed very wel 

dh)0ol falaE)D ^ba x n dbe^E lAAq the old fellown-Aad=^e devil had 

wee im. tEV^z Jji bi staenin a-been there along with him. Ifsas 

T true-s you be standing there ! 

The reason tbat a respectable washer-woman gave the " parson" 
for having married a disreputable husband. 

doo)n i zii, ZEE, aV)d ^gA't S'B Don'tf ye see, sir, I'd a-got so 
mati WA'BEshiN-, Bn a 1 * WBZ rfu^s much wasshing and I was a-force^ 


ATTI T>n if n V ?prl Vn P^PPrl o sen ; ome ' an an a ' 

Am, OT a t eed) n BJeBd H j musj , Aaw b M a donk 

11, a j mas B boo^t a daqk. 


Made up from the lists in Mr. F. T. Elworthy's Dialect of West Somerset, which 
had been made by him and AJE. jointly in 1875, revised so far as these 
especial words are concerned and pal. from diet, of Mr. Elworthy in 1885 
by AJE. 


A- 3 betjk. 5 meek, mEk. 6 meed. 8 aav, se't? [see Mr. E.'s W. Sm. 
Grammar, p. 57]. 12 zaa. 18 krek. 19 tet?l. 20 l&jm. 22 teem. 23 seem. 

24 shirai. 32 beedh [intrans.], baadh [trans.]. 35 UAA! [an-awl, n from the 
art.] 36 dhAA [intrans.], AAndhAA [trans.]. 37 MAA. A: 41 dhasqk. 
43 a?n, een [emph.] 44 laen. 46 ksen'l. 49 aaq, eoe-qd, ea-qd [to hang, 
hanged, hung]. 56 wAARshi [intrans.]. 

A: or 0: 58 VRAm. 59 la'm. ^'m [womb]. 60 L\.q. 61 mteq Bmseqst. 
64 vRAq, VRaeq. 65 zAq. 66 dhAq. A'- 67 g^i, g^een [going]. 69 UAA 
noo. 74 tyy! 76 ttied toed. 77 IA'BRD. voo [foe]. 81 leen. -- z^p, 
zwip [sweep]. 84 mweR mo'eR. 85 ZMBR. 86 wEts waHs. 87 klo'ez kloz. 
89 bwedh b,?^. 90 blAA. 92 nooe [(snoo) dost know ?]. 93 snooi, znoo. 95 
dnoo. - OOTBRT [aught], UOOBRT [naught]. A': 102 a^s. 104 Rh</ed. 
105 RhAd. 109 IAA. Ill AAf [-ft before vowels], AAt. 113 wol. 115 A v m. 
117 WAU waen w^ t n uun [ace. to circumstances]. 118 berai. 120 egA-n. 124 
stwcn sto'en stoo. 125 ani [emph. (Anli) singular]. Rhziup, Rhop [rope]. 126 
6t?R. 127 OBZ. 129 gwes [-ft before a vowel] gost. 130 bwet bo'et. 131 go'et. 
132 A't. - - Rhyy! [row of hay]. 136 AR [or]. 

M- 138 faadhtm. 140 haiel. 141 naiel. 143 taM. 146 main [adv. = 
very]. 147 bRam. 148 feuR. janret [emmet, ant]. 149 bleez. -- seet 
[a seat]. 153 zasdeRDi. M\ 154 ba'k. 155 dha'tj. 158 aadeR 

[ 1585 ] 



[D 10. 

lou eeg. ioi aee. ibt> ma^a. ana |_neaitnj. A y nAn 
>h.]. 170 aniss. 174 aRsh. - vnmlh [to wreathe], vREth [a 
'- Reefy [to reach]. leetj [leech] . 184 leed. 185 nheed. 
3th inf.], dffi-f [left]. 189 WA'!. 190 kee. 192 meen. 193 

226 mAAs [(moBS mwBs) almost]. 

229 bR33th. 

238 eedj. 239 said. 241 Rhain. 
248 me~BR. 250 zwevn. eet 
VEdhBR vaedhBR [feather], 255 

[occ. (aRdBR)]. 160 eeg. 161 dee. 166 maid. alth [health]. 169 
[but (ween) emph.]. 
wreath]. JE' 
187 IE! laef [both 

kliBn [adj.], kleen [adv.]. 194 a 1 ^. 200 weet. JEth [heath]. 202 jEt 
jit ja l t. 203 speetj. miBd [mead], mide [meadow]. 205 dfiffid, 207 
nid. 208 9 l vOT. 210 klai. 213 adhBR. 214 nadhBr. _ 217 eetj. 218 ship. 
219 sleep zl'nsp. 223 dheBR. 225 vlaRsh. 

vraes'l [to wrestle]. 227 waH. 228 

E- 233 speek. 235 weev. 236 feevBR. 
243 plai. 244 wal. - wa 1 !* [willow], 
[eat]. 251 meet. 252 kaH'l. 253 naH'l. 
waadhBR. bsedBR [better!. E: 256 stRaHj. 257 aedj. heed [bed]. 
262 wee. 264 aid. 265 stR^tt. 266 wal. vid [field]. 269 zal. - 
ttcsdv [twelve]. 271 tal. 272 arem. 273 meen [but (meim) man]. 278 
WAntj. in [end]. 280 Iseb'm. - een [hen]. peen [a writing pen, 
(pa'in) a cattle pen]. dR^sh'l, dRaeks'l [tlireshold] . 285 kRis [pi. (kRistez)]. 
286 aRB. baas [best]. E'- 290 i [emph.] sik zik [seek]. 295 
baRD. 296 bleev. 297 faluR. 300 kip [colloquially (kip)]. 301 JaR. 
E': 305 a ! i. 306 a j ith. 309 spid. 312 jaR. giz [geese]. 316 naaks. 

EA- shiBp [to shape]. 319 grep gap gjap. EA: 324 ait. 333 kaav 
kjaav. 324 aav aaf [(afro/af) half and half]. 335 ad A'd. 336 vaal VAA!. 
337 waal WAA!. 338 kjal. AAvis [always]. MBRD [beard]. aRD 
[hard]. 343 waRm. 345 deuR. 346 gid. EA'- 347 eed. 348 a 1 *. 
349 vyvj. EA': 350 deed. 351 la^. 352 Rhe'd, aRD, aRDnis [redness]. 
353 breed baRD. 354 shif shiv. 355 div. 356 liv. 357 thAAf, AA. kReem 
[cream]. 361 b'nm. 363 tjip. ip [a heap]. JaR [year]. 366 gaRT. 
367 dRset. 368 daath. 370 R!IAA. 371 stRoo. El- 376 bA'it. El: 
378 week. EO- 383 zaab'm. 386 joo. 387 nyy x . EO: 388 maUk. 

saUk [silk]. 389 sttk. 390 sh^d [emph.] sha'd [unemph.]. 392 ja'n. 
393 bija^. 397 ZWBRD. faRmBR. 402 laRN. 403 vaR. 405 JEth. 
406 83th. za^tBR [sister]. faRD'N vaRo'N. EO'- Ijj^ [lee, 
shelter]. dRi. vli [to fly]. 415 la 1 !. kRop [to creep]. - VRiz [to 
freeze]. 419 JOBR [emph.]. 420 vauBR [(fauBR) emph.]. 421 faRTi. EO': 
422 zik. Rhid [a reed]. 423 dha'i. 425 leet. 426 feet. 49,8 zi. 430 
fReen. dip [deep]. 435 jyy^ EY- 438 da 1 !. EY: 439 tRa^. 

I- 440 wik. 441 ziv. liv [to live]. 443 VRaHdi. 446 neen. - - iis 
ees [emph.], jaas [fine but common], 448 dhees. 449 ga't. 450 tyy^di. 
I: - dhaRD [third]. 456 if nif. 458 neet. 460 wA'it. 462 seei [large 
number] zeet [vision]. 465 djaHj dje ] s dje^h. 466 tjil. 469 wa 1 ! [will], 
waH [wilt thou]. shin [shin]. 472 slmiqk zhRiqk. 473 bleen bla T in. 
475 win. 476 baHn. 477 va'in. 479 wa j in. 480 dhiq. - skin [skin], 

sha ] p [ship]. aRn [to run]. 482 id'n a'd'n [is not, common], Ed'n [is 

' vish [fish]. 488 it. vrit rit [a 
T- 490 ba j i. 493 dR^v. 
[adj.] 498 VRa T it. 499 bit'l. 

I': ditj [ditch], dik [dyke]. "500 Ia j ik. 502 veev va'iv. 503 la^v. 504 
neev na ] iv. sta ! f [stiff]. 505 wa^v. 506 amt?n. 507 wa 1 min. ai 
[hay]. 508 ma^Bld. 509 wa^id. wit [white adj.], wa'it [pigment subs.]. 
0- smook [smoke]. 523 hop. 524 waRo'L. 0: VRAg [a frog]. 
525 oof [off]. 526 kAAf. 527 bod. 528 dhAA'd. 529 bRaat. 531 daRteR. 
532 kool kAAl. 533 dEl. 535 voks. 536 gwd gool. 544 'n [than], dheen 
[emph. in that case], dhoo [at that time]. shoBR [ashore]. 546 VAR. 

vARk [a fork]. 547 bwBRD. 548 VOBRD. 549 WOBRD [but in composition 
as 'to hoard apples,' that is, to store up, (waRD)]. 550 waRD. vwdh [forth" 

mARnin [morning]. AAS [horse]. 554 knAAS. pAAS [gate post 

pwBst [letter post]. mo'd [mote]. 0'- 555 shyyj. 556 tyy t [emph. 

[in addition], te [even when emph. meaning to an excessive degree^ 
560 sk^l. 561 bl^jrn. 562 m^n. 563 mandi. 564 z^n [but 
zajndist) sooner, soonest]. 0': 569 b^k. 570 t^jk ""(d^kf) taken], 
576 weenzdi. filial Rhyyf [roof]. ba 1 ^. 578 plE'u[incom- 

[ 1586 ] 

not, emph.] 483 a a z [(iz) emph.] fish vis! 
writ]. za'nz [since]. - spaH [to spit]. 
shin [to shine]. 496 a'iBR [subs.] a'ieRN 

557 tj 

558 b 



position as plough-horse (P!E'M)AAS), but the common word for plough is 

ak [hough], 583 t^l. 584 st^l. 586 dyy x . 589 spa^n. 
[goose]. bazBm [bosom]. 593 mas, 595 va^t. 596 ra^t. 597 sat. 

U- 599 Bbaaf. a^d [wood]. 601 va%T?l. 602 za 1 ^. 603 kAm [emph.] 

kRuum [crumb]. 607 baduR. U: 608 agli. zwel [Ws. sulh, a 
plough, see 578]. 610 a^l. p^l [to pull]. 611 balik. 612 SAfin [some- 
thing]. 614 E'em. 615 pE'wnd. 616 gRE'wnd. 617 ZE'wn. 619 BVEVn* 

andBRD [hundred]. 627 zandi. 631 dhazdi. 632 Ap. 634 dRyy t . 
thasti [thirsty]. 635 WEth [(wEtblis) worthless]. 636 vaRd^R, 639 da^stja'wz 
[dusthouse, chaff house, but only in this sense, dust is otherwise called (pa'lem)]. 
IT- 640 kE'w. 641 E'W [however is (wa l veR)]. 647 E'uel. 648 awR. 
649 dha%ztjN. 650 bE'wt [but (bE'ud) before a vowel]. 652 kaa^. 653 bad 
[before a vowel]. U': 654 shRE'wd. 655 fa l wel. 656 Rh^m. dham 
[thumb]. 657 bas'toi. 658 dE'wn. 663 T&'UZ [(E'WZ'I) household]. 665 ma j wz. 
666 aztom. 667 E'wt. 668 pRE'wd, 670 b^dh. 671 ma^dh. 672 zE'wdh. 

Y- 674 dEd dyjd, 676 la ! i. 681 ba l znis. 682 lid'l [but (nit'l) is 
commonly said to children]. eev'l [evil]. Y: 685 aRDj. 689 biul 
[(belt) built]. VAli [follow]. 690 ka'in [ + d before a vowel]. 691 main 
[ + d before a vowel]. 692 jaqgis. 697 baRi. 699 vraHt. ARnrat [hornet]. 
700 WES [used also for worst before a consonant, +t before a vowel]. 701 fas 
[ + t before a vowel]. 703 pa ! t. Y- 706 wa'i. dneem [to dream]. 

deev [to dive]. kit [a kite, (vazkit) furze-kite or falcon]. Y': 
fa^th [filth]. 709 va'iim. vliz [fleece], 


A. 713 heed. 718 treud. 738 pReut. teudi [potato, heard by AJE. 
and others as (teimi), p. 147]. E. walth [wealth]. 750 ba'ig. I. 
and^i. 754 peeg. 756 sh^mp zhRa'mp. wa'pWMp^whip]. 758 gaRD'L. 
0. dAAg [dog]. 791 twoi. U. kw;id [cud]. 796 blyy^ 
Anty! [unto]. 805 kRidz [this form always used], kaRD'l [curl]. 


A- 810 fees. 811 plees. tRees [trace]. 812 l&es. 813 be^k'n. 
820 gai. 822 mai. aid [aid v. and s.] ^pai'd [paid]. 827 eegeR. 

faitjl [to fail]. 830 tRain. saint [saint]. 833 peeR. 835 Reez'n. 
836 seez'n. 841 tia : ns. 845 asnshimt. 847 dasndjaR. 848 tjaendj. 849 
stRsendj^R. 850 da^s. 852 ap^RN. kaR [to care]. kafrnd^R 
[carpenter], saaRsi [saucy], 862 saaf [adj.] se^f [sb. a meat safe]. 
E-- 867 tee. spaRtik'lz [spectacles]. dhaHjez [vetches]. 874 Rhain. 
876 dainti. 878 sa^l'BRi. meen [amend, mend]. 881 seens. aRb 

b] ma3si [mercy]. fe^R [a fair]. 888 saRtin. saR [to serve, 
3rve, earn]. -- neet [neat]. 890 bhw [pi. biBstez)]. 891 fees fi^s [pi. 
stez)]. 893 flauBR [flour =meal is (vlawBr)]. 894 Reesee-v. 
! and Y-- sa'id^R. 901 fa^n. pa'int [a pint]. va'ihnt 
[violent]. 904 va'ihnt [violet]. ZER [sir]. spaRit [spirit], 910 dja'is 
[both in sing, and ph] 

920 pwA'int. djA'int [of a man], dja'int [of meat]. 
sto'^R [story]. 924 tjA'is. 925 VA'is. 926 spt^a'il. 929 kE'wkisnreR. 
[round]. fzi^s [force, and +t before a vowel forced]. so^rt. 939 klot?s. 
947 b^A'tBl. 950 sAp^R. tawer [tower]. paa^h [push]. bAd'l 
[a bottle] mav [move]. 959 kuvAV. U- d^ [due]. dyjk 
[duke]. 960 kee. - fuu-^nt [fluent, said of a river only]. dp'dj [j ud g e ]- 
- WA'it [wait]. Ryfin [i-uin]. 965 A'iul. 969 sho^R. duuRub'l 

durable]. muuzik [music]. 970 djas [ + t before a vowel]. fa^sti 

[ 1587 ] 


D 11 = s.W8. = southern West Southern. 

Boundary. On the n. the n. coast of Co. and Dv. to the b. of D 10, which 
forms the n. and e. b. till it joins the w. b. of D 4. The rest of the e. b. is 
the s. part of the w. b. of D 4= down to Axmouth. The s. b. is the s. coast of 
Dv. and Co. There was much difficulty in determining the w. b., concerning 
which I collected several opinions, and finally follow the information of Eev. W. 
H. Hodge, which I believe to be most accurate. Begin at the Black Eock in the 
middle of the entrance to Falmouth Harbour, and go through the centre of the 
water-way to Truro. Then proceed by land e. of Kenwyn (1 nnw.Truro) and 
w. of St. Erme (4 nne. Truro), e. of St. Allen (4 n. Truro) and w. of Newlyn 
(8 n. Truro), and also west of Cubert (9 nnw.Truro), but e. of Perran Zabulo 
(8 nnw.Truro) to the sea in Ligger or Perran Bay. This border was determined 
by noting the change of speech. Mr. Eawlings, speaking only from general 
impressions, said the b. was probably a straight line from St. Anthony, on the 
e. horn of Falmouth Harbour to St. Agnes Head (9 nnw.Truro). This line, 
beginning practically at the same point as the other, and ending only 5 m. to the 
sw., must be considered as practically identical with it. Mr. Sowell, who wrote 
the Cornish -English version of the Song of Solomon for Prince L.-L. Bonaparte, 
inclines to a line from St. Austell to Padstow. According to Mr. Hodge, Mr. 
Herman Merivale in his " Historical Studies " lays down the border between Celt 
and Saxon, no doubt at a much earlier date, from Down Derry (8 sse.Liskeard) 
to St. Germans (7 se.Liskeard), thence to St. Ive (4 ne.Liskeard), South Hill 
(7 nne.Liskeard), North Hill (7 n.Liskeard), Altarnun (7 wsw.Launceston), Minster 
(13 wnw.Launceston), and to the sea by Forrabury (14 nnw.Launceston). This 
line is just a few miles w. of the e. b. of Co. itself. 

Area. Most of Dv. and e.Co. The w. b. of D 11 is properly the 
w. limit of dialect in England. 

Authorities. See County List under the following names, where * means TV. 
per AJE., f per TH., || systematic, in io. 

Co. *Camelford, Cardy'nham, Landrake, Lanivet, Lanreath, *|| Millbrook, 
Padstow, Poundstock, St. Blazey, St. Columb Major, St. Goran's, St. Ive, 
St. Stephens, Tintagel. 

Dv. *Barnstaple, ||Bigbury, Burrington, * Challacombe, Colyton, *|| Devon- 
port, ||Exeter, *Harberton, *Iddesleigh, c lnstow, Modbury, **North Molton, 
North Petherwin, Parracomb, || Plymouth, Stoke, St. Marychurch, Warkleigh, 
"Werrington, f General. 

Characters. The character of the pronunciation is essentially the 
same as that of D 10, with a few distinguishing particulars. 

JEG, EG are rarely if ever (a'i). They become regularly (ee, 
EE), with more or less of an (') following. 

I' is regularly (af), that is, the (ao') of D 4 after passing through 
(a 1 *) mixed with (a') of D 10, now assumes the regular German 
(aY) sound. It was a matter of course, then, that the (ju, aa) for 
JEG, EG should also be changed. TJ', which was mainly (E'W) in 
D 10, becomes (ao'y! 5 ) as well as I can analyse it, see the note on 
doubt, p. 158 below. Prince L.-L. Bonaparte heard it as French ceu 
in cceur, followed by French u, that is (oe'y), which it certainly 
resembles. How far does this extend ? It is certainly in n.Dv. 
Mr. Baird (Nathan Hogg) acknowledges it in e.Dv., Mr. Shelley 
(Plymouth) in s.Dv. In Co. I have not been able to trace it, with 
certainty, further than Millbrook, just on the e. b. of Co., not even 
in the vv. specimen from Camelford. But I suspect that it really 

[ 1588 ] 

D 11, Vi.] THE WEST SOUTHERN. 157 

pervades Co. as well as Dv. The diphthong is not unlike the 
Dutch ui in huis, or the French cei in ceil. 

I have thrown the whole of this large district together because 
my information is necessarily very deficient upon such delicate 
points as those last mentioned, and the great features seem to he 
the same. There is said to be considerable difference between 
n.Dv. and s.Dv., and between e.Dv. and w.Dv., but this difference 
probably concerns the vocabulary and grammar more than the 
pronunciation. Mr. Shelley's Dartmoor cs. shews, however, con- 
siderable difference from the Iddesleigh cs. Hence it will be 
convenient to consider as Yar. i. n.Dv., and as Var. ii. s Dv. 
including Co., to Mr. Merivale's line, for both. Then Yar. iii. will 
be e.Co., which may be associated with St. Columb Major, extending 
from Mr. Merivale's line to Mr. Hodge's by Truro, that forms the 
boundary of D 11. The w.Co. region D 12 is entirely different. 


I naturally rely on my viva voce from Mr. J. Abbot Jarman, a 
native of North Molton (11 e.-by-s.Barnstaple), which is close to the 
b. of D 10, and from Eev. J. P. Paunthorpe's servant from Iddesleigh 
(15 s.Barnstaple), which comes to nearly the s. b. of n.Dv. They 
were both taken some years ago, North Molton in Oct. 1877, and 
Mar. 1879, and Iddesleigh in Nov. 1877. I begin with the last, 
because having been taken from an uneducated native almost fresh 
from the place and studied closely, it is probably more correct. 


pal. by AJE. from dictation of a native, Mary Anstey, housemaid to Rev. J. P. 
Faunthorpe. For convenience (ao'yi 5 ) has the 5 omitted, see first note. 

0. wai :djaek'i haeth ni3 doo'yit Bbao'y^ ii. 

1. WEL :djAARdj jy x me boodh laaf Bt dMs nyyiZ av main, ii i 
yy! k^iBBth fen dhset ? dhaet)s nadhim JIIBB, JIBE dheim. 

2. vyy! men dai kooz dhe)m laaft set, as nAA, ddimt)as ? ot 
meBk)'m ? T)i]D)'N VEE* lat'kU', iz)vt ? 

3. ao'yiEVBE dh/s iz dha TRyy^h o)t, zo djES oold dhi 
:djAAndj, an bi kwarrat vor aiv dy^)^. aaRk ! 

4. ai bi zanten ai Jii^RD am zee it zam o dheez voks yx went 
DRyyx dhi3 ool o)t dhBR,Z(?'Lvz dha3t ai did se'ev 'Bnaf . 

5. dhet dh^ jaq-ges za 1 ^ ZSL, a gaRT bo* B nain, nAAd)z faadh^Rz 
VA'is 'Bt wsens, dhoo t)waez so kw;eeR en skwee'km, -en ai)d TRa ] s)n 
V'R speek dh^ TRyy^h sen'* dEE'i, is, ai wed. 

6. -en dh-ool wwrn-en 'BRZEL w^d tEL)i dh'B zee^m, teni o i dh^t bi 
laafm nao'yi, ^n tEL)i Rait of, taoy/.' w^dhao'yit' sen-e fas -Bbce'yit 
Bt, ef ryyi)L on p l a?ks ^R, oo'u, waant-BR ? 

7. 8en-i;a)'yii3Rtool -mil, wen ai askst BE, tyyi T?R DEU taimz OVBR, 
D?j))N)t?R ? ^n aR AA-t'n tB bi Raq, on djEs B thq BZ dhset, wat dy! 
i dh^qk ? 

8. WEL BZ ai WBZ zee'in -aR w^d tEL)i, oo'yi ^R vaD'yi n(i ^ n > wen 

[ 1589 ] 



'BE, vao'yind tm, Bn weeBE BE vaD'y x nd im, dhra imaqk'n pEg t?E 
kaalth im maen. 

9. T?E swee^ED BE zid)Bn wee BE on aiz, lafm STEEtjt ao'yit on dhB 

wee iz bsst kdt on, kl<ws tB dhB duBE, dao'jin m dhB 
o dliB leBn. 

10. i waz meekm ap cLf^s B nA'e'z laik B tjil kEarm Bn tee -dps. 

11. mi dhset S&P'ND az as Bn 'BE daa'tBE lee kam DEyy x dh.B bsek 
kdoBETLedj fEBm aeqin ao'yxt dhB WET TLOodhz on dha waeslrm dee, 

12. wailst dha tee'kiTL WBZ bomn VBE tee, wan vam zamBE 
aEtBEnyy^', on'K 'B w*k gun kom nEks dhszde. 

13. Bn dyy^i HAA ? ai UEV'E JSED nAAEt mdo^E ^baD'y^ it bivoo'E 
tedee*, zhdoBEz ai bi kaald :djaek :zhp^ED, Bn ai doont wont taoy// 

14. Bn zoo ai bi gwee'm am tB seae B bt B sapBE. gwd neeBET Bn 
ddoBnt)i bi SB kw^'k tB kaaa OVBE aen'ibode BgeBn, wEn i speeks B waen 

Br dhB tadhBE. 

15. "styy^'d fELBE tELm ap ths oold staf, as dooBnt want to 
:." dh^'s iz dhe laaaest aV shBL zee Bbao'yit it. gwd bai. 


0. doubt. The last element of tlie 
diphthong in this word is precisely the 
same as for (tyy^ two. The lips are 
pouted, the upper lip is especially pro- 
jected, but there was very little closure 
of the lips, not nearly as much as 
when I pronounce (tyy) = Fr. tue, in 
fact the corners of the mouth are 
hardly brought together at all, so that 
an acute angle is left, but the upper 
lip was very much pouted, giving (yi 6 ). 
Both lips are projected, but the upper 
lip far the most. For the first element 
in (ao'y! 5 ) the lips are wide open, and 
then they suddenly dart forward to 
form the (yx 5 ). This action is very 
curious to study on the native lip. 
The openness of the lips for the first 
element excludes (ce) for the first 
element, as Prince L.-L. Bonaparte 
appreciates saying (preface to H . Baird's 
St. Matthew), that "the sound is best 
defined as the French ' ceu ' in ' cceur, ' 
(03) followed by u, the Scottish ' oo ' in 
'moon,' that is, the French 'u' (y) 
with a slight tendency towards the 
'eu' in 'peu' (2) in the same language." 
The speaker rejected (oe^) when pro- 
nounced to her. What the precise 
vowel in the first element may be I 
was not able to determine, but it did 
not seem to be either (a) or (a), and I 
was not satisfied with (). For the 
word too the sudden rise in pitch on 
the second element was most remark- 
able, (too-y! 5 '.'), the stress also falling 
upon it, which quite distinguished the 

diphthongs, as in (:djsek gid iz tyy x 
maaiiv'lz te tyy x boiz, an :tom giv hiz 
tyy 1? tao-y/, tetyy t , tao-y/) 'Jack gave 
his two marbles to two boys [with 
distinct (o) and distinct (i), thus (boiz) 
not (bA'iz)], and Tom gave his two, 
too, to two, too. This change of stress 
from (so'yf.) with if anything a falling 
pitch on the last element, to (ao-y/.') 
with a rising pitch, and without per- 
ceptible glide of the first element on 
to the second, distinguished the two 
sounds so completely, that it was 
difficult to discover that they were 
made up of the same elements. I had 
them pronounced to me frequently 
during two visits, and the distinctions 
were steadily maintained, though the 
speaker was quite unaware of any 

1. neighbour. This word is not used 
as a term of address. Mr. Faunthorpe 
(who had first written the version from 
his servant's dictation, in his own 
spelling, which I altered to palaeotype 
from dictation) had written 'Jarge,' 
meaning (:djaand.j:), and though the 
speaker insisted on (:djAARd;), the other 
seems more correct. will. Mr. F. 
wrote 'wul,' I heard (wi^L, WQ'L). I 
carefully studied the sounds of milk and 
theirselves, and concluded that there 
was a true (L), and that the preceding 
vowel was greatly affected by it. But 
(mi,Lk) seemed best, and not (m'Lk) 
without a vowel, nor (ma^k), but of 
course (i x , 9 1 ) have considerable re- 

[ 1590 ] 

D 11, Vi.] 



semblances. careth. The transition 
(nth) is easy, as the tongue when uncurl- 
ing slides down directly to the teeth, 
but (thR-) or (dim-) is difficult, because 
the tongue has to be curved back 
during the transition, unless we begin 
with the under part instead of the 
upper part, of the tip of the tongue 
against the teeth making (xh, oh). 
This leads at once to the substitution 
of (T, D) for (th, dh) as (TRUU DRy^). 
-for. I have constantly written (BR) 
in these weak words, though I seemed 
to hear only (B), but this I attributed to 
the faintness and shortness of the sound. 
2. they am, for they are, contracted 
to (dhem), and the (e) used for (E) 
because the sound is weak. what. 
(ot) or (wset). it)is)not. I seemed to 
hear every consonant reverted, and the 
(i : ) position was consequently not 
properly formed, destroying its precise 
character . very . Mr . F . wrote ' viirry , ' 
but I seemed to hear (E) modified by 
(R). I did not hear (VBT) with the 
usual trilled (r). But in this case I 
consider the (R) to be trilled, and there 
is no difficulty in so speaking. 

4. safe enough, (ana'f) not (anyji) ; 
they make no distinction between (anaf, 
9n yyi)> an d use the nrs * generally. 

5. trust) him. Mr. F. had written 
both trtis and tris, and I at first appre- 
ciated (TRes) . This shews the difficulty 
of the vowel (a 1 ) to an outsider. day. 
(dEE'i, snEE'il, tEE'il), almost (da38e'i) 
etc., and clearly one of the transitional 
forms from (dai) to (dee). Fair, a 
market, is (feeR) ; the fire is (V&JR). 
The long I' having become (ai) in place 
of (ao'i), it was to be expected that the 
EG, JEG, should pass from (ai) to (ee) 
or some intermediate form. These 
changes shew the original diversity of 
the sounds, which obliged both to be 
modified, if one was. yes, I would. 
I did not feel certain of the vowel in 
(wed). Mr. F. wrote wed and wild? 
could it have been (wa'd) ? 

6. woman. Mr. F.'s cook, from 
Challacombe, said (anven) . Mr. Baird 
always writes humman = (ham -an). 
tell ye. This is how the word sounded 
to me, Mr. Baird always writes tul, 
like Mr. El worthy's (tal) in D 10 (p. 
148, par. 1). This reverted (L) produces 
strange effects. too. See too in note 
on doubt, par. 0. 

7. did not her. such, just is pro- 
nounced in the same way. Mr. F. 
wrote Jiis, jis, jes. 

8. pig, for beast (beest) is too noble a 
word, cattle is always used in place of 
the plural of beast. calleth. Similarly 
(BR waaketh) % A wife says (WEU mi 
msen kamth om) =when my husband 
comes home. man. This word is 
regularly used for husband. 

9. The omitted word length = (lEqkth) 
as usual. The plural of the omitted 
word house is (ao'y^ez) not (so'y^'n). 
corner. Observe inserted (D) . They say 
(tjimblikAARNDBR) = chimney corner ; 
(kaRD'LZ AA! OVBR BR ml) = curls all 
over her head. 

10 child, applied to either sex,, but 
(niEE'id) is the regular word, see note 
on day, par. 5. The question, is it a 
boy or a girl, becomes (boi BR mEE'id) ; 
wench is not used. tedious is used 
especially of fretful children that weary 
the mother by crying, when the (tjil)z 
TCRib'l). To be sick is to be (bad), 
full (a) not (ee). 

11. daughter-in-law. (daa'terlAA) 
is commoner, but son's wife (z8 r nz 
waiv) is most common. wet. Nearly 
(weex), very broad. clothes. Clearly 
initial (TL-) is easier and more natural 
than initial (kL-). The (dh) is used 
at Iddesleigh, but not at Challacombe. 
washing day. The speaker had 
never heard the phrase " Quarter 
Sessions ' ' for washing day, as given 
by Mr. Eock from Barnstaple, and Mr. 
Pulman from Axminster. 

12. tea-kettle. The two last syllables 
pronounced very shortly indeed, with 
no secondary accent like in capital. 
boiling. Without prefixed a-, they 
say (woz boi'Lin, it boi'Lth). 

13. sure,shepperd. Having neglected 
to note the sounds of the words sure, 
shepherd, I follow the usages of Mr. 

1 4 . Good n igh t, a parting good nigh t, 
but when the night is spoken of it is 
called (nait). Observe that (R) was 
distinctly heard in (neeBRT) . again, (CB) 
is very short. 

15. Stupid fellow , telling up this old 
stuff; us don't want to hear-it. This 
was inserted by Mr. F. as a remark of 
one of the persons spoken to. He also 
proposed: (wat 9 gaRT fi/yil dhi aaRt). 
The sound of (fi/y^) is like the Norfolk 
(t'y), or the Lancashire (?'u), a mere lip 
glide, as I seemed to hear it. this, the 
speaker recognised the distinction of 
Mr. Barnes's Dorset " shaped thicky " 
in (dhtki ao'y^) and "shapeless that" 
in (dhaatwAt'R, 

[ 1591 ] 

160 THE WEST SOUTHERN. [D 11, V i. 

MOLTON (12 ese.Barnstaple) dt. 

pal. by AJE. from the diet, of J. Abbot Jarman, Esq., New College, Southsea, 
native. The ( 5 ) means "with projected lips." 

1. zoo ai zee, meets, jji zii naoji 5 ai bi saYt 'Bboo'y^t dha^ dhos 
lit 1 ! mm'd kamm vE^m dha x t dh^E skiyyil OOVOE dhaE. 

2. aE)z gween daoy^n dire Eood dhaE, dsji dhi3 aED get [jet] on 
dhE h'ft a'n zad. 

3. zhw'E naf dhB tjil)z gon straVt ap to dim dyy^E 13 dire Ea ! q 

4. weeE pra*ps shi)l va^ind dhaH dhim dhm dsaqk'n tj^p :tomos 
yyi)z aaED T? ii& 

5. wi a 1 ! noo)n [nooz)im[] VEE WE!. 

6. wont dh^ OOB! tja x p zy^ laaEN aE not te dyy x it 'BgEn, pwws dh/q ! 

7. Iwk ! beent it TEyy x ? 


1. So would not be used; mates long * generally is rendered as (a ! i), as 
would rather be lads, chaps. _Z" and in D 10, but it may be (ai). 

North Molton phrases, pal. by AJE. from the dictation of J. 
Abbot Jarman, Esq. 

The ( 5 ) means ' ' with pro j ected lips . ' ' 

1. (go -en a x ks)^n), go and ask him. 

2. (wi bi go -in), we are going. 

3. (DEOO Bt in dhi a'shez dhas), throw it in the ashes there. 

4. ('BE za 1 ^ DEii 'BE va/y^E zaqz), he (or she) sang three or four songs. 

5. (lEn)z 13 a^), lend-us a hand. 

6. (la^z pE*t't gyid), land is pretty good. 

7. (i wao'y^n ^n E9o'y! 5 n iz a : n DEii 'BE vao'y^E taimz), he wound 

him = eY round his hand three or four times. 

8. (dhe DEaad dh^ vil was dh^ wEts waz), they drawed the field 

where the oats was. 

9. (oni won V dhem '1 dyy^, any one of them will do. 

10. (dhi3 baaE'li ma/y 5 )* the barley mow. 

11. (ao'yi 5 ld iz BE ?), how old is he ? 

12. (ffiZ dha ] t ? 'B skoWo), who's that ? a scholar. 

13. (dhB boi ra^ts -B gy^d rao'y^nd a'nd), the boy writes a good 

round hand. 

14. (aV)i got Eni nyyi bry^z, m's'z ? & l i)v got 12 vyiy l5 oboo'y^t' 

DEii BE vao'yi 5 ^), have you any new brooms, Mistress ? I've 
got a few, about three or four. 

15. (git dhi ap dhaE in dhk dheE adj, im p^k mi dh/k dh^E stick, 

welt?), get thee up there in that there hedge, and pick me 
that there stick, wilt thou ? 

[ 1592 ] 

D 11, Vi.] THE WEST SOUTHERN. 161 

16. (kam m, tjil, dy x )i, im Raki doo'y^n im JEt JBBZE!'), come in, 

child, do ye, and sit down and heak=warm yourself. 

17. (al-oo, dhEn, yyjz ii?), Hulloh, then, who's he? 

18. (a 1 ! bii, dhoo'yi 5 ^RT B vyyj, ii)z, wii)m, Jyy^m BH dhee)m 

gcHn), I be, thou art a fool, he's, we're, you're and they're 


I words from the cs. from Iddesleigh. 

M words from Mr. Jarman's wl. from North Molton. 


A- 3 M beek. 4 M teek. 5 I meek, M meek meekin. 7 M zeek. 8 te &s& 
[to have]. 12 M ZAA. 13 M naa. 14 M dRaa. 17 I lee, M laa. 20 M bm. 
21 M neem. 23 I zeem, M zeem. 24 sheera. 33 M reedh^R. A: 43 M 
a ! n. 46 M ka^'l. 48 M za T q. 42 I seq. 54 I want. 55 M a j sh. 56 I 
wsesh. A: or 0: 60 M loq. 64 I Raq. 

A'- I gwee-in [going]. 72 I yy l5 M &g l [probably (yyO]. 73 I zo. 74 I tyyj, 
M te^. 75 M sti-AAk. 76 M toed. 79 I on, M AAn. 81 I lera. 82 I warns. 
84 I mooBR. 85 M ZOOR. 86 M wEts. 87 I TLoodhz, M tlooz. 89 I boodh. 
92 I UAA. 94 I kRaa. 95 M DRAA. 97 M ZAA!. A': 101 M ook. 102 I 
asks, M a j ks. 104 M RAAd. 105 M RAAd. 106 M bRAAd. 107 M looL 108 
MdAA. 109M1AA. HOlnAART. Ill lAAt. 1131001. 11516m, M 
om. 117 I wan. 118 M boon. 120 I guu. 123 [(nAAt) used]. 125 I Anli, 
M oni. 130 M boot. 131 M goot. 133 M rot. 136 IM adhtJR. 137 I 
nadheR, UBR. 

M- 138 I faadhBR, M vaadhtm. 140 M ml. 141 M neeil. 142 M znml. 
144 I Bg&m, M Bgin. 152 M waateR. M: 154 I b3k. 155 M dhaHi. 158 
I aRteR. 161 I dBE'i, M dm. 163 M 1m. 164 M mm. 166 M mm'd. 169 
I WEn. 170 aaRast. 172 M g'as. 181 M paHh. M'- 182 N zee. 183 M 
tMj. 187 Mlcv. 190 M km. 191 Mm. 193 M klmi. 194 I a3ni, M Em. 
195 M mEni. 197 M tjiz. 200 M weet. 202 M JEt. M': 203 M 
205 M DREd. 207 M nid'l. 209 I UEVBR. 217 M eetj. 218 M shiip. 219 
sleep. 220 I zhip^RD. 223 I dhe^R. 225 M vlesh. 227 I WEt. 228 M zwEt. 
- M jEth [heath]. 229 M hrsdh. 230 M va't. 

E- 232 M biuk. 233 I speek, M speek. 235 M w^v. 236 M ieews.. 
237 M tiiblinz. 238 M a'di. 241 M rmn. 243 M plm. 247 M ween. 251 
M meet. 252 IM kit'l, tee-ktt'l [tea-kettle]. 253 M nid'l. E: 256 I 
STRetj. 257 M a ! dj. 258 M za'di. 259 M wa% 261 I zee, M zeei. 262 
wm. 265 M strmt. 271 I tsl. 276 IM dhiqk. 281 M lEqkth. 284 M 
DRa'sh. 287 M bEzimi [generaUy (brm)]. E'- 297 I fELim. 298 M vil. 
299 M gRiin. 301 M inm. 302 M mit. E': 306 M ait. 312 I jireR, M 
JSR. 314 I jiiuRD, IM jaRD. 315 M vit. 316 I nsks. 

EA- 319 M gaa'p. 320 I Want. EA: 322 IM laaf. 323 M vAAt. 
324 M ait. 325 M waaUk. 326 I ool, M oold. 327 M boold. 330 I oold. 332 
I tool, M toold. 333 M kjWf. 336 M vaa 1 !. 337 M waa 1 !. 338 I kaal. 343 
M waa^m. 346 M git JEt [the last more frequent]. EA'- 347 M Ed. 348 I 
ai. 349 I vyy 1} M vi<?'. EA': 350 M dEd. 352 M aRD. 353 M brEd. 

354 M sheet 355 M d E f. 356 M leeL 357 IM dhoo. 360 M tiim. 361 M 
bmi. 363 M ijeep. 366 I gaRT, M gneet. 367 M DREt. 370 M REE. 371 
M strAA. El- 372 M at a* [(is zhuun), never (ai) simply]. 373 M dhm. 
El: 377 M steek. 378 M week. 

EO- M Ev'n. 386 M JAA. 387 I nyy lf M nV. EO: 388 M mtJLk [so 
it sounded to me]. 389 M jook. 397 M SOORD. 398 M staRv. 402 M ISRN. 
403 MvaaR. 404 M staaR. 405 M JEth. 406 M ERth. 407 M vaRd'n. 
EO'- 411 IM DRii. 414 M vlai. 417 M tjAA. 420 M va'R. 421 MvaRtt. 
EO': 423 M dhai. 425 M lait. 426 M fait. 428 M zii. 430 M VREU. 

E.E. Pron. Part V. [ 1593 ] 102 



[D 11, Vi, ii. 

434 M Toed. 435 I jy,, M jfe'. 436 M TRW'. 437 I TRyy^h, M 
EY- 438 IM dai. EY: 439 IM TRa's. 

I- 440 IM wik. 441 M zeev. 442 M aivi. 446 IM nain. 448 IM dheez. 
449 M git. I: 458 M nait, I neeimx [in the phrase, good-night, only]. 
459 IM Rait. 460 M wed. 466 IM tjil. 468 M tjiDRin. 475 M win. 477 
M vain. 478 M grain. 479 M wain. 480 I thiq dhEq. 481 M viqgBR. 
482 Iiz)i?t? [is it], T^'N [it)is)not]. 485 M dniz'l. 488 M jit. I'- 494 
IM taim. 499 M bid'l. I': 500 IM laik. 506 I wwnren, M ool dwnren. 
507 M wimiq. 509 I wailst. 510 I main. 

0- 519 I OVER. 520 M bAA. 521 M vool. 522 M op'n. 0: 525, ii. 
I of. 526 M kAAf. 531 I daateR. 533 M dal. 534 M AA!. 535 I vok. 
536 M goold. 538 I wed. 539 M bao'y^l. 541 I waant [emph.]. 542 M 
boolt. 548 M vo'tmd. 552 M kARN. 554 M kras. 0'- 555 M sh^ shyy^ 
556 I taoyV 557 I taoyV 559 M modh^R. 562 M miy>. 564 M zy^n. 
0': 569 M bwk. 570 M twk. 571 I gwd. 572 M blad. 573 M flad. 
574 M br yi d. 575 M st yi d. 577 M boo')^ 5 . 578 M plaoyi 5 . 579 IM tmaf. 
583 M tyj. 586 I dy^ 587 I dy^. 588 I nyy^. 589 M spy^. 590 M 
vlo'uR. 594 M by^. 595 M vy^. 596 M Ryjt. 597 M sy^. 

U- 601 M fao'y! 5 !. 602 M zso'jf. 604 I zameR. 605 I z^n, M zan. 
606 I dui3R, M doBR. U: 609 M \ul. 610 M wul. 611 M balek. 
zam. 613 M DRaqk. 616 I gRao'yjn. 619 I vso'y^d. 625 M toq. 
zan. 631 I dhazde. 632 IM ap. 633 M kap. 634 I DRvyj, M DR*. 
wEth. 639 Mdist. U'- 641 IMa/y^ 643 IM nao'yi- 646 M 
647 M ao'y! 5 !. 650 I Bba^t. 651 I widhao'y^. 652 M kwd. U': 
IM dao'y^n. 659 M tao'y^n. 663 M ao'y^s. 664 M Iso'y^s. 667 IM ao'y^. 

Y- 680 M bizi. 682 M lit'l. , Y: 684 M baRDj. 685 M Ridj. 688 
M szytj. 691 M main [(miin) was given as n.Dv. by Mr. Shelly, see p. 165]. 
Y- 706 IM wai. Y': 711 M loe'y^zez. 
by Mr. Shelly, see sw.Dv. p. 165]. 


A. 732 I p'nd. E. 744 M m^z'lz. 
IM pEg. 758 M ga'l [little used, (tjil)]. 
773 M daqk. 790 M gao'y^n. 791 I boi. 
kw;eer. 804 I DRaqk'n. 806 I fas, M vas. 

612 M 
629 M 
625 M 


712 M mais [(miis) was given 

750 M ba^. I. and Y. 754 
0. 761 M lood. 767 IM nA'is. 
U. 797 I skweekin. 798 I 
807 M py^. 808 M pat. 


A.. teedps [tedious]. 824 M tiiiR. 
836 M aeez'n. 840 M tjEm^R. 862 I srcf. 

E-- 867 I tee, M tee. 878 M saUuRi. 
zaRTin. 890 M beest [pi. (bees)]. 894 M 

! and Y-- - kRai [cry]. 

830 M TRmn. 835 M R^z'n. 

864 I kooz. 865 M vAAlt. 

885 I VERi. 888 I zaRten, M 

895 M neseev. 
901 IM vain. 904 M vo'ilet. 0-- 916 

M iqinz. 922 M bwshd. 923* M mo'ist. 925 I VA'is. 929 M 
933 M frant. 938 I ICAARNDBR. 939 I kloos. 940 I kot. 941 M vyj. 
I boil. 950 I sapm. 955 I dao'y : t. U-- 963 ktv&i'vt. 965 M o'il. 
I zhooBR, M zhy^R. 870 I djES, M djist. 971 M 



Dartmoor, north of a line from Plymouth to Kingsbridge (17 ese. Plymouth), 
pal. by AJE. from the glossic of Mr. John Shelly, 8, Woodside, Plymouth, 
a resident for thirty years, who has especially occupied himself with the glossary 
of the dialect, but is a native of Norfolk. Full explanatory notes have been 
given of every point of difficulty, and Mr. S.'s indications are strictly followed. 

0. waaV :djan hez noo doe'yts. 

1. WE!, soos, jy im ii mra booth gr^'z'l et dhis)j'8 
moa'mz dhEt ? dhEt-s needh^e ja rm 

13 maom. 

[ 1594 ] 

D 11, Vii.] THE WEST SOUTHERN. 163 

2. $99 vook da'/ bekyyz dhEE)m laaft oet, es nAA dhfit ; doont)es ? 
wset sh/d mEE'k)n ? t)Ez)n zv laa/kl/, ez et ? 

3. 0<?dhi3mAAi3R dhEEz-ra ER dhi3 faeks i3-dh^ kEEs, so dj/s hool JB 
baal, soos, im bi kwaa'/-i3t tel a'/-v ra-d/n. lwk)jaR. 

4. a'/ i3m zhu'BR [zhoBR] a'/ jaRd)n zee zam 13 dhEE vook ^t 
WEnt dhr<?0 dha hool dhsq vram dha vaoRst dtmzEl'vz dhat dEd 
a'/, zhuuimaf. 

5. i?t dhra JEq-gest z/n h/zsalf', a gamt bA'/ i3v na'/n, nAAd az 
vaa-dhBz voo'/s te wsens, dhof et 'wez ZB k^e'^R -en sk^ee'km, 'en 
a'e')d tn'st 'hii te speek dh'B tr^th sen-* d^^, es 'fEE, a'*' wed. 

6. an dh)ool hwnran 'esalf' al tEl sen'e av jyy, at stan gr^'z'lm 
dhiii3R, ^n tsl)! straa/t Af tyy, adhoe'yt mtj bodh-^R, il j^)l on'* 
eks)B ty, AA, waant-^R ? 

7. ^dhBrnAABR h'BR toold et 'mii wsen a'e aekst)i3, tyy 'B dhr^^ 
taa'emz, AA-V^R, h^R dEd, -Bn -haDR AAft not ta bii rseq on z^'tj ^ 
dhEq)z dlie's, waet dyy)i zm ? 

8. WE!, ez 'Q f i wez vzee'in, 'haoR w*d tEl) noe'y, wii^R, im wsesen 
foe'yn dh^ drak-n be<?st, B kaalth ^ niEE^sta. 

9. h^ ZWAA^R 'B zAA)n w* "BR AAn aa^'z, laa'rm spr<?<?d -Bbraa'd 
on dhT? 00th, in ez goed zm*d koorat, hoom ta duu' a dha noe'yz, 
doe'yn ta dha kAAn'd^R i? dheek-e leen. 

10. a wez kmz-lm, h^ z^d, BR aal dire waaRl la^'k'Btjiil dhet)s 
baed, ar a vm'ed gaDRl. 

11. ^n dhat wez, ez hB k<?<?m thruu dha bae'klet w/dh ^ 
daa-tBR)n)laa, vrBm hsq-m ce'yt dh^ wEt klooz te draaV on ^ 

12. waVl dht? kEt-'l WEZ baa'^'lm B t^, waan vaa'm brii^t 
aa'ten^n, on-/ ^ wEEk ^goo, kam nsks dhaDRZ'd/. 

13. mi dyy)/ nAA? a'* m'va laaRnd sen-/ mAA)n dh/s 13 dha3k'/ 
b/zn's hoom te dhes maamn, Z-B zhuu'B)z ma'/ neem)z :djaan :zhep"Bd' 
en Q f i doont waasent ty, n^^-dha gwnoe'y. 

14. an zoo a'^m gaam om te zap-BR. rgoeoed nii^t, n doont)i 
bii ZTB kwEk te krAA AA-VB mm agen, waen a tElth B dh/s 'Bn dhat 
Bn dh)adhi?R. 

15. t)ez a too-tlm vyyl, at tElth -Bdhoe'yt ween'in. -Bn dhEt)s 
ma'/ laa^s wad. :goed ba'/ toe)/. 


0. ;%. Mr. S. has given various vowels Mr. S. takes as common; finally 
analyses of this diphthong (d'i, Qd'i, ai, when fully pronounced he acknowledges 
aai). I follow the one chosen in any (B), but the words are often much 
particular case. He found a variety in clipped, and then he hears the same 
actual use, hut is inclined most to (fit 1 *). effect as in London, a simple (), but 
See also the following Devonport and it is probahly ( R ) or () with tJ 
Millbrook. doubts. This diphthong is tongue turned up, the difference is very 
also variously indicated, hut Mr. S. slight, and Mr. S.'s (B) is here left. 
generally gives (ce'y), following Prince 2. news. When final and emphatic 
L.-L. Bonaparte, and finds a rounding the sound seems to become (y) and to). 
of the lips in the first element. between which Mr. S. hesitates ; (yj 

1. soce. Earely used in S. Dv., recalls both. Mr. S. being a Nf. man, 
supposed to be a N. Dv. word ; it is finds the sound less clear in Dv t 
plural. grizzle or grin; the r before in Nf., and thinks (*) or Bomething 

[ 1595 ] 



[Dll, Vii. 

between (?) and (y) more common. 
because they am for they are. The form 
(bikyyz) seems rather to be by course, 
for (ev kyys) is used for of course. 

3. either -more, that is, however. 
bawl or noise. look. Mr. S. also 
writes (loek). 

4. through. The (dr-) initial seems 
almost lost here, but (dryy) occurs at 
times, also (dreks'l) threshold. 

5. though, the (f) is common. yes 
faith I would. 

7. three. This is said to be the 
ordinary form. Mr. S. has, however, 
heard (drii) once or twiee. ought. 
Compare though in par. 5. what do 
you seem = think, a common Dv. word. 

8. drunken. Observe the northern 
form (drak-n). her (she) calleth her 

master (husband). Observe the use of 
the form calleth in eth ; common in Dv. 

9. lying spread abroad on the earth. 
home close or fully up to. corner 
of thackey (that, yonder) lane. 

10. crewsling = complaining, the 
word is not in the glossaries. bad = 
unwell, sick would mean vomiting. 
vinnied, mouldy as applied to cheese ; 
cross or peevish, as applied to children. 

13. good now (last word). Mr. S. 
says that he never actually heard 
this phrase in the neighbourhood of 
Plymouth, but that it is common in 
N. and E. Devon. 

14. night, no (R) in s.Dv., but see 
p. 159, note to par. 14. to crow over 
any one (min) is a common word. 

15. toiling, dottering. 


written in Glossic by Mr. J. Shelly, and pal. from that and other indications 

by AJE. 


A- 3 beek. 4 teak. 5 meek. 6 meed. 7 seek. 19 iee\. 20 leem. 21 
neem. 22 teem. 23 zemn. 24 zheem. 25 meen. 32 baath [as the rec. subst.]. 
33 radhBR. 34 las. 

A: 41 dha3qk. 43 been. 44 lam. 46 kan'l. 51 maan. 54 waant. 55 
Eshez. 56 WEsh. A: or 0: 58 vrim vram. 59 IEEUI. 60 loq. 62 straq. 
64 raq. 65 zoq. 

A'- 69 nu. 72 99. 73 zoo [emph., (ze) unemph.]. 74 \ao tyy [emphatic]. 
76 twued. 78 AA. 79 AAn. 81 len. 84 mueR moBR. 87 klooz. 92 nAA. 
94 krAA. 95 dhrAA. 

A': 102 Eks, EEks. 104 rued rot?d. 105 rAAd. 110 nat. Ill AAft. 115 
horn [h generally sounded]. 117 wAn [e.Dv. wa3n]. 121 gaan. 122 nAAn. 
123 nAthin. 124 ston. 125 o-ni. 127 boos, hoos. 129 goo'wst. 130 boot. 
133 rAAt. roov [a row or rank]. 

JE- 138 vaadhuR. 140 heel. 144 egE-n. 150 leesi. 152 waHtni. JE: 
160 eeg. 165 zed. 166 meed. 169 wen warn. 173 WEZ. 175 fas faz. 179 
wa j t. M'- 182 zee. 183 teety. 184 1ml. 185 rml. 190 kee. 192 
meen. 193 kleen. 194 eni. 195 meni. 199 hleei. 200 weei. 202 jet. 
JE': 203 sp^etj. 213 mlhBR [only in eithermore= however], 215 taai. 216 
Aeel. 217 eei$. 218 zhip, zhep. 219 zk*p. 223 dhiuR. 224 W'IBR. 226 

E- 232 briik. 233 spoils.. 238 a3dj. 241 reen. bnm'l [bramble]. 
248 miiBR. eei [eat]. 251 meet. E: 257 dj. 261 zee. heed 
[a bed]. twelv [twelve]. 272 el'm. 280 leb'n. 281 Wqkth. 284 
drEsh. E'- 290 hii [emph., gen. (e) unemph.]. 292 mii. 293 WE [emph. 
(93)]. 300 keep. 301 JSR. 302 meet. 303 zweet. E': 305 di. 306 eet, 
ei?t. 311 tEn [usually half a score]. 312 JSR. 314 jamd. 316 nii^st. 

EA: 322 la'f. 324 ait B'tt. 325 waak. 328 kld. 335 aa\. 336 v^ml. 
337 waal. 343 wRm. 346 gist. EA': 347 h^d. 348 ai B'I. 349 M&9. 
EA': 350 dml. 352 9Rd. 355 diif diiv. tdi [verb], tai [subs, in bed-tie, 
the local name for feather-bed]. 361 b^n. 363 t^eep. 371 strEE straa. 

El- 373 dh^. El: 378 w^k. EO- 383 zaib'n zeb'n. 385 bin^h, 
bin^dh. 387 nw. EO: 338 milk. 390 shid. 402 laRn. 406 eedfta. 
407 vaRd'n. EO'- 411 dhr^. 412 shii [emph. obj. (BB teld -shii te du et)]. 

[ 1596 ] 

D 11, Vii.] THE WEST SOUTHERN. 165 

414 vlai, vlE'i. 417 tja'w. 420 VAABR. EO': 425 la'it [rarely (liret)l. 
430 vrind. 434 b^t. 435 s& [gen., unemph. (i) meaning ye ?]. EY- 438 
d#i [very much drawled], EY: 439 trist. 

I- 440 week. 446 na'in [drawled]. - p^z p^z'n [pea peas]. 449 git. 
I: 452 a'i, at. 455 lai IB'. 458 na'it [rarely (niret) as in e.Dv.f. 459 ra'it 
[correct, but (rat) straight]. 460 w^'jt. 462 za'it. 465 siti ziti. 466 trful 
gild [a guild]. 473 bla'in blaind. 475 wind. 476 bwaind, [occ.l barad. 
477 va'tn. 479 waind. 485 dtesh'l. 488 jt. zeks [occ. ziks] bet 
[hit]. I'- 490 bai bfi'i. 491 sa'if. 493 faeev. 499 bit'l. I': 500 
la'ik [rarely (lek)]. 502 vaiv. 503 la'iv. 505 wa'iv [rarely used].' 506 

0- 522 AAp'n. 523 hAAp. baRn [born]. 524 waad'1. 0: 528 
theft [subst.] thoft [vb.]. 531 daatvn [rarely (daftea)]. 534 hAAl. 538 wid, 
id. 552 kaRn. 554 kraas. 0'- 555 sha*. 560 sbwl. 562 m^n [perhaps 
more gen. (myyn)]. 564 zyn [very short, or (zin)]. 565 UAAZ. 0': 569 


570 ik. 571 gad. 572 bL?d. 575 stod. 576 WEnzdi. 582 kaal. 
al. 585 brym braam [more gen. (yy)]. 586 dyy, fea. 587 din. 588 
589 sp^n. 590 [(plaenshin) that is, planking, is used for floor]. bazmn 

[bosom], 594 bat. 595 vat. 

U- 599 byy. 606 doroa. U: 608 ugli. 615 pce'yn. 618 woe'ynd. 
619 voe'yn. 620 grce'yn. 629 zin. 636 vadh^R. IT'- 640 koe'y. 641 oe'y. 
643 noe'y. plim [plum], 652 kid, kyd. 653 bit. U': 656 warn. 
659 toe'yn. 663 hce'ys. 

Y- 674 dad. 677 drat. Y: 684 baRdi. 685 aRdj. 686 bai. 689 
bild. kiinli [kindly]. 691 main [(miind) in e. and n.Dv.]. Y'- 706 
waa'i [occ. (wee}]. 712 [(miis) at Totness and in n.Dv.]. 


A. 718 trad tretjd. 737 me^t. I and Y. 754 peg. U. pwd'n 
[pudding]. bish [bush]. 


A-- 815 faks. 842 plsensh. 852 eepun. maRtjent [merchant]. 854 
baael. 864 bik^-z. E-- S67 tee. zaiiv [serve], I-endX- 910 
djaa'ist. 0-- rab [rob]. 916 i-qren. dja ! in [join], 922 bish'l. 
938 kAAnd^R. zaRt [sort]. 941 vyyl. 952, i. kyys, ii. \&?s [hence probably 
(bik^-s) by course, in or of course, used for because, see 864]. 956 kivBR. 
TJ-- 960 Yee. djidj [judge]. pwpit [pulpit]. 969 zhoBR. 970 
djist djes. 


B is not omitted after m, except in (brim'l) bramble, and when final. 

Ch remains except occasionally in (kist) chest. 

D remains after n, but is omitted after ol in (ool kool) old cold, it is inserted 
in (kAAndBR) corner, dd does not become (dh) when medial as in ladder. 

F initial is often (v). 

H is seldom dropped, according to Mr. Shelly, but sometimes prefixed in emphatic 
words, and replaced by (j) in (jet, j^feR, J80M, Joe'yl) heat, heifer, handful, 

L is never dropped, and -Im final becomes often two syllables as (erem f ilam) 
elm film especially in e.Dv. 

N becomes I in (ii-vlin jirvlin) evening. 

R is (B) only when dwelled upon, Mr. Shelly not feeling sure that it is really 
pronounced, he says he heard 200 children singing " send her victorious, 
happy and glorious " and could detect no r at all. If seems probable that he 
had not separated (a, a, B) simply, from these sounds as modified by turning 
up the tongue, which alters their character. I have consequently, as the 
result of much correspondence, introduced (R) frequently in the preceding list 
and cs. although in his first writing he omitted it. As I was a considerable 

[ 1597 ] 



[D 11, Vii. 

time myself before I could recognise this very peculiar modification, I can 
well appreciate his difficulty. My own impression is that it is always reverted 
or retracted, even before vowels, and when preceding t, d, n, I reverts or retracts 
these also. But these cases I have left unmarked. The following cases, 
where Mr. S. marks the absence of r, may therefore be marked, as in other 
S. cases, as having a transposed r, (kaRzniBS gaRt gaRts #?p^Rn antj band 
bsntjran) Christmas great groats apron rich bread breeches.- 
S of the plural becomes (-n) in (hce'yztm bot'l'n p^zun) houses bottles peas. 
T is lost in (wis'l, kaas'l, dsesh'l, raes'l, AAf'n ; eek fsek) whistle, castle, thistle, 

wrestle, often ; act, fact. 

Th, there is "a general tendency to substitute (dh) for (th), as (dhiq) for (thiq)." 
V is lost in (gii) give, and becomes (b) in (zeb'n) seven, it never becomes (w). 
W is omitted before r and in (hwd, hwnren) wood woman ; would is (wid) ; wh is 

always (w). 

My especial thanks are due to Mr. Shelly for the great assistance which he has 
given me and the work he has done for me in sw.Dv., from 1868 to 1886, con- 
tinually attending to every point of difficulty which arose. It will be perceived 
that he is mainly corroborated from Devonport and Millbrook, the differences 
being simply those of appreciation, and that the real differences in n. and s., e. and 
w.Dv. and e.Co. are not sufficient to form districts for, but are mere varieties of 
substantially the same dialect. 


Town pron., pal. by AJE. from the diet, of Mr. John Tenney, Chancery Audit 
Office, native, compared with that of Mr. J. B. Eundell, native, see Millbrook. 

1 . soo 1 ae'i see/, mEEts, jiji 5 s*Y neo'yi 5 * dlret sz'i bi r,8'i 
dha a t Kt'l meez'd kamm fr^m dire skivel [skyy^l] OV^E, dhetm. 

2. shii)z [ar 7 )z] gueen doo'y/n dire r 7 oo 15 d [i/T^d] dhe'er, 
dins r/d gEEt on dire lift a*nd sse^'d i3v dhB wee*. 

3. shoo^r, naf dire tjil)z gAAn str^Vt op tyf dire doo 15 ^ 

4. we^r 7 p^a^s shii)l [ar^lj fae'md dha a t dr^qkm diif 
op K!^ kAAld :tomas. 

5. wi [as] nbz)'n VEI/ we 1 '!. 

6. wo)nt dhi oo l& l tja x p sy^n teetj)^^ not ty! 5 dyy^ it 


7. l! 5 k ! EE)nt 


Observe that (o 15 , jf) mean (o 1 , y v ) 
with projected lips. The letters o, p, Q, 
are called (oo 15 , pii, kyy^), but coal is 
called (kAl). Mr. T. himself noted 
that in so you it was necessary to 
project the lips considerably to bring 
out the sound. 

1 . J. The analysis of long I is not 
perfect. I write as I seemed to 
observe. Mr. T.'s varied between (a3'i) 
and (a'i). Mr. Rundell seemed gener- 
ally to use the latter. Perhaps both 
meant (a j i) at all times. you. This 
seemed to be diphthongal in Mr. 
T.'s speech. I did not observe this 

character in Mr. R.'s. now. This 
diphthong was precisely the same as at 
Iddesleigh, both for Mr. T. and Mr. 
E., though perhaps less forcible in the 
s. than in the n. right. The r in 
Mr. T.'s pron. was treated very much 
like the London r as I at first appre- 
ciated. But after attentively examin- 
ing Mr. R.'s, I concluded that his was 
retracted (r,) and not reverted (R), and 
this agreed with Mr. R.'s own appre- 
ciation, see Millbrook. As both Messrs. 
T. and R. were natives of Devouport, 
I concluded that Mr. T.'s had been 
more reduced to the London level. 

[ 1598 ] 

D 11, Vii.] 



school. I appreciated (skui3l), and Mr. 
T. wrote skootil. But Mr. E. decidedly 
had (skyyj), which would be the 
regular form. 

2. she is and her is are quite inter- 
changeable. Mr. T. wrote shee-z, and 
Mr. E. ur-z. through. Both Mr. T. 
and Mr. E. gave (thr,-) and not (dr,-) 
in this word. Eev. H. S. Wilcocks of 
Stoke, which adjoins Devonport, gave 
dr-, which is certainly the purer form, 
though Mr. T. said he had heard 
(thr-) five miles away in the country. 

3. enough. Mr. T. had never heard 

enow. child. Mr. T. says (tpil) is 
used for either sex. 

4. dried up, because shrivelled is not 
used, but (shr,) is used, as (shrimps, 
shr^b). called. This word would be 
used, name = (nEEm) . 

6. chap is not often used, (ma^) is 
more common ; a woman will speak of 
her husband as (mse'i tja ! p) ; the man 
generally speaks of his wife as (mse 1 ! 
raises), but (00 15 ljd)amen) may also be 
heard. thing, with (th-) in town and 
(dh-) in country. 


2 sw.Plymouth, on the other side of the Hamoaze. Specimen written in 
glossic by Mr. J. B. Eundell, of the Science and Art Department, South 
Kensington, who lived there as a boy from 4 to 10, and has had frequent 
opportunities of refreshing his memory. Pal. by AJE. from w. instruction in 
1885. The specimen is supposed to be a dialogue between two persons A and B, 
and is constructed so as to bring in the principal peculiarities. The pron. is 
thorough s.Dv., and Mr. Eundell states that having had occasion to visit 
Padstow in Co., he was surprised to find the speech practically the same. 

1 A. gyxd mai^mn tji)i, neeb^r,. Jyi)m op brev^nja^b' dhes 
matron, we^r, bii ragween ty x zo zy : n ? 

2 B. AA ! gjid marram tj! 'Jyyi, maV dfer, ! waV, jj! zii var^mer, 
robzez tjiil)z ^ty^k baed we'dh dire meez'lz, un. aV)m gween 

t dokter y z a/y^s ty : vEtj)'n varj'n. 

3 A. AA ! ar 7 )z Bgot dire meez'lz EV)!?^ ? [aeth ^r^. arjz 
kryj w/sht va^ dh/s var^na'^t psest. TBT, modhB^ ta'wl mi 

git TBY / ty! eet nothm Bn VY, waz -ez week)s)t? raebm. 

4 B. s, a' zid va^m^^ :obz h^zsElf 'steEde, sez d'i wez in dhi3 
viil d^ee'm ta^m^ts, im)i)zEd i thoft i mas kael m dh^ dokter^ az 
di w^z -ekomm op dh^ leen djes nao'y! s'i mEt)'n i3gE*n, ^n i sekst 
mi ty x go vArJ'n ty! wonst. 

5 A. jy^d bEtu^ mEk eest dh'n. shl Q f i zii)i ba'*)m)ba^' in din? 
eevnz'n set dliu trdl/wfqk? 'Bn wii)l v 13 


1 . good. The sound was decidedly a 
deeper (y), approaching (3), in some 
cases almost (a). morning, the (B) was 
decidedly retracted and not reverted, it 
was very faintly marked, not nearly 
so strong as at Iddesleigh. neighbour, 
the (ee) did not seem to approach (ce], 
and there was no suspicion of a following 
('j). you}m, you am, the regular con- 
versational form. up, this form (op, 
Ap, AAp) seems to run through this 
group, D 10 and 11, and indeed occurs 
also in D 4. 

2. my, this (a't) was the nearest 
approach I could make to this diphthong, 
which was certainly not (ai), and not 
even (a ! i), before mutes, but became so 
before sonants, as white, wide (wa'it, 
waid) . down town house, atfirst hearing 
this diphthong sounded to me as (Q'U) and 
it was not till after close examination 
and continual repetition that I was con- 
vinced the sound was (oe'y! 5 ). See the 
remarks on Iddesleigh (p. 158) ; the 
action of the mouth was identical with 
that there described, wide open for the 

[ 1599 ] 



[D 11, Vii, iii. 

first element, with the lips closed nearly 
and projected for the second. house 
with final (s) not (z), to doctor's house 
to fetch him for him. 

3. her~, used either for he or she. Mr. 
E. did not know of the distinction (u, 
BR) he, she. wisht, whished, poorly, 
haggard. told, here I think the diph- 

thong was (B'U) or (6u), it was certainly 
not (ao'yj). robin, the bird. 

4. drawing, i.e. pullingup, turnips. 
thought, the form (thoft) with (f ) is very 
common. at once, the sound seemed 
more like (wonst) than anything else. 

5 . by and bye, tidliwink small public - 
house or beershop. 

VAE. iii. e.Co. 


pal. by AJE. from dictation of Miss Ada Hill, native, student at 
Whitelands, June, 1881. 

1. zoo ai zee, meets, ju zii na'w dbet &i bi nut Bba'wt dhat h't'l 
kamm from dbek* sku y l. 

2. aE)z -B girth da'wn dfre rorad dbaE tbruu dire rEd ge-et on dbs 
ban saYd 13 dbi3 ^wee. 

3. sbooE moot* dbi? tjiild)z gbn street ap te dbe doBE B dbu roq 

4. waE 3E)1 bi lak t faind dbek draqk'n diif w^z'nd fEl^ ^ dh^ 
ne^m 'B :tomas. 

5. as A AT. noo)^n vEr WE!. 

6. want dhe ool tjap zun teetj [laEN] aE not te du)/t "Bgm [-egen], 
puuE db*q ! 

7. Iwk ez)'nt [ed)'nt] t trww ? 


1. mates, (sam), not (zini), is com- 
monly used in place of ' mate,' even to 
old people. now, I wrote (Q'U) from 
dictation, but do not feel at all certain, 
because of my initial mistake for Mill- 
brook (p. 167 note on down), that it 
was not (ao'yi 6 ) nere an( ^ a * St. Colomb 
Major notwithstanding the different 
analysis. I be, so generally, Miss H. 
never heard I's (see Cardynham) nor 
I are, but she knew we'm you'm for 
we are, you are. girl, Miss H. had 
heard (gaRD'l), (meed) maid, is common 
enough for a young girl under twelve, 
(tjiild) is only used for children before 
they can speak properly, and she did not 
know of its exclusive confinement to 
girls. She, however, uses it generally 

in par. 3. that, (dheki) a very common 
word. school, not (skyyjl), there was 
a tendency towards (u) shewn by (uv) . 
I got schule sheur from Padstow. 

2. through, Miss H. was confident 
that it did not become (DRUU DRyi), 
although (DRii) takes the place of (thrii), 
see also Millbrook. I got drew from 

3. enough, " (-ena'f) is also heard, 
not (enrf)." 

4. wizened, shrivelled not known, 
but (shr-) initial is used. 

6. chap is properly a young fellow 
who works in the quarries, called also a 
" quarry nipper." thing, think, both 
have initial (dh) . 

Tbe two following dt. are given witb mucb hesitation, but tbey 
are tbe best I could obtain, and tbe writers bad taken so mucb 
trouble tbat I tbougbt it best to insert tbem. 

[ 1600 ] 

D 11, Viii.] 



CARDY'NHAM (3 ene.Bodmin). 

dt. from a very careful translation in io. with long aq. by Mr. Thos. H. Cross, 
national schoolmaster, not a native, but much of my interpretation remains 
conjectural. The pronunciation was obtained by Mr. Cross from an old 
labourer whose family had been 150 years in the parish. 

1. zoo rfi we, bo'z, je^ zii HE'U, Bt aV)m rait bewt dlitk* let'l 
meed kam^n freni dhe skuul jmdi3R. 

2. aR)z i3gam ds'un dhiki ro^d dhiim thru dhe rad gfet 'en dhe 
left haen said BV dhe wee. 

3. sho^r -Biirf dire tjil vz gA'^n strM op te do^r ^v dhe raq E'US. 

4. WM3R en wil tjaens te vend dha'k^ droqken dif wizend fetes, w 
dhe ne^m ^v :tamBs. 

5. as col nooz im wEre wel. 

6. weent dhk owld sm sewn teetj shi nat te de'yjet gen, puim 

7. lak st! Bd)'n)ft trau ? 


1. so, say. The initial (z) was 
written in these two words only, not 
in soon and side. This may have been 
an oversight. boys, written bo-oys, 
which, judging from other spellings, 
may mean (bo'iz), but (boiz) seemed 
the more probable sound. you written 
ya-ew and explained " a as in hater, u 
as French u, ya-u quickly." now, ex- 
plained "same sound a, ow as in cow, 
pronounced quickly, the a very distinct." 
that, the abridged form (rat), said to be 
"very common." I am written oi um 
with the variant /'s, which is also stated 
to be "very common, more so than oi 
um." In 1865 TH. heard (o*)z)a'd) I 
have had, from a miner from Gwennap 
(3 se.Redruth), but that is in D 12. I 
conjecture that oi, which was used in 
right side, meant (a'i). school written 
skole, altogether doubtful. yonder, Mr. 
C. says he never heard yinder till he 
came here, but has often noticed it. 

3. " cTieel is the term for girl" 

4. find, the form vend was unex- 
pected. drunken written dro-un-ken 
and said to be so pronounced, which 
is so unlikely that I have not ventured 
to give it. Mr. C. may have meant 
that o was substituted for u, as in 
the next note, see also (op) written 
op for up. 

5. all, " there is a remarkable 
presence of the letter o which gives 
the word the sound of (h)ole," but he 
writes o-all, so his dro-un-ken may 
indicate a substitution. very, Mr. C. 
has never heard (w) for (v) in any 
other word, "and in this case it is 
only in slight use," it is probably 
an error. 

6. sonny, commonlyusedasanaddress, 
but said to have been obtained from a 
labourer in this phrase. 

The r I have left unmarked before a 
vowel, from pure uncertainty. 

ST. COLUMB MAJOH (11 wsw.Bodmin) 

and about ten miles round ; dt. written by Mr. T. Rogers of the St. "Wenn 
National School, Bodmin, with the help of the members of the Reading 
Room, in which each portion of the dt. was discussed. The original io. 
was difficult to understand, and although Mr. R. kindly furnished very full 
explanations, I cannot be quite sure that I have always interpreted them 
rightly in the following pal. translation. 

1. sLzoo ai s|_z^, kommrdz, d)i SLzii nodo dhrat ai)m ratt boo'0t 
dhiki lit'l m0d kamm fran dh^ sk[ouul JAAndOT. 

2. shii)z geen dodon dirt? rood dhiiim druu dhu rEd gM on dhB 
h'ft haen s[_zaid ov dim wee. 

[ 1601 ] 



[Dll, Viii. 

3. s[_ziuE naf dhi3 tjiild)z gon strait ap tB dhe duim ov dhe raeq 

4. wii^E sh)l tj<?0ns to vam dh^ke duaqkin dfref skruuod feln ov 
dhi3 neemn ov :tomes. 

5. wi aal nA -en wEl)^)fam. 

6. wsent dh)ool tjaBp s[_zuun teetj. BE nEt ti3 duu)ot BgEn, PUUBB 

7. lk ! Ed)'nt)et triu ! 


1. so say see. These were said to 
begin with (s) followed by a faint 
sound of (z), in that case they would 
form the transitional sound from (z) to 
(s). I right. The phonographic sign 
for (ai) was given, but the actual 
analysis of the diphthong is conjectural. 
comrades, with the accent on the 
second syllable, the usual word for 
' mates.' now about, etc. The diph- 
thong, written noow, was explained as 
"o in not or innovate, but rather 
short, ow as sparrow." This gives the 
transcription (nooo). For bout, down, 
house, Mr. E. used these spellings, and 
said of house " ou as in sparrow, with 
the o prolonged slightly." It seems 
to me that the analysis is certainly 
wrong, and that (a'w), heard from 
Camelford, is more correct. But the 
explanation was so explicit I felt bound 
to adopt it. I'm "is used in such 
sentences as 'I'm gain ta town,' I be 
in answering questions, as : ' are you 
one ? ees I be,' not ' I am.' "right. 
" The r is trilled in many cases, droo 
for instance. A big boy in school once 
said to me, 'how many dree hapences 
in dreppens,' with a trill on each r, 
the point of the tongue touching the 
gums of the front teeth of the upper 
jaw and then vibrating. But when r 
occurs at the end of a word, it is not 
trilled, as far as I am aware, but the 

tongue is withdrawn back to the throat 
in pronouncing it. In droo there is a 
trill, in drunken not, the tip of the 
tongue touching the teeth [for d ?] and 
then withdrawing. In strife and trew 
there is a slight trill in the first word, 
and a strong one in the second. strife. 
The front part of the tongue touches 
the roof of the mouth in front ; the tip, 
the top of the gums in the lower jaw, 
and the tongue is drawn backwards, 
and the tip lifted upwards at the same 

2. trew. The tongue (tip) touches 
the gums in front in the upper jaw, 
and is then quickly withdrawn back to 
the throat past its normal position in 
the mouth." This would generally 
indicate (r,, K) with occasional (r, v r). 
Under these circumstances I have re- 
tained (r) before a vowel, but used (R) 
final. from or (vrem, f Lvrem) . school. 
This was written skodl, and explained 
to be o, as in not, but very short, 
followed by o, as in hoot? This I have 
endeavoured to render by (sk L ouul), 
but I think that this is probably wrong. 
Perhaps he meant (sko?'uul), a gene- 
rating sound of (skyy^), but everything 
is uncertain. I generally got schule, 
skewl in io. from Co. 

3. enough, 'the /strongly accented.' 
6. her, ( she is but rarely used for 


Although these examples of e.Co. leave much to be desired, they 
evidently shew a dying out of Dv. forms, and the characteristic (E, 
yj are more or less implied. 

[ 1602 ] 


D 12 = w.WS. = western West Southern. 

Boundary. On the e. the w. b. of D 11 from Falmouth Harbour 
to Pirran Bay (p. 156) b. are made up of the sw. coast of Co. 

Area. The w. of Co., to the w. of Truro, together with the 
Scilly Islands (24 wsw. Land's End). 

Authorities. See County List under the following names where * means vv 
per AJE., f per TH., in io. 

Co. fGwennap, *Marazion, * Penzance, St. Just, St. Stithians. 

Character. None can be given. The mode of speech is said to 
vary much from place to place, not more than ten or twelve miles 
apart, and most of the WS. characters seem to have disappeared. 
Down to 200 years ago some Cornish was still spoken in these 
regions. How the change to English came about, I do not know, 
but it was clearly not imported from the e., because we find 
scarcely a vestige of Dv. phraseology or pronunciation. The 
miners, who abound, are a mixed race. Many words of Cornish 
origin remain. The phrases used are picturesque, and the spelling 
which the dialect-writers of west Cornish have adopted is also 
rather picturesque than phonetic. It would be necessary to study 
the pronunciation of each neighbourhood on the spot from the 
mouths of natives, and for such a haphazard speech as appears to 
prevail, this would be hardly worth while. At the same time, any 
tolerably complete view would demand too much space. 

Tregellas, as quoted by Mr. T. Q. Couch ("East Cornish Words"), 
remarks on the peculiar sing-song of the West Cornwall speakers, 
and its lessening and alteration in character on proceeding east- 
ward, through Trevednack (? Towednack, 2 sw. St. Ives), St. Ives (7 
ssw.Penzance), Hayle (4 se.St. Ives), and Camborne (4 wsw. Red- 
ruth), and says that, " e. of Camborne, even at Eedruth, the 
natural accent has died away, nor is it again heard from the more 
guttural speakers of Redruth, Gwennap (3 se. B,.), and St. Agnes 
(6 n-by-e.R.). But . . . the miner of Perranzabuloe (7 nnw. Truro) 
expresses himself uniformly in a full note higher than his adjoining 
parish of St. Agnes, and no sooner have you passed Cranstock (8 
wsw. St. Columb Major) and Cubert (2 s.Cr.), and entered into St. 
Colomb's," than you begin to hear (z-) for (s-), in first to a small 
and then to a large extent. This agrees precisely with Mr. 
Hodge's b. of e. and w. Cornwall passing between Cranstock and 
Cubert, and here adopted (p. 156). 

Mr. William INbye kindly wrote me a version of the cs. for 
Penzance, and I took it down from his dictation in 1873. In 1876 
I went over it with Mr. Rawlings, of Hayle, who was exceedingly 
well acquainted with the speech of his neighbourhood. He differed 
from Mr. Noye in a great number of particulars, and found the cs. 
so ill adapted for exhibiting the west Cornish peculiarities, that he 
re-wrote a portion of it, which I pal. from his diet, in Feb. 1876. 
It seems, therefore, advisable to limit any examples to this par- 
ticular specimen, which, as will be seen, is founded on the cs. He 
locates his yarn in Marazion (3 e. Penzance), and entitles it 

[ 1603 ] 



[D 12. 


1. rdjaek'i :tBzaiz SEd: oo ! 'hii 
laeaef ! hi d'd-'nt laeaef wen 13 rand 
i3wee' laBst krez-mas frem thB 
giiz-deimsraz, im sEd tu an :maeH 
:pwlgree'n, dhethii)d siid^ pz's'k^. 
hii Ed'nt wath 13 snaf ! 

2. sid)'n, dd-shi ? draqk aV 
spooz ? krai-m tu ? zaek'li laik'n ! ! 
nau, ai)l tfiH :djemnz, ai HEVB 
laik)'n AA'lez kraid m dhB 
roq pb<?s ! 

3. ai WBZ daun tu imidhren 
m*t''n l&Bst san-d<9, mi aqk'l :tom 
:vEs'nt priitjt ebaut dh^ ipum 
rs^mser^'ten wi haed 13 klab fiist 
dim dee 'efoo', 'en 'sam)^v)t?z iit 
imaf' fe djEn't'lmen en dhra 
woz'nt a drai ai en dhis m^t'n, 
SEpt -hiiz. 

4. soo ai SEd tu' en : u hau 8Dr)-i 
soo ankimsaa p nd?" 

5. ^n SEZ hii: "rdjaek-i, K do'nt 
k-Bnsaa'n -mii, kAAz ai do'nt h'v *n 
jo' pser^'sh. ai oo-nli st^<?d af-fre 
dh^ klab fiist, kAAz ai w^z a ltt'1 
fwd-'ld w* bSw." 

6. gez te sii"Bn ob)'m, hi wwd'n 
kam m'te -mai haus ^n not bi 


daun te 


siid! au' tmee're tauld mi oo*nle 
:man'de iib'mm,hii' 
taan'trBrnz B kkt 
:tjaatj :taun ; 

7. " ez-'nt hseaef B maen," SEZ 
shii, u hii-l gaz'l AA! dht? Kk-e hi 

'Bn skr^^p, -en TB di3 ipee 
sam d^ see hi Ed'nt 
^baut t^^'km whot Ed'nt 
oon. dhB klooz B haed on 13 
p^^d dha paekmaen f A. im ai 
wwd'nt," SEZ shii, " tras'n m 
awr eel tp<9nrbi3 bai ^sel'f. 

8. "ai bliiv it hii-d noth-m 
lit 'in A dr^qk'm, hii-d teek 'B lamp 
'B shwg'B aut a dha ni'im'z ke^dj. 
ai neva siid a fsl-a laik)'n fB[_r 
iit'/n, SEpt dr/qk'm, ai bliiv hii-z 
laik B kloom-En kaet, hii-z 
daun tB hiz tooz." 

1. John Tresise said: Oh! he 
laugh ! he didn't laugh when he ran 
away last Christmas from the guise - 
dancers, and said to aunt Molly 
Polgrain, that he'd seen a piskey. 
He isn't worth a snuff ! 

2. Saw-him, did-she? drunk, I 
suppose ? Crying too ? Exactly like - 
him ! Now, I'll tell)you, James, I 
never liked) him always cried in the 
wrong place ! 

3. I was down at Mithian meet- 
ing, last Sunday, and uncle Tom 
Vincent preached ahout the poor 
Samaritan we had a club feast 
the day before, and some of us ate 
enough for gentlemen and there 
wasn't a dry eye in the meeting, 
except he's. 

4. So I said to -him : " How are- 
you so unconcerned ?" 

5. And says he : " Jacky, he doesn't 
concern me, because I don't live in 
your parish. I only stayed after 
the club -feast, because I was a little 
fuddled with beer." 

6. As to seeing of)him, he wouldn't 
come into my house and not be 
seen ! Our Mary told me only 
Monday evening, hearing about the 
tantrums he kicked up down to 
Church Town ; 

7. "Isn't half a man," says 
she, "he'll guzzle all the liquor he 
can hitch and scrape, and he do pay 
nobody. Some do say he isn't 
particular about taking what isn't 
his own. The clothes he had on he 
never paid the packman for. And I 
wouldn't," says she, "trust-him in 
our hall chamber by himself. 

8. "I believe if he'd nothing 
eating or drinking, he'd take a lump 
of sugar out of the canary's cage. 
I never saw a fellow like -him for 
eating, except drinking, I believe he's 
like an earthenware cat, he's hollow 
down to his toes." 

[ 1604 ] 

D 12.] 




1. guise dancers. Christmas mum- 
mers, dancers in fancy guise. aunt. 
This " aunt" is said to have been the 
usual mark of respect for the Virgin 
Mary. It reminds one of the American 
negro Uncle and Aunt. piskey, meta- 
thesis for (pik-si) pixy or fairy, as 
(wseps) for wasp, etc. snuff, namely, 
a candle-snuff, the most worthless 
thing he could think of. 

3. Mithian is a small curacy 6 nnw. 
Truro. meeting, that is, a Non- 
conformist chapel or preaching house. 
uncle, a title of respect, see aunt, 
par. 1. poor, a little confusion be- 
tween the "good " Samaritan and the 
unfortunate man he relieved. he's 
apparently for his, but it may have 
been only (hiz) for (hiz) ; the common 
hissen is not used here. 

5. He, the (e) is her, less the aspirate 

and the trill of r, and her is used for 
he, a southern importation . Of course 
the joke is a very ancient one, Cornwall - 
ised for the occasion. 

6. Church Town, the name always 
given to the place where the church is. 

7. packman, the pedlar who carries 
round a pack of cloth for sale. hall- 
chamber, the chief room of the house is 
so called, however small it may be. 
himself, but written "herself.*' See 
her for he in par. 5. 

8. if he'd nothing, etc., that is, if he 
was not engaged in eating or drinking 
something. earthenware, (kloom) is 
a common Cornish word for earthen- 
ware. A common red earthen pitcher 
with two handles is called (B kloom 
bws-B), where the (u) is peculiar, per- 
haps a (w ), and I occasionally heard 
it like an 

As this was a vv. specimen of pronunciation, I have extracted 
some of the principal words, and I have also taken those given by 
Miss Courtney in the introduction to her ""West Cornwall Glossary." 
But I am quite unable from both, and also from looking over many 
books of "West Cornish tales and rhymes, to make out any satis- 
factory characteristics. There appear, however, to be some traces 
of D 11 from e.Co. and Dv., as 1) the metathesis of s and consonant 
in (pe'sk*, klaeps, ha3ps) pixy, clasp, hasp ; 2) the use of ('n) for 
ace. him, it; 3) (tjil) for a girl ; 4) the neutral infinitive in (-i) as 
(digi, ha3ki, peenti, wAAki) to dig, hack, paint, walk. Miss 
Courtney also adduces the use of (bii, beent, ai bi, bii-i ?) for am, 
is-not, I am, are you ? ; but they do not seem to occur in the 
literature, and the disuse of be was one of the marks by which Mr. 
Hodge was enabled to draw the line between e. and w.Co. 


Unmarked generally or marked E, words from Mr. Eawlings's example. 
C words for the Land's End and adjacent districts from introduction to Miss 
Courtney's Glossary, conjecturally palaeotyped. 


A- 8 C hsesev. 30 C kii?. 34 l&st. A: or 0: 61 C emo-q. 64 roq. 
A'- 92 C UAA. A': 123 nothin. M- 141 C neel. 143 C teel. 
-^: - C ha3ps [hasp]. JE'- 182 C see. 193 C kl^n. M': 
iibmm [evening]. 249 C wira [according to Westlake], iit [eat]. 251 C 
meet. ' E: 263 t?wee. E'- 290 hii [strong], B [weak]. 296 C bleev. 
302 C nut, R mi-t'n [meeting]. E': 314 hiwl. EA: 322 Iseajf. 334 
hseatf & C. 338 C kaesel. EA'- 348 C ai. jfo [ear]. EA': 366 C 
geet. EO: jseh [yellow] . 406 Cjaath [Westlake, also (forth)]. EY: 439 
tras)'n [trust him]. I: 466 C tjil. 482 Ed)'nt [is'nt]. krips [crisp]. 

[ 1605 ] 



[D 12. 

525 ob)'m [of him]. 533 C dwl. 
0': C huuk [hook]. 
U'- 641 hau. 

541 C weent. 546 

C huud [hoodj. 

U': 658 dawn. 

I': 500 laik. 0: 
IA. 0'- C grAA 

U- 603 C kuura. 

Y-' kiit [a kite]. 


A. uteri [canary], C klfcps [clasp]. E. C biit [peat]. C 
skiin [skein]. I. and Y. piski [pixy]. shEve [shiver]. U. 
fd'ld [fuddled]. 804 draqk. pwz'l [to puzzle]. 


A-- 811 plees, pee [pay]. C mseseste [master]. C aenj-el [angel, 
possibly (een-rel)]. 849 C stramjB [possibly (streenj^)]. 850 denns. 851 an. 

skwm? [square]. 866 pttm. E-- 867 C tee. C s^krut [secret]. - 

siin [a seine, net], releev [relieve]. brama [bream, fish], 
ankensaa-nd [unconcerned]. 891 fiist. 895 C risee-v. ! and~Y TEVB 
[river]. 0-- Ckalem [column]. 933 C frant. U-- skugur 
[sugar]. giiz [guise]. 


Miss Courtney in her West Cornish Glossary makes the 
Scillonian dialect different from that of Co., instancing tread tree 
for 'thread, three,' (o') for (a'i) in (po'int o'^lz) pint, isles, and 
conversely (pamt bail) for point, boil. She also draws a distinction 
between the speech of St. Mary's island containing the capital 
Hugh Town and the speech of the " Off-oislanders," as she 
writes them, who inhabit the smaller isles. This was in 1880. 
Rev. "W. S. Lach-Szyrma, vicar of JSTewlyn St. Peter, Penzance, 
kindly wrote to Mr. Dorrien Smith (proprietor, and familiarly 
known as "the King of Scilly"), who, in reply, dated Tresco Abbey, 
Isles of Scilly, 7 Aug. 1883, says, "I know of no place in the 
British Isles where the Queen's English is less massacred by the 
lower classes than it is in these islands. There is no dialect or any 
peculiarities of speech worth mentioning, and I can find no record 
of any having been spoken." Mr. Lach-Szyrma says compulsory 
education has prevailed for forty years and stamped out dialect, 
and that the people are mostly Cornish, some are said to be 
descended from the Cavaliers of Charles II. who settled there, and 
others from sailors from all parts (Scillonia once was a pirate 
station). The population is quite hybrid in all points, in appear- 
ance, physique, ideas, and language ; a sort of gathering from 
the coast population generally, but with a strong Cornu-British 
element. Under these circumstances no dialectal value can be 
attached to any pronunciations there heard. I am indebted to Miss 
Toulmin Smith for the means of obtaining the above information. 

[ 1606 ] 




Boundaries. The w. b. is the CB (p. 9) from the Bristol 
Channel to the point where the n. sum line 1 breaks from it. The 
n. and part of the e. b. are the n. sum line 1 (p. 15), from the 
point of its deflection from the CB to the point where the reverted 
ur line 3 (p. 17) joins the n. sum line 1 on the w. The rest of 
the e. b. is formed by the reverted ur line 3, from its w. junction 
with the n. sum line 1 to the Bristol Channel. The s. b. is the 
Bristol Channel between the CB and the reverted ur line 1 . 

Area. Portions of Mo., He., Sh. in England, and of Br., Ed., 
Mg. in Wales. This district represents on the e. comparatively 
late, and on the w. very modern invasions of the English language 
on the Welsh. 

D 13 = SW. = South Western. 

Boundaries. On account of the absence of detailed information, 
the n. b. is rather arbitrarily assumed to be first the b. of Rd. and 
Mg., and then of Mg. and Sh. as far as a little w. of Bishop's 
Castle (8 se. Montgomery) ; next, turning to the s. between Clun 
(13 w.-by-n.Ludlow) and Craven Arms (7 nw.Ludlow), nearly in 
an e. direction to just n. of Bewdley (3 wsw. Kidderminster, Wo.). 
This is merely meant to imply that at least a few miles n. and s. 
of this line the speech is sensibly different. The other b. are the 
w. e. and s. parts of those of the W. div. 

Area. The e. part of Mo., almost all He., the greater part of 
Rd., the e. of Br., and a narrow slip to the s. of Sh. 

Authorities. See the County List under the following names, where * means 
VY. per AJE., f per TH., || systematic, in io. 

He. Almerley, f Dinmore, || Docklow, || Hereford, t Leintwardine,' f Leo- 
minster, ||t Lower Bach Farm, Lucton, f Stockton, f Wacton, Weobley. 

Sh. f Clun, f Ludlow. 

Mo. Caerleon, Chepstow, * Llanover, Pontypool. 

WALES. Br. Brecon, * e.Br., Builth, Crickhowel. 

Ed. Boughrood, Llanddewi Ystradenny, New Eadnor. 

Character. S. English spoken by "Welshmen or their descendants, 
the e. side being more English and the w. side more Welsh, in fact, 
on the w. the speech is most like book Eng. spoken by foreigners, 
with occ. dialectal influence. The whole is very imperfect dialect, 
even in m. and e. He. marks of Welsh influence abound. In D 13 
the groundwork is S. English, which has been altered by Celts in 

[ 1607 ] 


a different way from D 10, 11. The initial (z, v) for (s, f) is 
almost extinct, and the initial employment of (dr) for (thr) is lost. 
The reverted (E) exists, but is generally inconspicuous and often 
uncertain, so that it would not he possible to correct line 3. The 
use of (a*) for AGr, EG is uncertain. Some of the fractures A- 
(eu), A' (we) remain. The fine (a) rather than (a) has developed 
itself for 0' as well as TJ. The form (ath) for with is striking. 
The diphthongs for I', II', are mildly (aV, a'w). 

For examples I am mainly indebted to specimens obtained by 
Prince L.-L. Bonaparte, which he passed over to me, from Docklow, 
Hereford, Lower Bach Farm and Weobley in He., and Llanover in 
Mo. TH. also went over most of the ground, and brought me 
valuable information ; he visited the sons of Mrs. Burgiss, of Lower 
Bach Farm, who were very polite in communicating their know- 
ledge, which enabled me to understand better the information of 
Mr. Woodhouse, of Docklow. As these give the best idea of the 
dialect, I place them first, and then give a mixed cwl., which shews 
the n.He. habits of speech. Mr. Woodhouse's examples are full of 
local colouring. For Hereford itself, the speech had become too 
much like ' received ' for me to cite two cs. obtained for me by the 
Prince, and that from Weobley could only be conjecturally inter- 
preted. It must be remembered that all se.He. belongs to D 4, in 
which it is treated (pp. 68-75). The w. of He. becomes more 
like Welsh English, and is treated afterwards. Of Rd. I know 
too little, but it is probably very like Mo., which will be noticed 
further on. 


LOWER BACHE (:b^tj) FARM (3 ene.Leominster) dt. 
pal. by TH. from diet, of sons of Mrs. Burgiss. 

1. na'u a'i)sa, me^ts, ju si na'w Q f i bi raYt -eba'wt dhat Kt'l wensh 
kamm frem dhB skuul jandm\ 

2. SR)Z T3gwam da'un dhi3 rood dhe'Br thra'w dhB rsd gi^t o)dh^)h'ft 
ond saYd o)dhe)wa*' (waV). 

3. baV gom ! [shiier ^naf J S:R)Z gA r n stret te dhe roq Q'US. 

4. weter, la'e'k ^naf UR)! fa'md dhat draqk'n dan* duld. :tam. 

5. wi AA! now zm WE! -Bnaf. 

6. a'')l bak i)l laRN aR bEter)'n du)t Bgja'n puer wEntj ! 

7. Ink ! jant)t truu ? 

1. mates (ladz, tjaps), if one person (sa-ni) sirrah. 4. (dani) deaf. 

[ 1608 ] 

D 13.] 



DOCKLOW (5 ese.Leominster). 

Examples written "as near as possible how one of his farm -labourers would speak" 
by Mr. R. Woodhouse, Newhampton, Leominster, Hereford, acquainted 
with the dialect 30 years in 1875 ; pal. by AJE. from his indications, and 
the information obtained at Lower Bache farm, about 2 miles off, by TH. 


1 . pliiz, me'se's, cUro mrBsteR teld 
mi te a ! ks ju te send :tamBs en 
:djrBmz da'wn te em en dhB aae f eld, 
vz suun BZ dhae BV dan m^gt'tm 
dhi3 she'p, te elp em to taRn dh^ 
aae', 'en em sed BZ dhae WEZ te breq 
STjm pa'e'ks ath 13m, raz sambisde 
BY ed tun BZ WEZ left dheeR 
last na'e't fe ga^snes, -er stool em. 

2. T?n :bil e'z te t<?<?k -B oksht^t 
13V welter, inte dh'B se'dz fer dh 
kAAvz, -Bn f *1 dh^r trAA fer Bm, 
T3n dhen bn'q dh^ wa^/n te dliB 
aai feld. ii mast pwt dh^ felBr 
AS, BZ :dAArbe 'Bd bii tnu restev 
fo dh^ bwaae te dra'e'v ap dhra 
AARtjet, ^z pra x ps i wd ran 
Bwaae ^n spwa'il e'zself , ^r samut. 
Bn ii .re wa ] nts eni teetvRz fer 
dm^r, minster teld mi te de'q sam. 
ii sed -BZ sam on JB wd pa'mt 
o'nt dh^ framest t^ mii, ran tel mi 
o'u mem ja'u)d wa a nt. 

3. j^ im?st pliiz te aV dht? ps'gz 
pend ap, fer dhae WEZ m dh^ 
wiit f eld i3z a'e kani ap, 'Bn dhai 
BV wa x z'ld it da'wn vere ba'd, 
djest thra'n, dhB gtet, t?n fa'en 

a'i a'd te get 'Bm a'wt^ga j n-, 
dh^ ne'sgal, i ra a n mi AA! 
dh^ f eld ^fdo^R a'i kwd get 
t'm a'wt. 

4. ma'e AAld um'Bn teld mi te tel 
JB 'BZ an e'z gwaaen te :lemster 
temore, ef JB wa a nts te send, 'BR 
B got sam fa'wlz te set. ar 'Bd 
intended ^m fa spa^gras tjeke'nz, 
bat dhaai waaRnt fram 'Bnaf, 
soo aR 'B a T d te kep ^m tel na'w. 
mfoster e'z gwaam te send en dh'B 
bi^nz i tild last we'k, ^n ^R the'qks 
t? geten -B ra'e'd ba ! k in din? wa ! g/n, 


1 . Please, Mistress, the Master told 
me to ask you to send Thomas and 
James down to him in the hay field, 
as soon as they have done maggotting 
the sheep, to help him to turn the 
hay, and he said that they were to 
bring some pitchforks with them, as 
somebody has hid two that were left 
there last night for mischief, or stolen 

2. And Bill is to take a hogshead 
of water, into the seeds = clover for the 
calves, and fill their trough for them, 
and then bring the waggon to the 
hay field. He must put the thiller 
(shaft) horse, as Darby would be too 
restive for the boy to drive up the 
orchard, as perhaps he would run 
away and spoil himself, or something. 
And if you want any potatoes for 
dinner, master told me to dig some. 
He said that some of you would point 
out the ripest to me, and tell me 
how many you)d want. 

3. You must please to have the pigs 
penned up, for they were in the 
wheat field as I came up, and they 
have wasselled it down very badly, 
just through the gate, and fine 
work I had to get them out again, 
specially the youngest, he ran me all 
over the field before I could get 
him out. 

4. My old woman told me to tell 
you that she is going to Leominster 
to-morrow, if you want to send, or 
have got some fowls to sit. She had 
intended them for asparagus chickens, 
but they were not forward enough, 
so she has had to keep them till now. 
Master is going to send in the beans 
he tilled last week, and she thinks 
of getting a ride back in the waggon, 

E.E. Pron. Part V. 

[ 1609 ] 



[D 13. 

en if 'BE fa'wlz s*lz wel, BE miinz 
brt'qm V b*'t 13 bf , 13Z wii bi gwaam 
te aV dhra jaq)mi kn's'nd ^ 
sancb', 'en gr^m ^n gra^dsher bi 
kamm te dm^r ^th wii. <d'i miinz 
to beg 13 bot'l B saVdisr B minster, 
Bn aV B bt 13 ba'ke for dhe 
tja'p, i3z 9'* shed la'flk te 
dpi* BE. kamfert'eb'l. 


and if her fowls sell well, she means 
bringing a bit of beef, as we be going 
to have the young) one christened on 
Sunday, and granny and grandsire be 
coming to dinner with us. I mean 
to beg a bottle of cyder of master, 
and have a bit of tobacco for the old 
chap, as I should like to make them 
jolly and comfortable. 

Note, par. 2. (fram) is much used for early and ripe in He. Note, par. 3. 
(nisgal), called (nizgal) in Miss Jackson's glossary, is the youngest of a brood of 
fowls or litter of pigs. Mr. Woodhouse thinks it comes from nest gosling (nist 
gal) in He. 

w.He. and e.Br. Mr. Stead (p. 142), who lived for 6 or 7 years 
at Christ's College, Brecon, has kindly furnished me w. with some 
of the principal peculiarities of the pronunciation of the e.Br. and 
w.He., which chiefly affect the following classes of words. 

1. (eu) verging on (Pv, ZB), but with both the vowels extremely short and 
difficult to catch, evidently the fracture which appears as (ee ee, ie IB) in D 4, 
but peculiar from the great shortness of the first element; found in A- bake 
take make sake cake tale lame name tame same shame mane late bathe, A'- lane, 
JE- dray hail nail snail tail again slain brain, where in He. generally (aai, ai) is 
heard, and in blaze, JE: egg day, he lay, may dale, jE': clay, EG- sail rain play, 
EG: to lay say way, where the S. practice wavers between (ee, ai), E': high 
nigh, EA- gape, EA: gate, EA'- eye, EA': slay great, El- they nay, El- their ; 
English A. trade drain sale frame mate wave, E. scream cheat ; French A face 
place lace mason fade age rage gain train danger change stranger dance case 
brace chase paste taste, E faint. All of these words (except dance) have (ee, 
ee 1 ]} or (ee) in received speech, shewing the extremely modern form of the usage. 

2. (M^, whe, w^, O U TB), the extreme shortness of the first element rendering 
appreciation very difficult ; the first element sometimes sounded as (u) and some- 
times as o u ), but (u ) seemed to be the nearest; found in the words A: comb, 
A'- go no toe so toad more clothes clothe road rode loaf whole bone stone 
those ghost boat goat, jE> most, 0: coal ; 0'- nose ; English 0. load ; French 
0-- coach rogue coat. All of these words have (oo, oo'w) in received speech; 
another mark of modern development, though the fracture itself represents the 
S. (UB, ire) common in D 4. 

3. (eo'i, a'i) it seemed to me that (oo'i) was the nearest sound as in the Forest 
of Dean (p. 60), and it seemed to have been developed from Welsh yl found in 
the words EO'- a fly, EO': light fight, EY- to die, I- ivy Friday stile nine, 
I: I, to lie down, night right sight child wild blind, the wind bind find grind to 
wind, I'- by sigh drive time iron arise write, I': like wide five life knife wife 
mile while mine wine ice wise, Y: to buy, a kind, mind, Y- sky why hire, 
Y': fire lice mice; French ! andY- nice fine dine violet advice, TJ-- quiet. 
Here every word, except the wind, and even that practically, has (a'i) in rs., 
another proof of a very modern form, even the existent He. and Sh. (ivi) ivy 
not being used. 

4. (ao'w, Q'U] evidently the same first element as in the last case, similar to that 
in D 4, Forest of Dean, and, as in the last case, probably derived from Welsh 
y in yw ; found in the words U: pound sound (= healthy) found, U'- cow now 
our thousand, U': brown down town shower house louse mouse out proud mouth 
south; English 0. bounce; French EU- flower, OU" allow doubt, that is, 
precisely those words which have (a'u) in rs. 

Although, then, these fractures are highly dialectal in character, 
[ 1610 ] 


they are merely the representatives of the received (ee, oo, a'i, a'u), 
and hence shew that the pronunciation is merely book -English 
with a slight dialectal tendency. In Br. the people speak English 
with each other, especially towards the east, and as the He. border 
is reached the English is more and more dialectal. Going farther 
w. the English is more and more bookish, clearly a foreign lan- 
guage. From Carmarthen Mr. Spurrell has sent me very interest- 
ing specimens of' this English, which is of an old-fashioned type, 
and probably sounds very pleasant when spoken with a "Welsh lilt, 
but is certainly not an English dialect, and hence has no place here. 

Ed. From Ed. I have no specimens, but the Eev. Henry de 
"Winton, vicar of Boughrood (19 sw.Presteign), says, "The English 
spoken being an acquired language is more free from provincialisms 
and purer than that of the neighbouring English counties." It is 
therefore a foreigner's English, and embraces nearly the whole 

J/b., though long a part of England by law, is essentially Welsh in 
feeling. By Chepstow, on the borders of Gl., the pronunciation, to 
judge from the wl. sent me by Dr. J. Yeats, approaches very near 
to that of adjoining GL, D 4. The use of auxiliary do and did is 
the rule, as it seems to be among Welsh speakers. The main 
characteristic is the intonation, which, as described by Dr. Yeats' s 
correspondent, is strongly Welsh in character. The same was very 
marked in the cs. which, at the request of Prince L.-L. Bonaparte, 
Lady Llanover, of Llanover (12 w.-by-s.Monmouth), wrote for and 
dictated to me, representing the Welsh English of Mo. and Gm. 

Lady Llanover spoke with much emphasis and apparently exaggerated distinct- 
ness in order to assist me. I noticed that the utterance was rapid and jerked, 
with frequently a compound pitch accent ; that is, in (leik-li) for the first syllable 
the voice fell in a glide, and then rose suddenly on the second syllable, as in 
Norwegian. The pure (i) was occasionally used finally as in this word, but when 
dwelled on the long final (ii) often fell into (j, jh) as (siijjh) see. The (ee) was 
medial, without any vanish, but (e) became occasionally (E). The a was usually 
(a 1 ), but at times reached (se). The h and wh were distinct. The r before 
a vowel was trilled, but otherwise fell into (u), which may have been an English 
habit on Lady Ll.'s part, as she also used (o, oo), whereas in Welsh (o, oo) are 
employed. She used (s) not (z) in (bisnis), but kept (z) in (bizi). She used (w) 
in (wwd), but said (wnven). Generally her pronunciation was simply a foreigner's 
English and not a dialect. A few S. sounds occurred as (tee, maid) tea, maid, 
and (kA'im-el) corner. On the other hand a "Welsh word heol (hee-ol), a road, 
occurred, as also a nondescript word written differ, and pronounced to me as 
(kli-b^) or (kli-pe) meaning 'noise, row,' for which she said (ptrtakh), another 
unknown word, was often used. According to Prince L.-L. Bonaparte he was 
informed by Mr. Meredith that other S. constructions and pronunciations were 
used, such as him, us for he, we, un for one, be for is, and the pronunciations 
(dhai, daai, saai, waai) they, day, say, way, in place of Lady Ll.'s (dhee, dee, 
see, wee). The use of the periphrastic forms, as 'did tell' for 'told,' was regular. 
All these were probably the ' vulgarisms ' which Lady LI. purposely omitted. 

The whole of Mo., like e.Br. and all Ed.,, belongs, therefore, to a 
predominating Welsh form of English, with very little of true 
dialectal English left in it, and in this respect they are totally 
unlike D 2, 3, which are merely worn-out English forms without 
any Welsh influence. 

[ 16H ] 




B words obtained by TH. from the Burgiss family, and Bf words from lists 

furnished by Mr. Gr. Burgiss, of Lower Bache Farm (3 ene.Leominster). 
D words from Mr. R. Woodhouse, of Docklow (5 ese.Leominster). 
H words from Hereford, collected by TH. 
L words from Leominster, collected by TH. 
Lu words from Ludlow, collected by TH. 

Several of these letters before the same word show that it was found in all 
the places. In such groups medial are not distinguished from short vowels. 


A- 3 B beuk. 4 DL ieek. 18 B kiuk. 21 B netmi, L neem. A: 43 B 
ond. B gonder [gander], 54 D wa'nt. 56 DL wEsh. A: or 0: 58 Lu 
thram. 60 B loq, flaq. 64 D raq, BLu roq. 65 D saq. 66 D thaq. A'- 
67 B gwain, B gue. 82Dwanst. 86 B o'ets, fwats. 92 BLunou. 95 Bthrau. 
A': 104 Brood. 110 B me [in], kone, mans, uwe, shane, dane, [but] bjant [can't, 
mustn't, won't, shan't, don't, be not]. 114 D pAAL [pole]. 115 B worn, L wa'm. 
117 Lu wan. 

JE- 138 B fmlhOT. B siit [seat]. 152 BLu wee/far, D w&eter. JE: 
154 B bak. D Eder [adder], 161 B dE\ H fee, LLu. dai. 164 H mai. 
Bop'l. JE'~ 183 Btiitj. 190 B kE ( i. 192 D miin. 193 Lu kliin. 200 
B wit, Bf wiBt. M': D sid [seed], 216 Bf dEl, B dil, Lu dil. 218 
DLu ship. 222 Bf JCCR. 223 B dheeR, H dhaR, L dh E M BR, Lu dhieR. 224 
B weeR. 

E- 233 B spiik, 241 Lu rain. 251 B miit. E: B ajan-st, BD ena-nt 
[anent, opposite to]. 262 B wai, L wa x i, L WE M i. 263 D uwaai. 265 B strait, 
DH stTE'it. BLLu f ild [field], E'- 300 D kip, H kiip. E': 312 
Lu it?R. 314 B rerd. 315 B fit. 

EA- 320 B kiBR. EA: 323 Bf fa'wt. 326 B efold, D AAld. 332 L 
ta'wld [? t6wld]. 333 BD kAAv. 338 Lu kAAl. 346 BD gret. EA'- 347 
B ja'd. EA': 350 B djad, Lu drid. 352 B r E d. 354 D skaf. 361 BfD 
bren. Bf Jap [heap], 366 L gra?t, Lu griit. Bf djAA [dew], EI- 
373 D dhai. EO- 386 ja'u. EO: 393 D bija3-nd. 394 D jamder. 

402 B laRn. 405 Bf J8Rth. EO': 431 L biuR. 436 B truu. 

I- 440 D wik. 442 B ivi. 446 H na'in. I: 452 LLu ai, Lu a'i. 
458 D na'it. 459 BH ra'it. 466 B tja'ild. D fiUs [thiU or shaft horse]. 
469 Bf ut, wut [wilt]. Lu winde [window]. 477 B fa'ind. 482 Bf jant 
taut bjant [is not, Mr. G. B said these were the most difficult words to utter], 
I'- 492 B sa'id. I': B da'iti [dyke]. 500 B la'ik. 506 BLu umen. 
D aai, L ai [hay]. 

0: D trAA [trough]. 541 BD want, D ont. BfD ka'ut [colt]. 550 Lu 
waRd. D tharn [thorn]. - D AS [horse]. 0'- 558 B luk, Lu [between 
(luk) and (Iwk)]. 0': Bf brak [brook], BfD ak [hook]. 579 B 
imaf. 587 B da'n. 595 B fat. tath [pi. (tith) tooth, teeth]. 

U- B wad [wood], BLu iid. 603 Lu kam. 606 B doeR. U: 612 
DH sam. 616 L ground [or between that and [ground)]. 632 DLu ap. 634 
BD thra'w. U'- 643 DLu na'w, H na'u. U': 658 BDHLu da'wn. 663 
L a'ws, [pi.] a'wz'n. 665 H ma'Ms. 667 D a'wt. 671 L ma'wth. Y: 691 
B ma'ind. 702 D ath. Y': flis [fleece]. 

A. 737 Bmeet. 
pour], 791 D bwaai. 


A- B klErer [clear], D pliiz [please], Bf micster [master], 
850 B dens. B pleut [plate], 866 B puer. E - B thatjt'z, D faHjiz 
[vetches], B priitj [preach] . 890 B bjast. 895 D nseei. D 
bif [beef]. djo'in [join], 920 D pa ; int. 926 D spwa'il. Lu aqk'l 
[uncle], 930 Bf 'loqk. 941 D fal. H push [push]. 

[ 1612 1 

E. 749 B lift. 751 D pi^rt. 0. D pa'mm [to 
U. Bf a'wdji [huge]. 804 B draqk'n. 


D 14 = NW. = North "Western. 

Boundaries. The s. b. is the same as the n. b. of D 13, p. 175, and 
the other b. are the ne. and nw. parts of those of the W. div. 
Area. The greater part of Sh. and a small part of Mg. 

Authorities. See Alphabetical County List under the following names, where 
* means vv. per AJE., f per TH., || in so., in io. 

Sh. fBaschurch, f Bridgnorth, j| Church Pulverbach, fClee Hills, fCorve 
Dale, f Craven Arms, ||Ford, fHadnall, Llanymynech, tLongville, fMuch 
Wenlock, fOswestry, f Shrewsbury, Whittington. 

Mg. Berriew, Buttington, Fordon, Guilsfield, Kerry, Llandrinio, 

Montgomery, Snead, Welshpool. 

Character. Observe that Sh. is much cut up by different b. 
D 14 contains m.Sh. The n. belongs to two separate districts, 
the nw. to D 28, and the ne. to D 29, and these are bounded on 
the s. and w. by the n. sum line 1 . On the w. there is the CB, 
with a small part of Mg., which speaks English, but more book- 
English than Sh., because it has been much more recently over- 
come. On the e., beyond the n. sum line 1, lies D 29, from which 
in Sh. the information obtained is insufficient. On the s., in 
Bishop's Castle, Clun Forest, Ludlow, and Cleobury Mortimer, the 
dialect assumes the He. character, the verbal pi. in en being almost 
or quite lost, but the line of demarcation cannot be exactly traced. 
In this restricted area Miss Jackson, assisted phonetically by TH., 
has produced her admirable Glossary, about the best that we 
possess of any dialect. To this work, to personal communication 
and much correspondence with her, to TH.'s personal work with 
her, and travels over much of the region, I am mainly indebted for 
the view here taken, which, however, had not been formed or laid 
down by them, but has been merely deduced from their collections. 
In the introduction to the Glossary, pp. xxiii to xlii, is TH.'s 
minute account of the pronunciation drawn up in Glossic with the 
greatest care, for both Yowels and Consonants, under the personal 
supervision of Miss Jackson, and from her indications. It is 
perhaps the most searching investigation of the sounds of a dialect 
that has been made. But as it is arranged in reference to the 
ordinary spelling, and as the whole of the county was considered, 
much work was required to reduce it to a shape that could here be 
used. Miss Jackson divided the county into 14 districts and 4 sub- 
districts for the purpose of examination, and not with an intention 
of distinguishing 14 phases of dialect. On the next page is their 
distribution among the four districts here used, D 13, 14, 28, 29. 

1 give the names of the principal places only in each district, to 
which she constantly refers, to shew that the word so pronounced 
was heard in that district, without implying that it exists only 
there. The letters n, s, e, w, refer to the extreme places in those 
districts. Would that other glossarists had hit upon such an 
admirable arrangement ! When Miss Jackson knows the word and 
its pron. to be generally distributed, she puts " common" after it, 
with a "Qy." prefixed, if she merely suspects it to be so. 

[ 1613 ] 



[D 14. 

D 13. Bishop's Castle and Clun, Ludlow, placed in D 13 with some hesitation. 

D 14. Shrewsbury, Pulverhach (:pa'wderba3ti, :pa'dherba3ti) or (-biti) [Miss 
Jackson's native place], Worthen, Craven Arms, Church Stretton (subdistrict), 
Corve Dale and Glee Hills, Bridgnorth s. and w. (on the line of separation of 
D 14 and D 29, the n. and e. belong to D 29), Much Wenlock, Oswestry s. 

D 28. Wem n. and w., Whitchurch (subdistrict), Ellesmere, Oswestry n. and e. 

D 29. Wellington, Colliery regions, Newport n. and w., Wem s. and e., 
Bridgnorth n. and e., Newport s. (Shiffnal). In this place only D 14 will be 
attended to, other places are noticed in the proper order. 

The whole of D 14 presents a remarkable mixture of S. and M. 
The S. forms are much used. TJ=(8) is carried considerably further 
than in received speech, as in (fal, farer, pond, band, bakk), full, 
a fuller, a pound, was bound, a bullock. Also more frequent 0'= 
(a), as (brak, stad, raf, tath, fat, sat), brook, stood, roof, tooth, 
foot, soot, but of course neither forms are carried out consistently. 

S forms are (ai) in (dai, lai, lain, rain, pli) day lay has lain, rain, to play, 
the use of 'thee bist' (dhii bist) for 'thou art,' and be in the pi. But here 
comes in the strongly M. forms of I am, he is, we you they bin, where bin (bin) 
represents be with the verbal plural in -en. This v. pi. in -en is used throughout 
D 14 with all verbs, as (wi wan) we werew, (we sha3n) we shall-m, (wi dan) we 
do-en, (wiin) we have-w, (wi haed'n) we haddm. The S. forms (joo;m wiijm) 
you am, we am, may also be heard, as well as 'er (ar) for 'she.' But the S. 
(R) is quite absent, the regular trilled Welsh r (r) prevailing over the whole 
district, even when final or before consonants, and the trill in that case is always 
more distinct than in the adjacent M. regions. This peculiar Welsh (r) with 
the sharp, crisp, highpitched, rising Welsh intonation which prevails, marks the 
region still as having been carved out of the Celtic settlements with a joint and 
alternate action of the S. [Wessex] and the M. [Mercian] folk. According to 
Green's Maps in his Making of England, while He. was under the Mercian rule 
of Penda in 634, Sh. remained Welsh till included under the Mercian supremacy 
of Offa in 792, and in 828 Egbert the West Saxon conquered Mercia. It must 
have been in this early period that the M. peculiarities were introduced with 
M. English, but they never eradicated the Welsh (r). The West Saxon (R) did 
not reach beyond He., and is now not very strong or marked even there. TH. 
believes his Midland r, used in Db., Ch. and St., to be "the common English 
r" (on which see Introduction to the M. Div.), then he hears the Welsh r "with 
stronger vibration and retracted" in n.Sh., " verging in m. and s.Sh. with still 
stronger vibration to reverted r, ' ' which it reaches at Bewdley . The (a) for U, 
0', is of course modern, but the fine (a 1 ), "still very general but gradually 
passing away," and becoming quite (se) in Miss Jackson's speech, may have been 
either Welsh or Ws. 

TH. in his elaborate investigation has often distinguished (a, a 1 ) and (e, E), 
and also (a, a), and sometimes in accented syllables (y, i), where I write (i x , i), 
writing (i} always in unaccented syllables. He also gives three sounds of I, 
(ahi), which I now write (a'i) by preference, in m.Sh., (ai) in s.Sh., and (') in 
ne. and e.Sh. In my notes of Miss Jackson's pronunciation I used (ai), though 
I remarked that it varied with (ae'i, E'i), and I now prefer to use the unanalysed 
form (a'i). TH., who has been over much of the ground and heard native 
speakers, considers (ahi = a'i) the true fine Sh. , but as he heard U' as (Q'U) in 
(ka'w, ha' MS) cow, house, it would seem that (a'i) would be the correct older 
form of I', whence the other forms easily flow. In fact, the difference between 
(a 1 *, a'i) is often difficult to seize. These forms (a'i, a'w) would then be strictly S. 

The formation of the negatives (amne, bins, wane, a ] n^) am-not, be-ew-not, 
werew-not, havew-not, is remarkable, but the real forms have a (d) final, the (ne) 
being a contraction for (ned) when final or before consonants, as shewn by the 
reappearance of the (d) before vowels, as (a3mned a'i ? waned-e? uned-e bi ?) am 
not I? were-n not-they? will-not-they be? and the fact that 'not, what,' when 
emphatic, are called (nod, wod). 

[ 1614 ] 

D 14.] 





The consonants otherwise as a rule present nothing peculiar except in using 
(dj) for d in deal dead death darn dew (dps! djEd djEth djaarn djia'w) which must 
have arisen from inserted (j), as in (jEd jEp jaar ja'wl) head heap hair howl, 
with a similar change in (tjem truun tjuuzdi) team tune tuesday, and (shuut 
shuuit famshwrm) suit suet consume, with the obsolete forms (sham shEm) for 
seam. But (sh) presents a difficulty hefore (r) as (sriqk srab) shrink shrub, 
while the county-town Shrewsbury is (:shroozbri) only "in classical and educated," 
(.-sroozbn) "in semi -refined," but (:soozbri) in the common pronunciation of 
"country-folk," for which (:suuzbn) is a "vulgarism." 

Names of places always fare ill. Here are a few given by Miss Jackson, 
. 515-519, the usual spelling being added in italics (^bart'ii Albrighton, 
wa-rdrak Caradoc, :kandr Condover, .-di'dlik Diddlewick, :jarbn Eardington, 
raarkd. Ercall, :eemvn Hatighmond, rmamfBrt Montford, :wak'njEts Oaken-gates, 
:aqket Offoxey, rtrosben rtrospen Osbaston, :<r/estn :o-djestri Oswestry, :shra?d'n 
Shrawardine, rstodhert'n Stottesden, U-SBS'U Woolstaston, :viuu :Edj Yew Edge}. 

Illustrations. I select two of the examples written analytically 
by Mr. Hallam in Miss Jackson's Glossary, and one which I wrote 
from her dictation myself in 1873. To these I have added a cwl. 
containing almost all the words in D 14 cited in Mr. Hallam' s 
treatise on Shropshire pronunciation in Miss Jackson's Glossary, all 
made under her own superintendence, and also most from a long 
list of words which she read to me on 11 July, 1873, and of which 
she subsequently revised the Glossic writing. These will, I think, 
sufficiently illustrate the character of this very interesting dialect. 
Illustrations in Miss Jackson's orthography abound in her Glossary, 
which also contains the pronunciation of each single word in 

Of the strictly Welsh parts of D 14, comprehending a slip of 
Mg., I am not able to give any specimen, but it may be regarded 
as book English with Sh. tendencies and a Welsh intonation, just 
as in Mo. we have book English with Welsh intonation and He. or 
Gl. tendencies. 

EXAMPLES, PTJLVEKBACH (7 sw. Shrewsbury). 

I. Betty Andrews relates how her little boy fell into a brook, 1873. The words 
are run all together, no stops, no pause, "but," says Miss Jackson, "no 
written characters of any kind no ' want of stops ' can convey an idea of 
the story as poured forth by Betty's voluble tongue it took away one's 
breath to listen to it." From Mr. Hallam's 'analytical' Glossic in Miss 
Jackson's Sh. Wordbook, I. xcv. 

I heard a shriek, ma'am, and I 

ra j\ a . n . d . \ sa , w , F ank , had 
pitched in the brook and ducked under, 
P fld ^ as drowningj and i jump t 

a fter him and got hold of him, and 
lugged him on to the bank all sludge, 
and I got him home afore our Sam 
came in a srood iob it was lor 
^asiie wasl't there, and as Frank 
wasn 't drowned. For if he -had been, 
I should have torn our Sam all to 

icrd ^ skra^'k mBm -en aV 

ran Bn dhiOT aV s^d :fra j qk ^d 

-, , , , -, 
pekt t dhe brak TO da^kt ond^r 

im WBZ dra'wndn im a 1 *' djampt 
a 1 fter on im got a'wt o^n m 'Bn 

lagd im on te din? bo'qk A! slEdi 

xi- ,- i> / i 

T^n aU got tmwoemBfd8r9W:sa^m 

kam^n m 13 gud djob it waz TOT 
rsa^tJziiwanB dhiuri3n^z :fra ] qk 
warn; dra x wnd^d f^r if. i a a d bm, 
a 1 * sh^d is tder d'uvT isa^ A! te 

[ 1615 ] 



[D 14. 

wmdtrr ra*gz, 'en dhen i)d 13 bm 
djE v d isn :fra l qk dra'wndzd, tm a 1 * 
snt?d B bm a*qd. & l i ta'wd isahn 
wen i tuk dh^ a'ws BZ a 1 * dedn^ 
W^'k *t. ' bles dhi3 wensh,' i sed, 
4 wo)dn)&* want ? dhterz B taH'd* 
a'ws i3n B gud gdrdm t?n 13 ran 

1131* n,nT? T)^^* 9* ^ Q ^ SCClj 'Hn *0 

gud brak fer dh^ tp'ldBrn te pek 
m.' sd *'f :fra T qk a x d bm dra'wndd 
a l i sh^d B bm dhB dpth 13 a'wur 
isa^. aH' WBZ 'dha x t fr^t'nd m^m 

a j fter a 1 * got wcem Bn isa^ sed BZ 
i a 1 dnB s^d me k^aH'^t sd 
sens wi wan ma^'d Bn dha x t 

window-rags, and then he)d have been 
dead and Frank drowned, and I 
should have been hanged. I told Sam 
when he took the house as I did not 
like it. 'Bless the wench,' he said, 
'what) do) ye want? there's a tidy 
house, and a good garden and a run 
for the pig.' 'Aye,' I said, 'and a 
good brook for the children to pitch 
in.' So if Frank had been drowned, 
I should have been the death of our 
Sam. I was that [so much] frightened, 
ma'am, I did not speak for an hour 
after I got home, and Sam said as [that] 
he had not seen me quiet so long, 
since we were [were -en] married, and 
that was eighteen year. 

II. Betty Andrews, talking fast as usual in a railway train, was thus addressed 
by a passenger and made the following reply. 

* Wfc* im'sfc's, a l i sired the'qk BZ 
jd man 12 a x d Jd^r taqg aH'ld 
dlus mArnm 'efdar j6 started.' 

* nd mdiid s^r,' sed Bet/, { a 1 * 
a : n^, fer f *t 'a : d V bm aH'ld, it 
ud n.Evr B stopt. nd 'daH'ndj^r ! ' 

'"Why, missis, I should think as 
you) must have had your tongue oiled 
this morning afore you started.' 

'No indeed, sir,' said Betty, 'I 
haven't ; for if it had have been oiled, 
it would never have stopped. No 
danger ! ' 

III. ' Adam's Apple,' or Larynx, here called ' Eve's Core.' See Eve's Scork in the 
Glossary. This example was pal. by AJE. from Miss Jackson's dictation. 

' deed*', wod)z dh^'s lamp i JAT 

1 wi, et)s :iivz skAArk, tjae'/ld, 
awd madhisr :iiviit dhi3 Bep'lursEl, 
bat Br g*d dh^ skAArk te f0<?dhi3r 
rsed^m, aen it stak in iz thrwut, 
sen aal mEn)z eed'n dh/s lamp 

' Daddy, what)s this lump in your 

'Why, it) s Eve's core, child. 
Old mother Eve ate the apple herself, 
but she gave the core to father 
Adam, and it stuck in his throat, 
and all men) have had this lump 
ever since.' 

Unmarked, rearranged from Mr. T. Hallam's Glossic in Miss Jackson's Glossary, 

Vowels, pp. xxiii to xxxv. 
Marked *, rearranged from a list of words dictated to AJE. by Miss Jackson, 

11 July, 1873, the pronunciation having been subsequently revised by her. 

In these words the unanalysed form (a'i) of the diphthong has been used 

throughout, see p. 182, 1. 14 from bottom. 


A- 3 b*k. 4 ta'k. 5 m^k. *krml'l [cradle]. 13 nA\ 19 te\. 21 
nem. 25 *m^n. 34 *la>s. 37 HAA, kl^z [claws]. A: 43 *ond. 44 *la3nd. 
45 unt, *wnt. kon [can]. 51 *mon. 54 want. 55 ES. 56 wEsh [common], 

[ 1616 ] 


wash [Clee Hills]. kset [cat]. A: or 0: 60 b|_q. 62 stra[q. 63 *thraq. 
64 rafq, rse|_q. 65 sa|_q. 66 *thaq [Mr. Hallam finds the (q) very weak in this 

A'- 67 *gut?, gwoen [gone], gwij-in [going]. *slo, [pi.] *slon [sloe, sloes]. 
69 no, *UAA. 70 *toov. 79 *u [(uuz'n) whose]. 73 so, *SMB. 74 *tuu. 76 
twrad. 82 wanst. 84 muuer, *mo'oer. 86 {nets, wats. 91 moo. 92 *noo. 93 
*snoo. 95 *throo. A': 101 wak. 102 *aeks, *aest [both for present and past]. 
104 rod *rtd. 105 *rid. 106 *brAAd. 107 lof. *drov [drove], drooviw 
[drover]. 108 *doo. 109 *loo. 110 not, nod. Ill *AAt. 115 wcem warn 
*woom. 117 *won. 118 bwoen, *bu;an. 122 *non. 124 sttcoen [common], 
? stwran stan [a weight]. rop [a rope]. wa'r [hoar, whitel. 134 wath, 
*fiuuth. 135 *klooth. 

JE- - - *eetj. [an ache]. 138 fmlhtjr [com.], fadlrer [Clee Hills]. ladhur 
[ladder]. 139 dra'i [dray, a squirrel's nest]. 148 faar. *staarz [stairs, in 
Sh. people go up the stars to see the stairs, see No. 404]. *nt [am not] . 
149 *b\eez. 150 *leest. lezB [leasow, pasture]. set [a seat]. nek'l 
[rattle]. 152 water. 

M: 154 baek. 155 thEtj. -- sed [had]. gJEdhur [gather]. 160 *Eg. 
161 da. 1 *, *da'i [common], dai [Craven Arms]. 163 la'i. 165 sed. 169 *wsn. 

*wiq [wing]. 170 *a3rest. 171 *baarli. 172 *grses. 173 waz, warn?. 
*gla3s [glass]. - - *h^z'l [hazle]. *!ES [less]. *kaart [cart]. - - jep'l 
[apple, common], op'l [at Craven Arms]. 177 dhaet. 178 nsot. 179 wod. 

JE'- 184 *lee&. 185 *riid, *red [past tense]. sprml [spread], *sprEd 
[past]. 187 *\eev. 189 *wm. 190 kee. 192 *meen. 200 wiet [common], 
weet focc.]. 201 *mlh'n. j/rat [to heat], a3t [heated]. IE': mEQB 
[meadow]. - *spra?d [to spread]. *iivnin [evening] . 213 a'idher. 214 
na'idher. 216 dp'l. - *mee\ [repast]. 218 ship. 222 jaar. 223 dhrer. 
224 wrtjr. 227 *wEt. Jt>th [heath]. 229 brEth. 

E- 232 *bm;k. 233 *speek. 234 *nml, *nAd [kneaded]. *trml 
[tread]. - - *wEdh^r [weather]. 235 *weev. 236 f^vtjr. Evi [heavy]. 
240 lain [Shrewsbury], lain [Craven Arms]. 241 rain [Shrewsbury], rain 
[Craven Arms], 245 *meel. 247 *ween. ' *baar [to bear]. *taar [to 
tear], *trer [a tear, rent]. 248 maar. *bEri [berry]. *iit [to eat], JEt 
[atej. *fidher [a feather]. 254 lEdher. 255 *wEdher. *WEb [web]. 
*eev [heave]. - fa3tj [fetch]. *raetj [wretch]. 

E: 259 *wadj. 261 *sa'i. *bEd [bed]. wEd [to wed]. 266 *wiil. 

- fi x ld [field]. 267 ild. sildem [seldom]. *twElv [twelve]. 270, ii. 
baeli. - SE! [to sell], 276 thEqk. 278 wensh, *WEntj. sEnd [to send]. 

*pin [a pen]. 284 throsh. *nist, *niist [nest], niiz'n [nests]. 

E'- 290 i. 292 mi. 293 wi. 296 bi^f [belief]. 301 *rer. E': *a 1 i. 
306 ait. *bra'it?r [briar]. bles [bless]. 

EA- * AAk [hawk]. *e\ [ale], JE!, JB!. *shoo [to shew]. 

EA: 322 laf, *la}f. 324 a'ittiin [eighteen], *eit. 326 a'e^d. 327 *ba'wd. 
328 ko'oeld, ka'wd. 329 fa'wd, fa'wd. 330 a'wt. 331 sa'd. 332 *ta'wd. 333 
*kAAf. 335 A'l. 336 fA'l. 337 *WAA!. 338 kA ( l. *mAAt [malt]. 
*sAAt [salt]. shaar [share]. *bjaard [beard]. 340 *jard [court], 
jaard mizcr [measure]. 342 *aarm. *aarm [harm]. 343 warm. 
*shaarp [sharp]. *fjaarn [fern]. *jAArn [yarn]. 345 *daar. 

EA'- 347 *JEd. 348 *a'i, *a'in [eyes]. *da'i [to dye]. -- rer [earl. 

- b^t [beat], 349 fja'X *fiu. EA': 350 djE y d. 351 lEd. 352 rEd. 
355 *djEf. 356 lief, lEf [Shrewsbury]. 359 naiber. b/i^m [beam]. - 

-kr^m [cream]. 360 tjem. 361 bm [Pulverbach], biiim [com.]. 363 tjEp. 

- *JEp, lEp [heap]. -- iiOT [year]. t;oz [chose]. 366 greet. 368 djE'th. 

dja'w [dew], jia n w [obsolete]. 371 strV, str^briz [strawberries, obsolete]. 
El- 3"72 83i, *ai. 373 dh^. 376 bt. El: 378 wEk, *week. 382 

*dheer. EO- *wik [a wick]. 386 ja'w. 387 *niu. 

EO: 389 *jook. *i?m [unemph. 'em, hem=them]. 394 janter. 395 
* jaq . _ *daark [dark]. *kaarv [carve]. 398 *staarv. *faarm [farm]. 
402 laarn. 403 *feer. 404 *steer. *shArt [short]. 406 *jaarth. 
409 *bii. *nii [knee]. *trii, *triin [wooden]. - *kra'wd [to crowd]. 
416 *diur. 418 bruu. EO': 422 *sik. thiif [thief]. 423 *tha'i. 424 

[ 1617 ] 


*raf. 426 *fa'it. wil [wheel]. 427 bin [pi.]. 428 sin [seen], *sii. 430 
*frEnd. 433 *brEst [breast]. 435 *soo. 436 truu. 

I- 440 wi : k. 441 siv. 442 ijvij. sence [sinew]. - ^s [generally], 
JES [Newport], jaas, ais [Church Stretton, yes]. *peez [pease]. 449 get. 
450 tuuzdi timizdi. 451 *soo. I: thard [third] . 457 *ma'it. 458 *na'it. 
460 wait, *weit. 463 tEl. 469 ul [will]. 473 *bla'ind. winde, *winder 
[(r) distinctly trilled]. 476 *ba'ind. 478 *gra'ind. -- *tjarn [a churn]. 
*ran [run]. *rash [a rush, plant]. 485 *this'l *fis'l. 488 *it. - - *dart 
[dirt]. * wit [wit]. sens [since]. I'- 491 *sa'ik. - *gi*gid*gid'n 
[give, gave, given]. *pa'ip [pipe]. 498 *ra'it. I': *da'itj [a dyke]. 
500 la'ik. 502 *fa'iv. 503 *la'if. 505 *wa'if. 506 unren, %nren. 508 *ma'il. 
511 *wa'ind [with (d) added]. 

0- 520 ba'w. 523 *oop. *sinadhCT. 524 *warld. * thrust [throat]. 
0; traf [trough], trof [occ.], troo [for kneading]. 527 bAt. 528 thAt. 
531 dA'tOT. 532 *kool. 533 *dal. 536 guuld [obsolete], *ga'wd. 538 ud. 539 
bool, ba'ul [for bowKng, a hoop, to trundle]. *ka'wt [a colt]. 544 *dhEn. 
546 far. 547 bm?rd, bwa'rd. 549 urd. 550 ward. tharn [thorn]. 
niArnin [morning]. *broodh [broth]. 

0'- 555 shtm. 556 *iu. *uu [to woo]. 562 mun, *muun. 564 *sun. 

*groo [to grow]. 566 adlrer. 568 *bradhi3r. 0': 569 *bwk. brak 
[brook]. shok [shook]. 570 tuk, *tk. 571 gwd *gwd. 573 *flad. 575 
*stad. raf [roof]. 577 *ba'w. 578 *pk' w > *P lAA [ to plough]. 580 tof, 
*taf. 584 *stuul. 589 spun. 590 flar. booz^m [bosom]. tath. 
595 fat. 597 sat. 

U -- u d [wood]. 600 IA'V *lov. 602 *sa'w. *hal [hull or shell]. 603 
*kam. *pwn [to pound, thrash], 605 *san. 606 dar, *door. U: 
shwwdh^r [shoulder] shuud^r [Church Stretton], shood^r, sha'wdBr [Shrewsbury], 
sha'wd^r [occ.]. 609 fal. 610 ul. puul [pull]. *farer [a fuller]. 612 
*sam. on- [un-]. 615 pand. 617 *sa'wnd. *band [was bound]. 
619 fand. 620 grand. 621 *wond. 625 taq. tarf [turf]. far [a 
fir]. 634 thra'X *thruu. dhas. 

U'- 640 ka^. 643 na'?/. *sak [to suck]. *ma'u [a mow]. 646 
*ba'w. 648 a'e^r. 650 *tjba'ut. 652 *kwd. 653 bat. U': 656 rum, 
*rwm. *sd'mr: [sour]. 663 a'ws, *a'e'n [houses]. 665 ma'ws. 667 a'wt. 
668 pra'wd. 

Y- 673 *matj. 677 *dra'i. 679 tjartj. Y: 686 ba j i. 689 bi^d. 

gi x lti [guilty]. shilf [shelf]. 694 *wartj [work = throb]. 697 bErin 
[a burying]. frit'nd [frightened]. 701 *farst. shEt [shut]. 702 wth. 
Y- 705 *ska'i. Y': 712 ma'is. *wish [to wish]. 


A. 726 tA'k. boqk [bank]. 733 *skaar. 734 djaarn *daarn. E. 
*peet [peat], maar [mere, accented; unacc. (nrer)]. 751 *pi^rt. - 
kliver [clever]. srood [shrewd]. I. and Y. *skra j ik [a shriek], 754 
pig. *wip [whip]. 758 gErld. SErap [syrup]. pek [to pitch or 
fall]. 0. 761 *16-Bd. 769 *ma'wdiwaarp. 773 doqki. -- u-st^d [worsted]. 

loz [to lose]. dra'wnd [to drown]. 791 bwA'i [obs.]. U. - *pwdin 
[pudding, called (padin) in Glossary]. dak [a duck, bird], da'wk [to duck]. 

- *a'wdre [huge, compare after 791 p. 180]. 796 bluu. bal [bull], 
baldj [to bulge]. - truun [a tune]. tap [a ram, tup]. *karl [curl]. 
807 *ps. 808 pat. 


A-- 810 ieez [gen.]. - *kEtj [catch], *kEtjt [caught]. 813 *b*k'n. 814 
mes'n. 822 ma 1 *, *mee. - *pa 1 i, pee [pay]. 824 tjirer. klse'i'Br [clear]. 

*aar [air]. 833 paar. - *p\eez [please]. 835 reez'n. 836 s^z'n. 
meestuT [master, com.]. feetyur [feature], 847 daHndrer. 850 da ] ns. 851 

n^^nt. *da3nt [daunt]. raar [rare], 855 ga3rit. - sk<?s, skaars 

[scarce]. 856 *part. - *kaard [card]. -- *saas [sauce, Corve Dale]. 862 
*&eeL 865 *fAAt. *&iee [to stay]. 

[ 1618 ] 


E-- 867 tee. kr^Br [creature]. *reevl [real]. 869 veel. aeekiit 
[secret]. - kense^t [conceit]. skeem. [scheme]. *jaarb [herb]. 
*klaark [clerk]. -- *saartj [search]. *f aar [a f air] . *kBnsaarn [concern]. 

saarpint [serpent]. 888 saartin. *saarv [serve]. kemple^ [complete]. 

mizhOT, *mizt?r [measure]. 890 b'njst. 891 *teeat. 894 *dis^-v, dis^-t 
[deceit]. 895 *ris^-v, ris^-t [receipt]. I- and Y *kra l i [cry]. 

[syllable]. - *ma'izi3rd [miser, with added (d)]. 

0.. _ bt/ [beef], "drag [drug]. 916 aHnira. na T mt [anoint]. 

928 *a'wns. 929 

bt/ [beef], "drag [drug]. 916 
[join]. 926 spa'il. -- plim [plumb]. 
r, ka'^k-Bmb^r [com.]. 930 la'in. 9 

Shrewsbury], ka'^k-Bmb^r [com.]. 930 la'in. 933 *frant. kwerd, kward 
cord]. farm [foreign]. *fest [forced]. 940 *koBt. 942 batjur. 
43 *tetj. 946 *ma'il. 951 *kap'l. suup'l [supple, to make supple]. 953 
kaz'n. *pash [push]. 

XJ.. tjub [tube]. *wa'it [to wait]. 965 a^l. 966 frut. pilpit 
pulpit]. - - * partis* [poultice]. ja'wl [howl]. u^t^r [nature]. 
iuu'riyz [curious]. 970 djEst. 

[ 1619 ] 



[E. cliv. 



ies. Begin on the e. coast, where s. b. of Li. falls into 
the sea about 3 e. Button Bridge. Go w. along the Li. b. to Rt. 
the peninsula containing Stamford Li. must be practically con- 
sidered as part of Rutland. Pass by the b. round Rt. to Rocking- 
ham, and continue on the b. of JSp. to the b. of Wa., and then 
continue along b. of Np. to opposite Crick Np. (4 se. Rugby, Wa.). 
Then pass through JSp. e. of Watford, through Long Buckby, 
where turn s. and pass e. of Daventry and Weedon, turning more 
se. near Pattishall. Then pass s. of Blisworth and e. of Towcester, 
and continue to the b. of Np. near Hartwell, Np. Then go by the 
w. b. of Bu. to the Thames. Go down the Thames to the coast and 
round Es., Sf. and Nf. to the starting-point. 

The w. b. of Bu. is, perhaps, not the absolute b. of the District, 
but it is the best that could be determined. 

Area. The whole or greater part of the eleven counties, Bd. 
Bu. Cb. Es. Ht. Hu. Mi. Nf. Np. Rt. Sf. 

Character. A closer resemblance to received speech than in any 
other div. It is the region from which rec. sp. was taken, and 
contains the greater part of London. The pron. is, however, not 
quite uniform, but the differences are so slight that it has been 
found extremely difficult to obtain satisfactory information, and 
many years elapsed before materials could be collected for even the 
approximative account here subjoined, which, drawn up from actual 
observation by my informants and founded only on existing usages, 
differs materially from what has been hitherto given. The northern 
part of this district, as already mentioned, is intersected by the n. 
sum line 1, which passes through the length of Np. and n. of Hu. 
and Cb., while the s. stifim line 2 lies to the s. of all the s. part of Np., 
the n. part of Hu. and Cb. and the nw. part of Nf., so that a 
considerable part of the E. div. is in the mixed sum stidm or som 
region, and a smaller part in Np. and Rt. is in the pure sodm region. 
This materially modifies the pron. in respect of TJ in those places, 
as will be seen. But the change, as already observed in "Wl. and 
GL, seems to be without influence on the remainder of the dialect, 
and in respect to the rest of the pron. it was found impossible to 
relegate n.Np. and Rt. to the M. div. In fact, as has been already 
said (p. 16), the (u, u] sound of TJ was the elder. It is the 
(a, a) sound which is aggressive, and the mixed regions merely 
shew the process of change which has gone on independently of 
the other changes and almost unnoticed, even by dialect speakers 

[ 1620 ] 


D 15 = WE. = West Eastern. 

Boundaries. Begin where the Chiltern Hills cut the w. b. of Bu., 
about Eadnage (10 ssw.Aylesbury). Go w. across Bu. s. of Prince's 
Risborough and n. of Chesham to "Whelpley Hill (12 se.Aylesbury). 
Cross the w. horn of Ht. to Great Gaddesden, Ht., and then by the 
b of Bu. all round the n. and s. to the starting-point. 

Area. The little projection of Ht. into Bu. by Tring and all of 
Bu., except the extreme s. part, which belongs to D 17, and has no 
dialect proper. 

Authorities. See Alphabetical County List under the following names where 
*means vv. per AJE., fper TH., ||so., io. 

Bu. *Mr. Wyatt, *fAylesbury, f Buckingham, Cheddington, fChackmore, 
Edlesborough, Great Kimble, *Hanslope, Marsh Gibbon, Marsworth, 
fStowe, Swanbourne, Tyringham with Filgrove, *fWendover, fWinslow. 

Ht. Berkhamstead, Little Gaddesden, Long Marston, Tring. 

Character. The main point which distinguishes Bu. from Ox. or 
D 15 from D 6, 7, is the entire absence of reverted (B) or retracted 
(r ). In the whole E div. the r when not preceding a vowel is 
purely vocalised. After (aa, AA) it disappears. A native who can 
read thinks that he "pronounces r" in part short, because it is to 
him a symbol that the vowels become (aa AA) as in (paat shAAt), 
and if he wrote pat shot without the r, he would say (pa*t shot) 
with quite different vowels. To hear (part short) with real short 
vowels and a truly trilled r would be shocking to him. He may 
occasionally 'drawl' the words (as local authorities term the 
change) into (pa^t sho'-et), but that is not usual. After (a, a) the 
r is merely a symbol of lengthening ; culled, curled, are really (kald, 
kaald), or (kald, kaald), and the speaker again thinks he 'pronounces 
r ' in the second word because it causes him to differentiate it from 
the first. After other vowels, or finally, he uses (13), as (Si?, ket?, 
bwte), here, care, butter. But before a vowel the case is different. 
Then he may trill r slightly, but the general practice seems to be 
to use the imperfect (r ), that is, the point of the tongue rises as if 
to trill it, but it does not effect its purpose, and merely produces a 
maimed effect. Both (12, r ) in this connection arise from ('R), of 
which they are simple degenerations. They are not imperfect 
trills. But a gentle trill may always be used, and hence I have 
introduced (i) as a ' permissive trill ' in writing received speech. 
Here I generally abandon it, and write (r) for (r ) as a matter of 
convenience before vowels, writing (r ) or using (B) in other cases. 
Throughout the whole E. div. this treatment of the r is general, 
not merely among peasants (where there are any), but among the 
most educated and refined townsmen. As (n) is the mark of the 
S. div., this (r , B) is the mark of the E. div. When final r has 
been lost after (aa, AA, arer, B), or degraded to (B), and a word com- 
mencing with a vowel follows, the r reappears as (r ), to avoid ^the 
hiatus. This is 'euphonic r,' just as we have 'euphonic i/' in 
Greek, and just as in French a lost final consonant reappears under 

[ 1621 ] 


similar circumstances, as * il fai(t) froid, fai-il froid ? il a(), a-t-il ? ' 
(il fE fru#, fEt-l frua? il)a, at)il?). But peasants, and even 
educated people, are apt to introduce this ' euphonic r ' after final 
(aa, AA, sra, B), even when no r had originally existed, as (dhe 
lAA-f-r B)dhB land, dhi a'fldiri3-}-r ov *t, B :tja'nre-|-r ormdi), the 
law of the land, the idea of it, a China orange. This is a truer case 
of euphonic (r ) than before, and quite organic, but is much resented 
by those who have painfully learned not to use (+r ) under such 

In giving the pron. noted by TH., who used final (r), but states 
that he considers it a "weak r" (|_r), I retain his writing, but do 
not agree with his appreciation, for so far as I can hear there is no 
semblance of a trilled (r). See introduction to the M. div. 

A- remains (era), as in most of the S., as (leem, seem), lame, same, and A'- 
remains (ire), as (tired), toad, with the usual variants. 

JEG may also be (ee), or be recognised as (BE'*), as (sneel snEE'il), snail. 

I' seems to have abandoned the (a'i) and rarely even reaches the (a'i) form, it is 
usually (ai, a'i), the last of which differs but slightly from (a'i) on the one hand, 
and (o'i, A'i) on the other. My informants usually select (o'i, A'i), that is, as 
they write it, oy, to express this sound. But my observations on Bu. peasants, as 
well as TH.'s, are against this change, though it may possibly occur in D 16, 
where A- degenerates to (ei, E'i, ai), so that a distinction is required. 

U. Although this was avowedly (a, a) at Aylesbury, the following exceptions 
occurred, which I conceive as (u}, because of the local separation from the M. (w ) : 
(luv, kwm, b^fre ; wgli, drwqk, undv, toq, oqgra, up, thwre ; dv, vbuv ; nwtj), 
love, come, butter ; ugly, drunk, under, tongue, hunger, up, thorough [but (ap 
tharra) also occurred] ; dove, above [which had U'] and nwtj [which had Y]. 
At Wendover (5 sse. Aylesbury) I did not find these. From Buckingham n. -wards, 
(u ) was the rule, or some mixture of (w , a), or of (o, u), and past the n. swm 
line 1, as at Watford and Weedon only (M O ). 

U' is rather uncertain from want of sufficient instances, but (E'U) seems the rule, 
although (a'u, a'u) also occur. This diphthong is specially variable in D 18. Of 
course (a'w) is a survival of S. 

The consonants are treated generally as in received speech. The initial (z, v) 
have been replaced by (s, f), the aspirate is very uncertain, and (wh) always 
becomes (w), as in polite London conversation. 

Particulars are furnished in the following word lists, where, as 
shewn, large portions were heard by me or TH. from natives, and 
in the two annexed short examples, which indicate at least two if 
not three varieties of existing pronunciation. 

pal. by AJE. from dictation of Mr. R. E. Fowler in 1881. 

1. A'i bi [A'*' BT] B)gir*n te sii 1. I be [I are] a)going to see 
em SUBH, A'*' tEl)i [tEl)jT?]. him soon > I tell )y e LW 

2. bwt, A' s^^, f aedh^r [f tedh^r] 2. But, I say, father and mother 

mid madlrer v bibth a3n em taroVl ? e \ oth on ,. them toriU lame with 

., -., , . , -, the rheumatism to-day. 

w)dh'e ruu-m'etiz tvaee. 

3.A^'b^(AV'Br)olmoost[olmuu^'st 3. I be (I are) almost afeared they 

r stl Bf li-ed dhe want bi *?)getm ^^ 5?, a )g ettin ^ about at ) a11 for a 

to come ' 

[ 1622 ] 

D 15.] 



4. t?n du^nt JB noo? dhee)ul bi 

mi -eloomi )dhi3 ool E'US. 

5. wter 13! dhe gun 

6. A' ddomit hegzae' 
n0o ; sum weei3z dE'w 
A'* bb0v. 

7. dh^)'l bi hevra SB loq 13 wm. 
S. as ired e dhast ji'sted^. 

9. d*d)ju UE'W? u ta'wld JB? 

10. nmtj gwd m<9 *'t duu)^m. 

11. J^ slrel li'B drEkH as noo 
dhee bi'e)kani/n oo'm [warn] Bgrn. 

12. soo gwd 

4. And don't you know? they)'ill 
be off again before winter, and leave 
me alone in the old house. 

5. Where will they go to ? 

6. I don't exactly know ; some 
down in) the south, I believe. 

7. They'll be ever so long away. 

8. Us [we] heard of that yesterday. 

9. Did you now ? who told you ? 

10. Much good may it do)thera. 

1 1 . You shall hear directly us know 
they be a) coming home again. 

12. So good night. 


1. I. Mr. ERF. said distinctly (A'i), 
but I generally heard (ai, 'i) from the 
labourers. / are is more frequent than 
I be. The (r) is euphonic before a 
following vowel, here and elsewhere. 

2. father, though Mr. ERF. used 
(se), I heard rather (a) from the labourers. 

4. know was distinct (00), not (noou). 

The negative (no) is quite short. 
(E'MS) was inclined to (aws) . 

6. exactly, (hegzse-kli) is emphatic, 
(teza3'kli) is the common form. 

7. ever, the (h) is prefixed for em- 
phasis only. 

9. told. This (a'w) diphthong is kept 
quite distinct from (E'U) . 

CHACKMORE (1^ wnw.Buckingham) dt. 
pal. 1881 by TH. from diet, of G. Cave, 71, gatekeeper to Stowe Park, native. 

1. Q r i se*, meets, ju si na'w, 8Y)m raYt ^ba'wt dbat b't'l gjal kamm 
frum dins skuul jond^r. 

2. shi)z gu-m da'wn dhi3 ro^d dhfur tbruu dht? rad ge^t on dhu 
and saYd ( e)dbB ro^d. 

3. Ink jondur ! dh^ tj8^'ld)z gAn strE't u s p te)dhu roq o'ws [roq 

4. wi^r shi)l VET* la'ekb' fa'md dhat draqk'n dsf owld tjap BV dhu 
nemi ^ :tom. 

5. AA! OV)BZ now z r m VETI WE!. 

6. want dhi? owld tjap sun titj ^r not te kam dhiBr BgJEn, pu^r 
tn/q ! 

7. Ink ! d'd'nt aV tEl JB sou. 

Phrases, (ju ent 'B)gu m :dariu), you are-not a-going [to, omitted 
dialectally] Dayrell (3 n.Buckingham). This omission of ' to ' 
is gen. in the E. division as well as in Ch. 

Mem. " r half reverted," possibly (r ). 

[ 1623 ] 



Unmarked, word list written io. by Mr. John Kerseley Fowler, Prebendal Farm, 
Aylesbury, and his son, corrected from diet, and pal. by AJE. with additions 
marked E, heard by AJE. from farm labourers at Aylesbury, and a few words 
marked H noted by TH. 

W words from Wendover (5 sse. Aylesbury) pal. by AJE. from diet, of Miss Beeby. 

' ' & W ' ' means that the last given pron. was heard at Wendover. 

"WH "Wendover from Mr. Hallam's observations chiefly from Varney 82, and 
Higgs 63,. who generally corroborated Varney, and from some others, (R) was 
once heard from a woman. 

(+r) means that euphonic (r ) was specially stated to be inserted before a 
following vowel. 


A- 3 beak. 4 teek tfok, W teBk [both (ee) and (!B) are used in these doubly 
written words, as they are in D 4]. 5 me'ek mivk, W meek. 6 meud mml, WH 
[old] m<?Bd, [now] meid. 7 seek siisk. 8 W eev. 9 bihEE'iv. 12 saa, WSAA+T. 
13 naa. 14 draa. 16 daan. 17 laa, W lAA + r. ISWkeBk. 19 ted tM, W 
ta'il [?]. 20 leBm Irem, W leBm &WH. 21 neem, WH n^m niem. 22 ternn 
tiBm. 23 seBm siBm, W seBm &WH. 24 sheem shiBm, W sheBm. 25 me*Bn 
m'ren. 28 eBr. 32 baadh. 38 rmllre. 34 last. 36 W thAA. 37 klaa. 
A: 41 theqk. 51 maan, Wman. 54 wAAnt, W w&Bnt. 57 as. A: or 0: 58 
W fran. 59 lam. 61 Binoq &W. 63 thraq. 64 W roq. 

A'- 67 gu-in, W guu &WH. 70 W too. 72 W uu. 73 W soo. 74 E tiu, 
W tuu. 76 twBd. 81 lean, W leBn. 84 muuB &W [E (HIUB me dhat) more nor 
that]. 86 wats, W oets ats, WH ww ts, WH wats. 87 W tlooz. 89 W booBth, 
WH bueth. A': 101 W oek. 102 ast, asks. 104 ru^d &WH. 106 W 
brAAd. 108 daf doo. Ill W AAt. 113 W uul, W wwl, WH w^ l. 115 woBm, 
H bum, WH com. 121 H gAAn. 122 W nan. 123 notlren, W nothiqk. 
124 E stuBn &W, WH stuBn. 125 oni &W. 129 gooBst. 

M- 138 fasdhB f iBdhB, W feedhBr. 140 evl. 141 n<h?l. 142 SU^B! &WH, 
W snEE'il &WH [Varney gave (sneBl) and Higgs (snE"il)]. 143 teul, W tEB'il. 
147 breBn, W brEE'm &WH. 149 W blesz. 150 liBst. 152 waatB &W. 
M: 155 thetj &W. 151 aatB. 160 W eeg. 161 dee [see 438], W dEE'i. 
163 lee. 164 mee. 166 meBd, W niEE'id. 167 de~Bl. 169 wen. 170 W 
asrist. 172 graas, W graeaBs. 174 W eesh. 175 faast. 179 wot &W. 180 
baath. M'- 182 see. 182 teetj [common], &W. 184 leed. 185 rml. 
186 bret. 187 leev. 190 kee &W. 191 ill. 193 klmm, W tleen. 194 W 
eeni. 197 W tieez. 199 Ueet &W. 200 weeBt. 201 eedh'n. 202 eet. 
JE': 203 speetj. 205 tred [occ.J, W thred. 207 W niid'l. 213 eidhB, W 
iidhB. 216 deel &W [but meaning wood (diil)]. 217 iitj. 218 ship &W. 
219 W sliip &WH. 223 W dheB. 224 WIB &W. 226 [(raufest) almost]. 
228 swet swBE'it. 230 fot. 

E- 232 breeBk &W. 233 E sp^k &W &WH. 235 W wiiv, WH W^BV. 
236 W fiivB. 241 reeBn, W rEE'm, WH rmn. 247 ween, W wiin. 251 meet 
&W, WH mB"it. 252 kit'l &W. 253 W net'l. 255 wedhB, wedB. E: 262 
E weB [frequent, sometimes (wm)], W WEE'i &WH. 268 jeldest. 272 ehrai 
&W.' 281 leqkt, W lEqkth. 282 streqkt, W strEqkth. 284 throsh, E thresh. 
287 bezBm biisBm &W. E'- 294 fired, W feed. 299 W green. E': 305 
ho't. 306 hekth [very common], E hekt. 307 na'i no'i. 308 W need. 314 
tied. 315 W feeit. 316 W neks. 

EA- 319 gaap &W. 320 keB. EA: 322 laaf &W. 323 W id'ut. 324 
ed, W BB'it. 325 weBk. 326 ool [but (oolid)mra)], W oo\. 327 ba'tdd. 328 
koold. 329 foold. 330 oold, W oolt. 332 ta'uld. 333 kaaf &W. 334 aaf 
&W. 335 AA!. 336 fAAl. 337 WAA!. 343 W waam. 345 deB. 346 geBt 
&W. EA'- 347 ed &W. 348 W o't. 349 W flu. EA': 350 W d E d. 
353 H bred, W brad. 355 W dEf. 359 n<?^bB. 360 tiiBm, W tiim. 361 
be^Bn, Eb^mz. 363 tjeep. 366 grat. 368 W dEth. 370Wraa'. 371 straa. 
W straa 1 . El- 376 b^t. El: 377 stEE'Bk. 378 W wiik. 

[ 1624 ] 


EO- 386 JOG &W. 387 W neu. EO: 393 bijamt, bige-n [the latter rare, 
the (03) should probably be (a)], W bijend. 394 jinde jende [I heard the last] hinde 
[all used], W ende, WH Ender [occ. jEnder]. 396 waak, W wak. 397 suued. 
400 aanest &W. 402 E laan. 407 faad'n. EO'- 411 W thrii 413 W 
divel. 417 tjAA. EO': 425 W b'it. 426 W fo'it. E helt [held]. 
428 H s/i, W sii. 430 W fraud. 436 W triu. 437 W triuth. EY- 438 
dA'i &W [(dhet ptg)'l dVi te deei) said Mr. F., but (dhat pig ul di te deee) agrees 
better with what I heard from the labourers]. 

I- 440 W wiik. 443 W fro'idi [see 512]. 444 W sto'il. 446 W no'in. 
peez'n [pease, occ.], E peez. 449 W git. 450 "W tuuzdi. I: 452 E a 1 * ai 
[once only heard], A' &W, WH o'i. 458 no'it &W. 459 ro'it &W. 462 so'it 
&W. 465 W sitj. 466 W tp'ild. 468 W tiilde. 472 W sriqk. 480 
enithiqk sathiqk nathiqk [anything something nothing, the two last are also] 
sathin nathen. 485 W this'l. 487 jiistedi. 488 W jit. I'- [I heard 
(eft) not (o'i) from the people]. 491 so'i. 494 to'im &W. 499 biit'l. I': 500 
W lo'ik. 506 W oomen. 507 W wimin. 508 mo'il. 514 W A'S o'is a'is [the 
diphthong apparently varies as at Aylesbury]. 

0- 521 fool. 524 W wa'-gl. 0: 526 kAAf &W. 527 bAAt. 529 brAAt. 
531 daate &W. 532 W kool [no vanish]. 533 dal Au^. 536 guuld [but] 
goold'n. 539 bol. 541 H wont. 543 E samthiqk an BUI [the (se) of Mr. F. 
was rather (a) in the labourer's mouth]. 547 buuBd. 550 wgad. 551 W stAAm. 
552 kAAn &W. 553 AAU. 0'- 559 madh^, W mwdlre. 564 sun, E sun. 
0': 569 bwk. 570 twk. 573 flad. 579 nE'u- [never (tmaf )] &W. 595 fwt, 
E fat fuut, W fat. 596 rfitrt. 597 sat. 

U- 599 Bbwv. 600 l^v, W lav. 602 SE'M. 603 kam kwm [both are used; the 
driver stands on the near side of the horse and says (kwm i'dhe) for go to the left, 
and (drii AA! ) for to the right ; the ploughboy will be directed to (pwl)im v lit'l muB 
tut?d) pull him a little more towards, i.e. to the left]. 606 ddura &W, WH duer. 
607 be^te. U: 608 wgli. 609 M. 610 wwl &W. 611 bwtek &W. 612 
sam. 613 drwqk, W draqk. 614 E'wnd [apt to be nasalised, as (E' i und) and so of 
the rest] &W. 615 pE'wnd. 616 E grE'wnd, W grE'wn. 617 ss'wnd. 620 
ground. 621 WE'wnd. 622 wnde. 625 toq. 626 oqge. 630 wan. 632 wp, 
ap [(ap) is the rule, I heard the groom say (kwp, k?^p) i.e. come up, to the horse]. 
634 ihuru thare [(tharet) throughout], W thruu. 635 wath. 636 faadis. 637 
tash. 639 dast. 

U'- 640 kE'u kJE'u kea'w [uncertain]. 641 B'W [verging to &'u]. 642 [not 
used]. 645 duv [(dim) on the Chilterns]. 650 E ubjs'ut. 653 bwt, W bt [occj. 
TJ': 658 E dE'zm, WH da'wn. 659 WH to'un. 663 B'MS. 666 wzbend, W 

azbt?n. 672 ss'ut [not (th)]. 

Y- 673 mwtj &W. 674 E ded. 676 W lo'i. 679 W tjati. 682 liit'l 
[occ.]. Y: 685 ridi. 690 W ko'ind. 691 W mo'ind. 696 W bath. 700 
was. 701 fast &W. 704 wiks'n. Y- 705 W sko'i. 706 W wo'i. 
Y': 709 W fo'tn. 712 ma'wzBz [used]. 


A. 722drera&W. 737 meet. E. 744 Wmeez'lz. 746 briid [always 
with (d) not (dh)]. 748 [(kseh?) callow, unfledged, applied to birds only]. 
I. and Y. 756 W srimp. 758 W gsel. 760 shriv'ld red baali [shrivelled eared 
barley was used for chevalier barley]. 0. 761 lo'ed, W loed. U. 808 
pat &W. 


A- 810 W fees. 811 plies plees &W. 813 biek'n, W beek'n. 816 W 
feed. E heel [flail]. 824 tiiie. 827 eege. 828 W eege. 830 treeen. 
834 sh^'j [&W for a perambulator]. 835 r^z'n. 836 s^z'n. WH wEs'l 
[vessel]. 847 W deendje. 852 sepen [by old people]. E- 867 t^'j. 
thetjez [vetches]. 874 reen. 885 WH WET*. fie [a fair]. te-reb 1 
[a common intensitive, occasionally (terirb'l) to increase the effect]. 
saatin. WH sarvent [servant]. 890 W beest biist. 891 f^st. 894 
dis^-v &W. 896 b^ve. I-andY- 898 W no'is. wilij [village]. 

E.E. Pron. Part V. [ 1625 ] 104 



[D 15. 

wint?ger [vinegar]. 901 waielit, W va'ilit [not (o'i) not (w)]. "WH 
wit'lz [victuals]. 

0-- 913Wk6etj. 914Wbroeti. 916 din-en, W a'injen. 918 W feeb'l. 
920 paint [and 'pint' is (po'int)]. 929 W ka'ukembe. 940 W koet [an under- 
petticoat]. 947 bo'il, W ba'il. 948 ba'wl. 959 W kenwee-ens. U- 965 
ail, W a'il. H art [hurt, TH. found the (r) was " stronger than at 
Dunstable, on the way to reverted, something like n.Sh." I failed to hear it, 
and should have written (aat)]. 

E Note, a approach (a) rather than (ae) ;' (e, E) were used uncertainly ; (o, o) 
I could not feel sure of, nor of (a, a) ; the \ approach (ij). I think rather () 
than (w ), (h) occ., wh = (w). I did not hear (w) for v; (ee, ee) uncertain, did 
not hear (<^'j), and heard (oo) not (oo'w) ; (B'M) had no prominent (E), but it was 
not (a'w). 

n.ETJ. cwl. 

B Buckingham and Clackmore (If nw.B.), wn. in 1881 by TH. (w 3 ) 
is a sound intermediate to ( , a) and most like (w ). TH. hears a very 
faint (r), which he calls " common English r " ; sometimes he hears a faint 
reverted r (LR) ; and he heard reverted or retracted (L) in ale, bell, Bill, 
children, girl, he'll, milk, silk, tail, possibly an individuality. Usages, I 
are ( = am), you be, they be. The I' TJ' are very refined, as (a'i Q'U] in place 
of (o'i E'W). 

H Hanslope (10 ne. Buckingham), pal. by AJE. from diet, of Miss Cox, native. 

T Tyrinham (13 ne. Buckingham), from Rev. J. Tarver's wl. io. 


A- 21 T nam, H neem, B neimz niemz. 24 T sham, H sheem. 31 leet. 
33 HT ra-dhe. A: 43 T hond, H gend, B and. 44 T lond. 50 T taqz. 51 
HT mon, B man. 54 H waent. A: or 0: 61 T emoq, H emaq. 64 
B roq\ A'- 67 B gu gou. 76 T toed, H tued. 86 T oets, H outs ats. 
89 H bueth. 92 B now. 95 B throw. A': 102 T aast. 104 T roed, 
H rued, B rowd. 110 B a'i shant [I sha'nt]. 113 H wwl. 115 T ham, H 
oem, B 6m. 117 B won. 121 B gAAn. 122 B nou. 124 T stan, HB stutm. 
125 H ooni. 130 T boet. 131 T goet. 

JE- 138 T feedhe, H faadher. 143 B tern,. B stee L nz [stairs]. 152 
HTwaate. M: 155 HT thek. 158 T aate. 160 H eeg. 161 Bdei. 
163 T lo'i. 166 T meed, H niEE'id. 170 T heeevist. 171 HT b&di. M'- 
183 B teitj tiitj. 190 B k&, HT kee. 194 HT om. 195 HT meeni. 200 B 
weit wiet [occ.]. A': 213 HT eedlre. 218 HT ship. 223 H dhm?, B 
dhi^LR. 224 HT wiie, B wit;r. 230 T fot. 

E- 233 HT sp?k, B speik. 236 T ieeva, H fiiv. 241 H rein. 243 B 
plei. 252 H kit'l. E: 260 B lei. 261 B sei. 262 HB wei. 263 B 
Bwei. 265 H street. 272 T helem [? h]. 280 B haVm. 281 H lEqkth. 
282 H strEqkth. H niestiz [nests]. E'- 299 B griin. 300 T ksp 
[? kept]. E': 306 T heet. 312 B ier. 314 B ierd. 315 HB fit. 

EA- B eiel [ale]. 319 HT gaap. EA: 323 HT fa'wt. 324 B eit. 
326 T a'wld, H ool, B 6wld. 328 T ka'uld. 330 HT oolt. 332 T ta'wd. 333 
T keef, H kaaf. 334 T heef, H haaf. 343 T waam, H WAAHI. 346 HT 
gent, B giut, [middle class, usual] geit. EA'- 347 T iied, B tfd, H Ed. EA': 
355 B dBf . 361 B bienz. 366 B grst. 370 H rAA-fr. 371 T straa, H 

El- 373 T dho'i, B dhei. 374 T naa. El: 377 T steek. 378 HT 
week. EO- 383 B SEb'm. 386 HT soo. 387 T nuu. 

EO: 388 B ma^k [reverted (L), and the Sm. intermediate between (a, i) p. 
146], B sa l Lk [silk, see 388]. 398 T steev. 400 T eenest, H aanest. 402 HT 
laan, Blarn. 406 T aath, H ath. 407 T fmlhin faad'n. EO'- 411 B frii 
("very often]. 420 T fa'ue, H foe, B fower. EO': 425 HT lo'it. 427 B 
6/i. 436 H triu. 437 H triuth, B tra'uth. EY- 438 HT do'i [? (da'/)]. 

I- 443 HT fro'idi. 444 T sto'il. 449 HT git. 450 HT tuuzdi. I: 

[ 1626 ] 


452 HT o't, B a't at. 458 HT no'it, B na'it. 459 HT ro'tt. 465 HT stti. 
466 T tp'ild. 468 B tjiiLdnm [(u) verging to (u ) and (L) reverted]. B 
ru n ran [run, some vowel intermediate to (u , a)J. 482 B Ent eint [ain't, is it 
not?] I'- 490Tbo'i. 494 T to'im, B ta'im. 496 T o'rtm. 498 T Wit. 
I': 500 HT lo'ik. 502 T fa'iv, B fa'iv. 503 HT lo'if. 504 T no'tf. 505 
T wotf. 506 HT ernitm. 

0- 519 B 6?<vtjr. 0: 525 B AA [off]. 531 T daate, H daatB 

[but my (gael) is more usual]. 541 B a'i want [(a) approaching (M O )]. 543 B 
an An. 0'- 555 B shuu shce'u. 559 T miahB [?], H mam mw dlre. 564 
B sit n. 0': 579 T Bniu, H Bnaf [was the only form known] . 587 B du n 
592 HT SOB. 

U- B ud [wood]. 603 B kam. 605 T son, B su n [when used]. 606 B 
du8 L R. U: 610 T 1. 612 B sw *m. 614 T and [?]. 615 T pan. 616 
T grand. 622 T onde. 629 B son'. 632 B M p. 633 B ku o 'p. U': 658 
H dE'-wn. [and so on for the rest, but the diphthong is rather uncertain, and may 
be (a'u). Miss Cox used (E'W) herself, and was unable to decide]. 663 B a'us. 
667 B a'wt. 

Y: 700 T was. 701 HT fast. Y- 705 HT sko'i. 


A. 737 B meit mint. E. 749 B Mt. 0. 761 HT 16t?d. 767 T 
na'iz. 790 T gE'wnd. U. 803 B dje* mp. B fon [fun]. 808 T pat. 


A- 810 H feus. 811 H plees [pi. pleBs'n]. 813 T bi^k'n, H besk'n. 
824 T tj^B, H tjfo. 827 H eege. 828 H eege. 840 T tjaambu [not a bed- 
room, but any other room]. 852 T lepun. 862 H serf. 866 H pou. 

E-. 867 H tee, B tet. 878 H saeltsrt. 879 HT iee-meel. 888 H saattn. 
890 H biBst [pi. (biBstiz, biBs)]. 896 T biivB [in common use]. I and Y. 
898 B na'is. 904 T vo'ilet. 

0.. 913 Tkotj. 914 brutjtj. 920 H pa'mt. 923* H mo'ts. 926 H 
spa'il. B tt/ n'l tw n'l [tunnel]. 939 H kloBs. 940 T ko^t, H km?t [under 
petticoat, the outer is skirt]. 942 T batp. 947 H ba'il. 954 T kash'n. 
U- 963 TkMra'tt. 965 H a'tl. 

T (watjed) wet-shod, (ankid) wretched, a few broth. B (di ar) I are. TH. 
hears a faint (r), but to me it was quite inaudible. 

D 16 = ME. = Mid Eastern. 

Boundaries. Begin at Harwich at ne. corner of Es. Go along n. b. 
of Es. till you reach Cb. Go along first the s. and then the w. b. 
of Cb. to Peterborough, Np. Go w. along n. b. of Hu. to its nw. 
corner about AVansf ord, Np. (In the map the line accidentally falls 
a little s. of this border, and does not quite pass through Peter- 
borough.) Go wsw. across Np. to Buckingham, Np., at sw. angle 
of Et., passing s. of King's Cliff e, Kp. Go sw. along the n. b. of 
tfp. to Watling St., near Crick. Then go se. across Np., by the b. 
of D 6, passing e. of Watford, through Long Buckby, where turn 
s. and pass e. of Daventry and Weedon, where turn more se. near 
Pattishall, and proceed s. of Blisworth and w. of Towcester, and 
continue to b. of Np. and Bu. at about Hartwell, tfp. Pursue first 
the n. and then e. b. of Bu. to Gt. Gaddesden, Ht., and then pass 
s. across the w. horn of Ht. to strike the b. of Bu. again just about 

[ 1627 ] 

196 THE MID EASTERN. [D 16. 

Whelpley Hill (4 ssw. Gt. Gaddesden). Go e., passing s. of Hemel 
Hempstead, Hatfield, and Hoddesdon, Ht., n. of Waltham Abbey, 
Es., ne. of Epping, and w. of Brentwood to the Thames at Tilbury. 
Then go down the Thames, and round the e. coast of Es. to the 
starting-point, Harwich. It will be observed that borders of 
counties are much followed, betraying imperfect information. The 
line which forms the s. b. is quite uncertain, see D 17. The two 
lines through Np. are fairly correct, being founded on TH.'s 
numerous observations. The line across the w. horn of Ht. is 
rather conjectural, but I have been informed that that horn does 
not differ from Bu. 

Area. Most of Es. and Ht., all Hu. and Bd., and the middle 
of tfp. 

Authorities. See Alphabetical County List under the following names, where 
* means vv. per AJE., f per TH., || in so., in io. 

d. Ampthill, *|| Bedford, fDunstable, Edworth, Flitwick, tGirtford, 
Harrold, Hatley Cockaine, Melchbourne, *Ridgmont, f Sandy, fSharnbrook, 
Thurleigh, fTilbrook, Toddington, t Upper Dean. 

Es. Black Notley, Bradfield, fBraintree, Brentwood, Brightlingsea, 
tChelmsford, Elsenham, f Great Chesterford, Great Chishall, Great Clacton, 
*t Great Dunmow, Great Easton, Great Saling, t Great Shalford, fHenham, 
|| Ingatestone, *Maldon, t Newport, Paglesham, fPanfield, Rayne, Southend, 
Stanway, fStebbing (Bran End), *Thaxted, Witham. 

Ht. Anstey, fArdeley, f Bishop's Stortford, Boxmoor, fBraughin, 
t Buntingf ord, Furneaux Pelham, Gilston, Great Gaddesden, Great Hormead, 
flladham, Harpenden, f Hatfield, Hemel Hempstead, f Hertford, f Hertford 
Heath, Hitchin, St. Albans, Sandridge, t Sawbridgeworth. fStapleford. 
*fWare, *Welwyn, Weston. 

Hu. Alconbury, t Godmanchester, Great Catworth, t Great Gidding, Great 
Paxton, f Great Stukeley, Hamerton, Hilton, f Holme, Houghton, t Hun- 
tingdon, Keystone, tKimbolton, t Little Stukeley, fOldFletton, Pidley, fSt. 
Ives, fSawtry, Somersham, fStaneley, f Stilton. 

Np. tBlisworth, fBrixworth, fClayCoton, fDenton, Duston, *EastHaddon, 
t Great Houghton, fHackleton, Hannington, t Hardingstone, Hargrave, Har- 
rington, flrchester, tlslip, f Lower Benefield, fLowick, f Nether Heyford, 
*t Northampton, fOundle, fSibhertoft, tStanion, fSudborough, fThrapston, 
tWelford, fWellingborough, West Haddon, fYelvertoft. 

Character. This is a long straggling district, and between the n. 
in Np. and the s. in Es. there can be little or no connection. But 
I have found it impossible to divide the district by any definite 
lines, and have felt it best to consider the different counties in- 
volved as forming l varieties,' and very slight such varieties are. 
The general character is 

A- remains (e^) only among very old people ; hut becomes (ai, E'i, a ! i) in different 
parts among the younger people. Thus, a Mrs. Clarke, about 73, at Ardeley 
called apron (E'ipren), hut said her grandmother called it (<?Bpmi). Sometimes the 
women have made the change only, thus at the last-named place both Calvert 77 
and Clarke 73 said (meet) mate, in which the (B) is merely omitted ; but their wives 
said (mE'it meit) respectively. It is certain then that this (ei, E'i), which is now 
so characteristic of D 16, is of recent growth, and has arisen from (ee), which 
with (Ira) is prevalent all over the S. div., just as (ai) in the M. has grown out of 
(ara), an alteration of (a). Alphabetically, the letter a is called (a'i). 

A is still occ. (UTS) as an old form, hut falls into (OTJ), and thence into (6w, ou). 

I' becomes quite (A'i), and the letter i is so called alphabetically ; it is thus 
practically distinguished from a (E'i). 

[ 1628 ] 

D 16, Vi.] THE MID EASTERN. 197 

TJ' has similarly to be distinguished from (on), and hence (a'w, du] were ousted 
hy (E'U, e), which is the general form. 

These characters appear pretty generally in all the varieties, 
which I propose to pursue and exemplify in the order Var. i., Ht. ; 
Var. ii., Bd. ; Var. iii., Hu. ; Yar. iv., Np. ; and then, starting 
from Ht. again, proceed to Yar. v., Es., which leads directly to the 
e. London variety of D 17. 


There were three principal centres of information. 1. "Ware, 
where I had a vv. cs. from a native, checked by TH.'s observations ; 

2. Ardeley, where I had first much information from Rev. C. Malet, 
and then had it checked by TH. in a journey made on purpose; and 

3. Welwyn with Hitchin. 

1. The Ware speech is well exemplified by the following cs., 
with the cwl., which includes the words observed by TH. 

2. Ardeley was recommended to me by the gentleman who gave 
me the cs. of Ware, and with much difficulty, owing to want of 
phonetic knowledge on the curate's part, I obtained a sufficiently 
intelligible version, but this was excellently supplemented by TH.'s 
visit, when he had the good fortune to be assisted by very old 
peasants, whose information is embodied in the cwl. 

3. Welwyn I had hoped to have settled by a w. from a native 
student at Whitelands Training College, but it was spoiled by the 
peculiarity of her education, and I am indebted to an old college 
friend, Mr. C. W. Wilshere, who lives at Welwyn, for a dt. for 
that place and also from Hitchin; but as they were written in 
unsystematic orthography, there is much that is conjectural in my 
pal., the interpretation being often derived from the other sources. 

Finally, I add a few words from Harpenden and Hatfield, to 
shew the nature of the dialect at the borders of D 17. 

There are very few points to be noticed. One is the partial use 
of (w) for (v) more developed in Es. and D 19, which we also met 
with in D 9, p. 132. The use of 'together' in addressing several 
people, and 'it do ' for c it does,' are more developed in Cb. and D 
19. The use of the aspirate varies, but it is generally omitted. 

WARE cs. 

pal. hy AJE. in 1876, from the dictation of Mr. J. W. Roderick, a native 
of Amwell (1 se.Ware), who considers that the specimen he gave applied to 
a district from Great Munden (6 n.Ware) to Broxbonrne (4 s.Ware), and from 
Watton (6 nw.Ware) to Widford (4 ene.Ware). Drawing lines e. and w., 
n. and s. through these extremes, we get a large district including Hertford and 
Stapleford, but excluding Welwyn and Ardeley. TH. endeavoured to verify the 
indications here given. At the end I collect the principal words of this cs. m 
a cwl., adding the words obtained by TH. at Ware, Hertford, Hertford Heath, 
and Stapleford. The introductory (i) was found at Ware by TH., but the 
nasalisation was not observed at Ware, and neither were observed elsewhere. 
TH.'s chief time had been devoted to Ardeley, and he was unable to do much in 
the other places. 

[ 1629 ] 



[D 16, V i. 

0. wo* :djioo c n EZ n&>B dewts. 

1 . WE'B!, niBbB, Jiu Bn ii urn bMMBth leaaf Bt dlus nmz -6 mom. 
{u ki'iBrz ? dhaat)s nadhBr (IB rm dhiiB. 

2. fiu mEn doi kBz dhee)B leaaft Bt, wii nwwBZ, dwBnt)Bs ? wAAt 
shwd miBk Bin ? t)ii)nt wer* 16*kli es)t ? 

3. ewsBmE'vB dhiBS UB)Z dhe triuth B dire MBS, soo dj*'st owd JB 
rew, mest, Bn bi kt#6*Bt t*l O*)B dan. Ks'n. 

4. 6*)m sat'n 6* ired ^m siee^', sam 13 dhee piip'l in we^nt thriu 
dhB uml th^'q frem dire fast dh^sElfs dhaat oi dnd, si^f eni88f . 

5. dhaat dire jaqgest san ^insElf, 13 griist bd 'B nozn, niu iz 
feaa ( dh^z VO^BS 'Bt waans, dhoo t)wAAz SB kwii^r im skwiik^n, 'en 
6 / Bd)trast)'Bm)t spirBk dhe triuth an* diee^', aa, 6i 'wud. 

6. ^n dh)6wd wwmen 'BSElf, '1 tEl Em ov J^ dhat liaaf nie<w, ^n 
tEl JB strict AA tiu, ^rewt nB boodh^, ef Jiu)l ooni seks)B, UUB wibnt 

7. liBstwiBz shf tuuld ^t 'mil wen 6 aekst)^, tiu)B thrii^ toimz 
, sh)dnd, 'un *shii wwet noot tiu bi roq on se'tj TB pamt eez dhi^s 

waat dm viu thz^qk ? 

8. WE!, BZ 6e WBZ ^)see'im shii)d tEl)j^ ew, wii^r, -Bn wEn shi 
f iemt dh^ draqk^n bii^st sh^ kAAlz ^r azbim [owd maBn]. 

9. shi SWWB sh)sd)i?ni wi 'Br 6ot?n oiz Tjlor^n strietjt at fuul 
K^qkth oon dh^ griewnd, tn z gw^d sandi? kwwet, klww^s bo/ dh^ 
[b^ dh^] dww^r ^dlre IE'WS diewn ^t th)ktfcw^nBr i3)dhi3 li'^n md^. 

10. ii WBZ 13 womBn [lewl^n] BweeB, sez shii, fer AA! dh^ wald 
16^'k -B sii^k tjio^ld [tjiaYld] Br B 1/t'l gJEl B freBten. 

11. Bn dhaat aapund BZ shii Bn Br dwwBtBr)m)laa kiiBm thriu 
dhB biaek Jiaa ( d frB aeqBn lewt dhB wiBt kMwBz tiu droe on B woshun 

12. wo/1 dhB kflVl WBZ B ba/lBn B tw, wan fom bro/t saniBr 
aatBnuun, wwBnb' B wiBk Bguu' kam neks thazde. 

13. Bn d)jB num ? 6i nEVB laant Eni niiiwB dhBn dhnBS, B dhaat 
ap tiu te dee*, BZ shiuB)z mo^ niBm)z :djaak :shpBt, Bn B 
woont tiu nadhB, dhiiB niew. 

14. Bn soo 6*)m guuvn trnBm tiu sa'pB. gii)not8t, Bn dwwBnt bi 
SB kwJZBk tiu krwwB wwBVBr B MBI* Bgfn, wen i tooBks B dhw'Bs dhaat 
B t)adliB. 

15. ii)z B ww'Bk fwwBl, dhat d^iA^Bz Briewt MAA'Z tB. Bn dhaat) s 
mo* liaast wad. fa,B JB WE!. 

Notes to Ware cs. 

1. neighbour, the final r is entirely 
absorbed in the vowel, here and else- 

2. it is not, distinct (tiint) not 
(tiient). very, v is constantly pro- 
nounced as w, but not conversely. 

3. this here 1 s ; very short fracture in 
(dhn?s). hold, doubtful whether (a'udj 
or (6d) and maybe (owd). row, noise. 
I are done, I are for I am and that 
for I have, as usual. (6i -aae) I are, an 

emphatic assertion, and (U)B) he are 
are common, so also thou, we, you am, 
(dhew)m wii)m jiu)m) ; they be some- 
times, but in answer to a question 
they're, them audit's me (dhee)'e dliEm, 
it)s mil) are used. 

4. I am with an adjective predicate, 
not I are. certain, not (sat'n). say, 
the nasality occurs only when the word 
is very prolonged. people, folk is not 
usual. enough, this was the best imita- 

[ 1630 ] 

D 16, Y i.] THE MID EASTERN. 199 

tion I could give, the (i) very short, the nrent) joint, oil, ointment, (iit?r ail) 

(99) long, but I was not satisfied with hair oil, and similarly (riren, driren, 

the last vowel. rirelweei triitm) rain, drain, railway 

5. great (goat) is never used. knew, train. 

(niu) distinctly, not (m'u) . voice, 9. yonder is very commonly called 

though this is a common word, (w) is (indu). We have the various forms 

not used. day, the (ee) is not nasal, (jondeR jandtjR jindtjR) in S. dialects 

(diie) pec., the prefixed (I) was not and (jende, jinde, inde) in E. dialects, 

heard in par. 11 and 13. aye, also but whether (inde) represents yonder or 

(JIBS) yes. hinder is not clear. 

6. ask, distinctly (seks), not (aksj. 14. goodnight, almost (gtj)n6rt). 

At Albury (8 nne.Ware) (jiee^ks) is 15. fare ye well, good-bye would not 

heard. he used except for a long absence, 

7. point, distinctly (paint) Avhile pint (tataa-) may be heard, but it is not 
is (point) similarly (djaint, ail, aint- very common. 

se. HT., WARE, etc. 

Unmarked words from Mr. Eoderick's cs. for Ware, with others given by him. 
W wn. by TH. at Ware from Goldstone 29, and W 2 Saunders 12, natives. 
H wn. by TH. at Hertford from Seymour 71, and HH. Hertford Heath 

(2 se. Hertford). 
S wn. by TH. at Stapleford (3 n.-by-e.Hertford). All in 1884. 


A- W 2 [letter A = (ai)]. 5 mrek, W m E 'ik. 8 W jev, W 2 EV, H. <mt 
[have not]. 17 laa, W IAA. 19 HH tE n iul. 21 nrem, W 2 nE"im. faau 
[fare]. 34 Mast. A: 39 kirem. 49 aeq. 53 W 2 ka3'n. 54 woont. 56 
wosh. A: or 0: 60 loq. 64 roq, HH roq. 

A'- 67 gwwen, W [between] ego^-in, T;g0win, W 2 gowin. 69 W nou. 
72 iu, W 2 uu, W uu wu. 74 tiu, H tt'u. 79 oovn. 81 lien. 82 waans. 
84 miiuu, H mfo. 87 Uiiuvz. 89 bwwjth, W b<mth, W 2 bowth. 92 niiuu. 
94 krwu. A': 102 ffiks [at Albury (jiaB'ks)], W ask. 105 H rikd. 106 
H brAAd. 110 noot. Ill umt. 113 uwl, W oo.L 115 umm, W 6m, II 
com 6m. 117 wan, HH eloon [alone]. 120 Bguu'. 122 noov. 125 oonli 
werenli. 137 nadhe, W nEdhB. 

JE- 138 feaa^dh^, WW 2 H faadh^. 144 ^gin. 150 liust. M: 154 
biaek. 155 HH thEtj. tegJE-dhu [together, addressing several persons]. 
- W ad [had], W 2 Ed. 151 aate. 161 deei, deei, di^, W dE M i, W 2 dai, 
II da. 169 wEn. 173 WAAZ. kaat [cart]. 177 dhaat [F (dhat)]. 179 WAAt. 
J?E'- 194 Eni. 200 HH wit. M 1 : 209 nEVt?. 220 ship^t. 222 lie. 
223 dhiiB, W dheB. 224 wire. 227 wi^t. 

E- 233 spiiek. 241 rii^n, W rE M in, W 2 rain. 244 WE'B!. 252 kit'l. 
E: 256 str'retj. 261 sTee t i, esee-en [a-saying], W sE n i. 263 eweei?, W 
BWE n i. 265 strict, W strE'it. 276 thuuqk. 279 we<nt. 280 W -lEv'n. 
281 liuqkth. E'- 297 ffib. E': 307 HH ndi. 312 ire. 316 neks. 

EA- 320 kiira-. EA: 322 leaaf llaaf, WW 2 HH laaf. 326 owd, W 
OMLld, W 2 owld, H [between] 6u\ ou\. 330 owd, W 6w[ld. 332 tuuld. 335 
AA! & H. 338 kAAl. 340 jiaa t d. EA'- 348 6i. 349 fiu. EA': 357 
dhoo. 359 neeba. 366 griet, W grE'it. El- 372 aa. 373 dhee. El: 
378 wiiek. 

EO- 383 W SEv'n. 387 niu, W nm & W 2 . EO: 392 jaeh? [yellow]. 
394 indi?, W jonde [mostly, occ.] jindt?, W 2 jonde [old (jinde)], HH jinde. 
399 broit. 402 laant. 408 niu. 411 thriiB. 412 shi sh-. EO': 422 
siiek. 435 Jiu, HHW ju. 437 triuth. EY- 438 doi, W dA"i, H 
[between] daid dA"id. EY: 439 trast. 

I- W 2 [letter I = (AA'i)] 440 wiek. 446 noin. I: 452 6i, W di. 
453 kw/ek. 458 gii)n6iBt [good-night], 465 sitj. 466 tjioild, titaild, W 2 
tjAA'ild. 469 wwl. winde [window]. 480 thiq. 482 tiint [it is not], 
W E"int tz'nt, W 2 a'int. 484 dht'es dhuBs. I'- 492 W 2 sAA'id. 494 

[ 1631 ] 

200 THE MID EASTERN. [D 16, V i. 

toim, H [between] tVim taim, HH tA M im. 495 woin. I': 500 16ik, W 
Idtk & H. 596 wwnren. W 2 [between] ai, a 1 * [hay]. 508 HH [between] 
mA'ild, mdild. 509 woil. 510 moin, AV nu. n in, W 2 mAA'in. 

0- 519 WBVB WMBVB. 524 wald, W wa'ld waald. 0: 525, ii. AAf. 531 
dwwete, W dAAte, HH dAAHu. 538 wwd. 541 wziimt, W 2 wownt [sometimes 
(want)]. 550 wad, H wod. 0'- 555 sb'm. 556 tiu. 557 tiu, H [between] 
tm, ten. 567 t)adht. 0': 571 gtfed. 579 raiaaf, W unaf, W 2 [between] 
enaf, naf. 586 diu djient [don't], W dwu, H dm. 587 dan. 588 nuun. 
592 SWWT?. 

II- 603 kam & W. 604 sanre. 605 san, HH sa'n. 606 dww?. U: 
609 fuul. 612 sam. 616 griewnd, W gna'wn. 623 fiewnt, W fta'wnd. 627 
sande. 629 HH sa'n. 631 thazdi. 632 ap, W 2 ap, H ap. 633 H [between] 
kap kap. 634 thriu, HH thrwi. U'- 641 eu. 643 nie>, W nTa'w, W 2 
[between] ns'X ne^. 648 a'w^n [ourn, in "our mode of pronouncing"]. 651 
meut eri4t [? is this there-out], W widhia^t. U': 658 diewn, W dTa%n, W 2 
d L ?E M Mn, H da"un da'wn, HH da"wn. 659 W 2 tE M wn. 663 iews, W la'ws, 
HH [between] E"S a"ws. 666 azben. 667 ieut, W B"t, H e'wt. 

Y- 673 H matj. 674 diid. 677 droi. 681 biznis. 682 ltt'1. Y: 
692 jaqgest. 694 H wak. 701 fast, WW 3 faast. Y'- 706 woi, W 

WA M i. 


A. 722 driiim. 726 tooek, H tAAk. 732 aapra. 737 meet, W mis'it. 
- djiABz [jaws]. E. 652 fre^t. I. and Y. 758 gjEl, W ga'l, H gjal, 
Wo gja 1 !. 0. 767 W noiz. - H woe [worn]. 781 boodto. 789 rew, 
Wti&. 791 boi, HH boB. U. 797 skidikra. 798 kwiiu. 803 djamp. 
804 draqk'n. 


A- 811 H pigs. 830 triimi, Wtr E "in. 841 H tjaans. 857 kies. 862 
sref. 864 kiAA'z [cause]. si a3se'vidj [savage]. E-- 867 tit & H. 885 
WEri, W VEri [no w used for 0], W 2 VEri, H [no w used for v], HH & S \}v 
used for v~\. pigea5'tridi [partridge]. 888 sat'n. 890 biiest. ! and 
Y- 901 foin, W 2 fA"m. - W vi-nige [vinegar] & W z [with v only]. 

point [pint], W [between] point pint, "W 2 po'int. - vit'lz [victuals], 
& W, [adding, some say (wtt'lz)], HH & S wit'lz. 

0-". 919 amtmnnt. 920 paint, W, poUnt. djaint [a joint]. 925 v6tBS, 
W vo^s. 938 b&wm. 939 kltfaw. 940 kuuut. 941 tutfvl. 947 bail. 
950 sa'pB. 955 dewt, W dta'wt. U- 963 k;6tBt, W kw;A n iut. 965 ail. 

lewl [howl]. 969 shiue. 970 djist. 

AKDELEY OR YAEDLEY (8 e.-by-s.Hitcliin) dt. 

written by Rev. C. Malet, son of the Vicar, and palaeotyped by AJE. 
from indications given by him. Mr. Roderick of Ware, Ht., said that 
(: jaa-dli :wud :iind) or Yardley AVood End was a famous outlandish place for 
the dialect. From TH.'s observations it appears that long vowels are too 
freely used in this translation. 

1 . soo rti seeiz, meerats, jiu sii neew, dliaat o x e bii ro'e't, 
abeewt dhaat ee^ liit'l gaal 'B-konrm from dh^ skiiul jaan-di?. 

2. shii)z vgoo-m deewn dh^ roo^d dhee^ thriu dliB ree^d giret on 
dhB Left aand so'l -B dli^ wee* lo^'k. 

3. shiuE naf dh^ tjo'ld 13 gAAn stro''t ap tiu dim duu^r B dhu roq 

4. wee^ shii 13! moost)Bn)iin fofnd dliaat draqk'n dee^f 
tjaap n^em B :tAA'mas. 

[ 1632 ] 

D 16, V i.] THE MID EASTERN. 201 

5. wi aal ndo^z un VEI" WE!. 

6. want dh)AAl tjaap szrun laan B not te diu rat agiwn 
pwwe th^q ! 

7. link ! eeimt ut triru. 

Very drawled. 4. most on end, sure that (mi) for (em) or (im) was 
generally, surely, seared, shrivelled. used. No other authorities admit this 
5. we all knows him. Mr. M. was strictly MS. form. 

ARDELEY WOOD END (rjaadla :wwd :iind, :jarb' :wwd :iin), 
(1^ se.Ardeley), cwl. 

TH.'s observations on Darby and wife 48, Brown 86, Calvert and wife 77, Clarke 
73 and wife 62, these are not here generally distinguished, as that would be 
descending to personal differences, when there was substantial agreement, but 
it was observed that the men inclined to older and the women to recent forms. 
Darby used ' together' as an address to several, as (wre|_r JB gu-in, tegJEdhe?) 
where are you going, you people ? Common in D 18 and 19. 

B a few wn. by TH. at Buntingford (:ba-nifi3t) about 4 ne.Ardeley, chiefly from 
F. Kimpton, labourer, 72. Mrs. K. said (it du) for it does. All wn. in 1884. 


A- 5 meek. 21 nnmi n^m nE"im, B [between], nee^em nee|_im. A: 43 
and. A: or 0: 64 [between] roq roq [or something between (roq, roq)]. 
A'- 67 guu go-in. 73 B sou. 74 tt'u. 81 l&ra, l^n, lE M in [Mrs. Clarke, 
whose mother said (leVen)], B le^in. 86 6ts. 92 no^. A': 104 [formerly] 
ruud, [now] rowd, [Brown and Mrs. Calvert], rood [Calvert]. 115 oom. 117 

M- 138 faadhe. M: B thstj. 161 dei, dee [Calvert], dE' ( i [Mrs. 
Clarke], fee\i [Clarke]. - stM [stale = handle]. wAps-iz [wasp-s]. 170 
a L rvist-iz. glaas [glass]. - - kjaat [cart]. M'- 125 oni. M': 226 
mos ^n iin [most on end, generally]. 

E- 241 reea. [Calvert] TE" in [Mrs. C.]. E: 263 wee. 265 stra'tt streit 
str?t, B streit. f ild 1 ilz [field fields]. E'- 299 griin. E': 314 i^d 
&B. 315 fit. 

EA: 326 owld, B 6?d, 6wl L d. 328 B kowld. jairn [earn]. 346 gM. 
EA'- 347 E"id. EA': 355 dsf. 371 straa [Mrs. Clarke's grandmother]. 
EO- 383 SEv'm. EO: 394 jinde [Darby], jandt? [Brown], [both at B.J. 
396 [between] wak wok. 402 laan, [between] IEEU laan [Mrs. Clarke], 

I: 452 di. - bad [bird]. 459 rait ro'it ra'it. 466 tjatld tja"l. 
469 wwl. 477 fa'ind fVind. 482 mt [aint, is not]. I'- 492 sa"id SA'id 
[nearly], said, B sA"id [and all long I at B = (A M i)], B so'id. 494 tA'im & B. 
I': 503 elA"iv [alive]. 510 mA"in. 

0- bojBn [born]. 0: 531 dAAte. 541 wwnt wont wont. fAAk 
[fork]. 550 wad. A"BS [horse]. 0'- 556 tfu. 560 skuul & B. 562 
muun. 564 sfun suun so?'un. 0': 586 d/u. 588 nuun. 

U- 603 kam. 605 su n. 606 dzhiu due due dce'ue [between (duB, doe)]. 
IT: 613 d qk, draqk. -- wwndu [wonder]. 632 ap ap. 634 thrtu. U'- 
643 [between] na'u, UE'U, [Darby and Calvert], na"w [Brown], nE M w[Mrs. Clarke]. 
648 d'uun [our'n, ours], 650 uba'wt. U': 658 da"wn [between that and 
(dE'un) Mrs. Calvert and B ; between the two, Mrs. Clarke], B d L iE"wn. 659 B 
t[_iE M wn, B tE'W. 663 a'us [between that and (E'US) Mrs. Calvert, B E'WS]. 


A. 737 meet [Clarke, Calvert], me" it [Mrs. Calvert], meit [Mrs. Clarke]. 
E. 749 lEft. I. 758 gjal gjal. 0. gra n ul |_g row1 ]- U - 803 
B [between] djamp, djamp. tan^ps [turnips]. 

[ 1633 ] 



[D 16, V i. 


-- 810 fees. deeum [dame]. 852 [Mrs. Clarke's grandmother 
, but the present pronunciation is E'ipren]. I and Y 898 na'ts. 


fain. biffbeef]. B pamp [pump]. fust [forced]. tan 
[turn]. 955 [between] dE M ut da"ut [Calvert]. 
Note. Bno (w) for (v). 

WELWYN (8 s.-by-e.Hitchin) dt. 

pal. by AJE. from notes and indications by C. "W. Wilshere, Esq., of the 
Frythe, Welwyn. 

1. s00 &i SEZ, -meets, SEZ di, Jiu sii new BZ &u di)m ?dit obeut dhat 
Ht'l gsel 'Bkamin fram dhB skuul jande. 

2. shii)z vgoo'in dewn dhe rdo^d dheeu thruu dim rEd gait on dh^ 
fadhe [dhts] mid BV dhe wdi. 

3. sniur imaf dhB tjcwld *'z gAAn strait Ep te dhB duut3r av dhu 
roq ews. 

4. we^ 8hii)l tjaans fomd dhat draqk'n duf wez'nd M^r av dhu 
nm'm 12 rtomos. 

5. wii AA! nooz ^m VEP?' wel. 

6. woont dh^ ool tjaep suun laan)^ not te duu tt 

7. Iwk-/ dhee^, ^<?nt it djEst BZ a ssd ? 

Miscellaneous Welwyn Notes from Mr. TFilshere. 

Y not sounded except before a vowel. 

h initial almost unknown except 
in him hern. 

I be was constantly in use about 1 850, 
and beant is universal now among old 

unked (aqkid), uncomfortable, dreary, 

like (lo'ik), a common qualifying 
addition to adverbs. She looked at 
me quite strange-like ; I thought she 
knew him, they seemed quite friends - 

do (d/u), (o'i AA!BZ dm it, sou o'i 
dt'u), I always do it, so I do. (i taanz 
in dhee pwti rEglur B)no'its, i cUu) he 
turns in there pretty regular at nights, 
he do. 

gave. In Welwyn (giv), in Hitchin 

audacious (ewdeei'shes), impudent, 

who (iu). " I be -ant a-goin ther 
ter-day." "They people over at Har- 

ford aint [anciently beant] like we," 
" Lookee, there, if that aint [or beant] 
our Jim, dooant e jist look spry [(sprai) 
not (spro'i)] since ee's biin keepin 
company with Jane," universally used 
for courting. 

-en, in yearn hisw hem theim ousen 
Tosen [at Welwyn]. 

town, up town, down town, always 
without the article. 

done, ' ' it was im as done it, she done 
it, its er as done it, it's them as done it." 

favour, "e (the os) favours is off 
leg wus than yesterday," does not rest 
on it being lame; " bless me ow she 
dew favour her mother sure -lie," how 
like she is to. 

shut (shEt), shrink (sriqk), put (put], 
foot (fat). 

donkey female ass, the male being a 
jackass, clock is feminine. 

The indications were not sufficient for 
me to give the pronunciation fully in 
these notes. 

[ 1634 ] 

D 16, V i.] THE MID EASTERN. 203 


pal. by AJE. from notes obtained by C. W. Wilshere, Esq., 
of the Frythe, Welwyn. 

1. soo o' SEZ, meets, SEZ o', Ju sii ras eu o'f)m ro*t abewt dhset 
ltl tm [dhaet jsq gsel] i?z iz ^kanrin ewt)i3 skuuld jseirda. 

2. shii-z Bgoo-m dewn [dae'wn] dhaet erc ruued dhe, thruu din? 
red gfet i3)tEdhi3 [ajdht's] said 13 dire wee. 

3. shiur 'enai* if shi ^(9nt 'B)gAAn ro^'t ap te dli^ duller 'B)dli^ roq 

4. blEst if shi woont [bEt ^ pEn- shii)l] fo'md dhet draqkn ool 
tjaep dhe^, w'z-'nd ool :tom, 

5. wi AA! nooz im put'i WE!. 

6. woont dhB ool tjaep suun It3rn)i3 te t^igk kee^r ew shi daz it 
En, puuB thmg ! 

7. lwk- dhe^ ! twwBld JB soo. 

/ is distinctly broad (o'i). (unew) is said when it refers to the plural. 

HAKPENDEN (4 n.St. Albans) cwl. 
words from Mr. T. Wilson's dt. 


A- 21 ntm. A: 43 8Bnd. A: or 0: 58 fan [?]. 64 roq. A'- 67 
gu-in. 92 now. A': 104 rm?d. 121 gAAn. M- 144 Bgi-n. M: 177 
dhot. M'- 183 teetj. ^': 223 dhiB. 224 wit?. E: 261 SA'*. 
262 wcfi. 265 street. 266 wl. E'- 293 w^. 297 fselB B!B. EA: 
326 owl. 346 git geut gset. EA': 355 dEth. EO: 394 JEnd. 
EO'- 412 sh^ [V]. EG': 428 see [?]. 435 JE'M. 436 triu. I: 452 
at [probably, uncertain]. 459 rA'it. 466 tp'ild. 469 wul [will]. 477 fo'md. 
480 fiqk ftq thiqk. 482 eent [is not]. I'- 492 so'id. 0: 541 wwnt 
want. 0'- 560 skuuld. 564 siun. 0': 579 BUE'?^. 586 diu. U- 606 
duuu. U: 634 throe. U'- 643 IIB'M. U': 658 diE'wn. 663 E'WS. 


I. and Y. 758 gael. IT. 804 drwqk'n. 


A- 841 tjAAns. E.. 885 WEIX U>- 969 sh'nre. 

HATFIELD (6 wsw. Hertford) cwl. 
wn. in 1884 by TH., chiefly from J. Hart 62, and his wife. 


A- 4 teik. 5 meik. 8 ent [hasn't]. A'- 74 te'u. 82 wans. A': 104 

^d [old form (rued)]. 121 gAAn. 128 dho'wz. 2E- 144 Bgje-n. EA: 

326 owl. 346 gjeit. EO: 394 jande. 402 laan [old form]. EO'- 411 

[ 1635 ] 



[D 16, Vi, ii. 

thrii. I: 466 tjail. 480 Enitluqk [anything]. iten [hitting]. I'- 492 
said. 0: 541 w6ntwtmt. 0': 586 dVu. 587 [between] da 1 n, da' n. 
U- 606 doe. U'- 650 eba'wt. U': 663 [between] o'ws, B'MS. 


A. 714 lad [used more than boy], I. and Y. 758 gjal [old form, Mrs. 

H. said between] gjal gjse'l. 0. lAAst [lost]. 791 boi [more often lad]. 


A-- gaad'nin [gardening]. 

0-- pamp [pump]. 


The Bd. var. is scarcely distinguishable from the Ht. We have 
Batchelor's account written 80 years ago, and it scarcely differs 
from the present pron., as shewn by the following dt. from Ridgmont 
and the cs. from Bedford. It is sufficient to leave these to tell 
their own story. 

T. Batchelor in 1809 wrote an " Orthoepical Analysis of the 
English Language to which is added a minute and copious analysis 
of the dialect of Bedfordshire," 8vo. pp. viii. 164. This differs 
from ordinary writing about dialects by being written in a systematic 
character, and therefore I deviate from my usual habit of disregard- 
ing printed books. All is here given in the best pal. interpretation 
I could assign. But of course difficulties and uncertainties abound. 
Thus, (e, E) are quite uncertain, and hence (ew, E'W). Similarly, 
(a, st), and hence (a'*, aV), are also uncertain. The simple (e, a) 
are therefore alone used. B. has no other way of expressing (ii, 
uu) but by the equivalents of (j, ww), which might mean (zi, tin), 
but I interpret them as (ii, uu) for simplicity. B.'s r is said to be 
always " smooth," and that means most probably, as generally in 
E. div., before a vowel (r) or (r ), and when not before a vowel 
simply (B) ; but to indicate his usage, * permissive r ' or (i) is 
here employed. For the simple (B) see the following cs. and 
dt. B. gives a very long list of principally "accidental" errors 
of pronunciation, and a large number of u colloquial phrases or 
low vulgarisms." The first I give to a small extent in a cwl. 
and a few of the latter are also added. But to go into the whole 
would be to give undue prominence to the district. His rules for 
pronouncing the dialect in 1809 amount to the following, the 
examples and pronunciation are his own. 

1. ow generally = (eu), this refers to the words with U' (neu kew dheu ieul 
eul), now cow thou foul owl, and 0' (pleu) plough, and with the French OU (veu, 
uleu} vow, allow. He takes the received diphthong as (6u). 

2. Long u is generally (iu), as (triu, trius) true, truce, and in French words 
(mmz, rtVin, m'wzens, krtVil, situs) muse, ruin, nuisance, cruel, sluice. 

3. ai ay = (eei] in (deei weei seei neeil reeil) day way say nail rail and French 
(peei peeil), but a followed by a consonant and final e is (era, ee, eera), for which I 
usually write (ee), as (seeel seeil) sale sail, (tee^l teeil) tale tail, (mee^l meeil) 
male mail, (peeel peeil) pale pail. This corresponds to the treatment of A-, 
JEG-, EG, to which other Saxon and French words are levelled up, thus he 

[ 1636 ] 

D 16, Y ii.] THE MID EASTERN. 205 

gives also (weeui teeBi geeet) wear tear gate, and (greets pleetjs speeds peetu) 
grace place space, pear & pair. And he says (nee^shen stee^shen) nation station 
occur in n.Bd. 

4. ea and long e before r = (), for which I usually write (IB), these words are 
from various sources (Mist miet swi^t bi^t f iiu :djiBmz piei biBj) heat meat sweat 
beat fear James peer beer. 

5. oa and before a consonant followed by e = (tin), as (muim grton thrust buet 
tuen supuBZ, befuBr muiu flum) moan groan throat bought tone suppose before 
more floor; here whatever has (oo, oo'w) in received speech is levelled up. But 
B. adds not in " hope home rope spoke oak told mould sold soul roll," and not in 
(noou dlwotf doou kroo*) no though doe crow, so that each word would have as 
usual to be separately acquired. 

6. o short before (k, g, q) is (o), as (brok strok spok fok) broke stroke spoke 
folk, (dog hog rog) dog hog rogue, (soq loq roq) song long wrong. This rule is 
difficult, the o being (now at least) often long in rs. 

7. (aq, aqk) of rs. become (wq, wqk), as (suq dwq hwq drwqk mwqk trwqk swqk 
bwq nmqgril umuq) sung dung hung drunk monk trunk sunk bung mongrel among. 

8. oi, oy become (a'i) in (bra'il spa'il h'il be'il sa'il a'il a'intment na'iz taima'al 
ra'ial) broil spoil foil boil soil oil ointment noise turmoil royal; but is (o'i) in 
enjoy noise [as well as (na'iz) ?] voice choice toys boys = (bo'iz) . 

9. r is not pronounced before s followed by e or by a consonant, as (fost dast 
wast kuEs f UBS AAS bAAdiu bath wath wwstid) first durst worst course force horse 
border birth worth worsted. Here we have not always simple omission. 

10. -ow final is often (iu), or more probably (-B) except when a vowel follows, 
(elbs mete na3re wind^) elbow mellow narrow window, also (a'idiie p^teeite .-se-frike 
rtjeini) idea potato Africa Chinaware. 

11. -nge final = (nzh) not (ndi) as (streeinzh reeinzh meeinzh sprinzh twinzh 
sinzh swinzh) strange range mange springe twinge singe swinge. 

12. -ing of participles is (in), as (siqin) singing, (gu'in) going. 

13. wh initial is simple (w), as (wot) what. 

14. h initial generally omitted, as (i iz im) he his him, but sometimes inserted 
in the wrongplace, as (hAAl hewl hAAd^j h8eksh8e*nda'i"Bn) awl owl order axeandiron. 

15. -aiv final generally = (-aa), but the custom is disappearing, (laa saa klaa) 
law saw claw. 

16. er, ir followed by a consonant is (ai), meaning really (aa, aa), and unaccented 
seems to be (-BJ) or simply (B) ; (peahaps p^jsweed pait masifwl paas'n) perhaps 
persuade pert merciful person. 

17. unaccented (B) takes the place of long o and even a in initial, middle and final 
unaccented syllables, as (rnrasBns Bkai- Bfe-nd -el ton ukewnt) innocence occur offend 
alone account. 

I are for I am is common, he'm she'm we'm you'm they'm, are used by a few. 
On b. of Bu. I be, ye be, are heard. 

Batchelor's Bd. Sentences. Only a few are given. 

1. (wot 13 vaas sa'/t 13 v fok), what a vast sight of folk. 

2. fail bi wu)ji8 nekst weez), I'll be with)you next ways, i.e. I'll 

come soon. 

3. (hii)z loq B dhi3 bak an am), he's long of the back on him, i.e. 

he has a long back. 

4. (dhi'ez T8i gwd wi^ts, baajh'z), these are good wheats, barleys, 

etc., i.e. good kinds of wheats, etc. 

5. (Q'{ kaant rne'ek nothm ^v it, nedlrai hed nm teil an)t), I can't 

make nothing of it, neither head nor tail of it. 

6. (g*V mii 13 iiu brAAth, pordj), give me some broth, porridge. 

7. (heu mem brAAth ? iz dhe^r T?niu), how many [much] broth ? 

is there enew. [Broth is always in the plural.] 

[ 1637 ] 



[D 16, Vii. 

8. (rim'strns :m. iz nee'shim, mAAitel, dewszd retj, puBi, i'l, gwd, bad, 

hansom, agli, etc.), Mrs. M. is 'nation, mortal, deueid rich, 
poor, ill, good, bad, handsome, ugly. 

9. (dhe'BJ WEZ B ds'ire he'inum ), there was I don't)know how)many. 

10. (AAI-BS girm te feBJZ ra. sitj), always going to fairs and such like. 

11. (evOTi new im tan), every now and then, (dhen) with (dh) 

assimilated to the preceding (n). 

12. (dhi wedlmi)z pki3j kamfBitebl cover it wor), the weather)is 

pure comfortable over it was. 

13. (e'i he)nB wats tBjfer), I have)no oats to-year [this year]. 

14. (it)s pvjti gwd'sh, bobi'sh, la'ik), it's pretty goodish, bobbish, 

like ; the ' like ' qualifies the meaning similarly to the usual 
as it were, it is about pretty good. 

15. (it stanz te sens, hii want bi sed), it stands to sense [it is 

clear] he won't be said [stopped by words]. 

RIBGMONT (9 ssw.Bedford) dt. 

pal. by AJE. from the dictation of Miss Susan Wheck, native, student at 
Whitelands, June, 1881. 

1. soo A.'i see/, mm'ts, juu sii nv'u A)B rA'it ^bs'wt dhat let'l gEl 
[gael] kam"Bn from dh'B skwl jond^. 

2. ar)^ goo'in ds'wn dh^ ruu^d dhee^, thruu dh^ rEd gee^t on dh^ 
lEft a T nd sA'i'd t?v dh^ weei. 

3. shaar onaf dh^ tjA/e'ld)z go'n street ap te dh'B duuer i B)dh^ 
roq E'WS. 

4. was shi)l lA'ik'li fA'md dha^ draqk*'n dsf srqk-'ld 
dhi3 ne'^em 'ev :tam"BS. 

5. wi AA! nooz Bm vEr^